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001 045332 





MOZART (1782) 
From tin unfinished portrait by Josef 
(Mo/.art Museum, Kalzhurg) 



Chronologically Arranged, Translated and Edited 
with an Introduction, Notes and Indices by 


With extracts from the letters of Comtanze Mozart 
to Johann Anton Andre" translated and edited by 









19, '21 


This is a list of all the known letters of Mozart and his family written 
between the years 1762 and 1791. It contains, therefore, some letters 
(unnumbered) which owing to their slight interest have not been included 
in the present edition. 

Letters hitherto unpublished are marked * 

Letters hitherto incompletely published are marked ** 

(Owing to exigencies of space, in most cases extracts only have been 
given from Leopold Mozart's letters. But considerable additions have been 
made to the portions published in the standard German edition of Professor 
Ludwig Schiedermair : and copies of the complete versions are in the 
possession of the present editor.) 





393. Mozart to his father 

394. Mozart to his father 

395. Mozart to his father 

396. Mozart to his father 

397. Mozart to his father 

398. Mozart to his father 

399. Mozart to his father 

400. Mozart to his father 

401. Mozart to his father 

402. Mozart to his father 

403. Mozart to his father 

404. Mozart to his father 

405. /Mozart to his father 

406. Mozart to his father 

407. Mozart to his father 

408. Mozart to his father 

409. Mozart to his father 

410. Mozart to his father 

41 1. Mozart to his father 

412. Mozart to his father 

413. Mozart to his father 

414. Mozart to his father 


Vienna, March I7th 1059 
Vienna, March i8th-24th 1061 
Vienna, March 24th-28th 1063 

Vienna, April 4th 1070 

Vienna, April 8th 1072 

Vienna, April nth 1073 

Vienna, April i8th 1077 

Vienna, April 28th 1078 

Vienna, May 9th 1081 

Vienna, May I2th 1084 

Vienna, May I2th 1086 

Vienna, May i6th 1088 

Vienna, May igth 1090 
Vienna, May 26th * 1093 

Vienna, between May 1096 
26th and June 2nd 

Vienna, June 2nd 1098 

Vienna, June 9th 1 100 

Vienna, June I3th 1104 

Vienna, June i6th 1106 

Vienna, June 2Oth mo 

Vienna, June 27th mi 

Vienna, July 4th 1114 







Mozart to his sister 


July 4th 



Mozart to his father 

Reisenberg, near Vienna. 


July 1 3th 


Mozart to his father 


July 25th 



Mozart to his father 


August ist 



Mozart to his father 


August 8th 



Leopold Mozart to J. G. I. 

Salzburg, August loth 


Breitkopf, Leipzig 


Mozart to his father 


August 22nd 




Mozart to his father with a\ 
postscript to his sister / 


August 29th 



Mozart to his father 


September 5th 



Mozart to his father 


September I2th 



Mozart to his sister with a post- \ 
script to his father / 


September I9th 



Mozart to his father 


September 26th 



Mozart to his father 


October 6th 



Mozart to his father 


October I3th 



Mozart to his cousin, Maria 


October 2ist 


Anna Thekla 


Mozart to his father 


October 24th 



Mozart to his father 


November 3rd 



Mozart to his father 


November loth 



Mozart to his father 


November I7th 



Mozart to his father 


November 24th 



Mozart to his father 


December 5th 



Mozart to his father \ 
Mozart to his sister / 


December I5th 



Mozart to his sister 


December I5th- 




Mozart to his father 


December 22nd- 





Mozart to his father 


January 9th 



Mozart to his father 


January I2th 



Mozart to his father 


January i6th 



Mozart to his father 


January 23rd 



Mozart to his father 


January 3oth 



Mozart to his sister 


February I3th 



Mozart to his father 


March 23rd 









451 a. 













Mozart to his father 

Mozart to his sister with an 
enclosure from Constanze 

Mozart to Constanze Weber 

Leopold Mozart to J. G. I. 
Breitkopf, Leipzig 

Mozart to his father 

Mozart to his father with a 
continuation by Constanze 

Mozart to his father 

Mozart to his father 

Mozart to his sinter and Con- 
tanze Weber to Nannerl 

Mozart to his father 
Mozart to his father 

Mozart to Baroness von 

Mozart to his father 
Mozart to his father 

Leopold Mozart to Baroness von 
Waldstadten, Vienna 

Mozart to his father 
Mozart to his father 
Mozart to his father 

Leopold Mozart to Baroness von 
Waldstadten, Vienna 

Mozart to his father 

Mozart to Baroness von 

Mozart to Baroness von 

Leopold Mozart to J, G. I. 
Breitkopf, Leipzig 

Mozart to his father 
Mozart to his father 
Mozart to his father 
Mozart to his father 
Mozart to his father 
Mozart to his father 


Vienna, April loth 


Vienna, April 2oth 


Vienna, April 29th 
Salzburg, April 29th 


Vienna, May 8th 


Vienna, May 25th 


Vienna, May 29th 
Vienna, July 2Oth 


Vienna, July 24th 1206 

Vienna, July 27th 1207 

Vienna, July 3 ist 1209 

Vienna, August [ ? 2nd] 1210 

Vienna, August 7th 1211 

Vienna, August i7th 1213 

Salzburg, August 23rd 1216 

Vienna, August 24th 1218 

Vienna, August 3ist 1219 

Vienna, September nth 1221 
Salzburg, September I3th 1223 

Vienna, September 2$th 1225 

Vienna, September 28th $227 

Vienna, October 2nd 1228 

Salzburg, October 4th 1230 

Vienna, October 5th 1231 

Vienna, October I2th 1233 

Vienna, October iQth 1235 

Vienna, October 26th 1236 

Vienna, November I3th 1237 

Vienna, November 20th 1238 






Mozart to his father 
Mozart to his father 


Vienna, December 2i$t 1239 
Vienna, December 28th 1242 

Vienna, January 4th 1243 

Vienna, January 8th 1246 

Vienna, January 22nd 1247 

Vienna, February $th 1249 

Vienna, February I5th 1252 

Vienna, February *5th 1253 


477. Mozart to his father 

478. Mozart to his father 

479. Mozart to his father 

480. Mozart to his father 

481. Mozart to his father 

482. Mozart to Baroness von 


483. Mozart to his father 

484. Mozart to his father 

485. Mozart to his father 

486. Mozart to his father 

487. Mozart to J. G. Sieber, Paris 

488. Mozart to his father 

489. Mozart to his father 

490. Mozart to his father 

491. Mozart to his father 

492. Mozart to his father 

493. Mozart to his father 

494. Mozart to his father 
*495. Mozart to his father 

496. Mozart to his father 

497. Constanze Mozart to Nannerl 
497a. Mozart and Margarete 
497b. Marchand, with a postscript 

from Mozart 

498. Mozart to his sister 

499. Mozart to his father 

500. Mozart to his father 

501. Mozart to his father 

502. Mozart to his father 


503. Mozart to his father Vienna, February loth 1291 
*504. Mozart to his father Vienna, February 20th 1293 

1 First published by the editor in Music and Letters, April, 1937, 


Vienna, March I2th 


Vienna, March 29th 


Vienna, April 3rd 


Vienna, April uth 


Vienna, April 26th 


Vienna, May 3rd 


Vienna, May 7th 


Vienna, May 2ist 


Vienna, June 7th 

\ 266 

Vienna, June iSth 


Vienna, June 2ist 


Vienna, July 2nd 


Vienna, July 5th 


Vienna, July I2th 


Vienna, July i9th 1277 

Salzburg, July 3ist 1280 

Linz, October 3 1 st 1 280 

Vienna, December 6th 1282 

Vienna, December loth 1286 

Vienna, December 24th 1288 




^505. Mozart to his father 

506. Mozart to his father 

507. Leopold Mozart to Sebastian 

Winter, Donaueschingen 

508. Mozart to his father 

509. Leopold Mozart to Sebastian 

Winter, Donaueschingen 

510. Mozart to his father 

511. Mozart to his father 

512. Mozart to his father 

513. Mozart to his father 
**$14. Mozart to his father 

515. Mozart to his father 
**5i6. Mozart to his sister 

517. Mozart to his sister 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

518. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 

519. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

520. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 

*52i. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 


Vienna, March 3rd 1295 

Vienna, March 2oth 1297 

Salzburg, April 3rd 1301 

Vienna, April loth 1302 

Salzburg, April 22nd 1303 

Vienna, April 24th 1304 

Vienna, April 28th 1305 

Vienna, May 8th 1306 

Vienna, May i$th 1306 

Vienna, May 26th 1308 

Vienna, June 9th- 1 2th 1311 

Vienna, July 2ist 1313 

Vienna, August i8th 1314 
Salzburg, August 3oth 

Salzburg, August 3 1st 
Salzburg, September 3rd 

Salzburg, September 9th- 

Salzburg, September 1316 
1 4th 

Salzburg, September 1317 
1 7th 

Salzburg, September 24th 
Salzburg, October 
Salzburg, November 
Salzburg, November I9th 1317 

Salzburg, November 1318 

Salzburg, December 3rd 
Salzburg, December 7th 
Salzburg, December loth 



Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, December I4th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, December i6th 
St. Gilgen 


Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January 7th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January I4th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January iQth- 
St. Gilgen 2ist 

522. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January 22nd 1319 

St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January 25th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January 27th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Munich, February 2nd 

523. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Vienna, February I4th- 1320 

Salzburg i6th 

524. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Vienna, February 2ist- 1322 

Salzburg 22nd 

525. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Vienna, March I2th 1324 


Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Vienna, March I9th 

526* Mozart to Professor Anton Vienna, March 2ist 1325 

Klein, Mannheim 

527. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Vienna, March 25th-26th 1328 


Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Vienna, April 2nd 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Vienna, April 8th 

528. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Vienna, April i6th 1328 


Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Linz, April 3Oth 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Munich, May 5th 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, May 27th 
St. Gilgen 





Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

529. Mozart to Joseph Haydn, 


Leopold Mozart to his daughter 
and son-in-law, St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

530. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his son-in-law, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter 
St. Gilgen 

531. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 

532. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

533. Mozart to Franz Anton 


Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 



Salzburg, June 2nd-3rd 

Salzburg, June Qth- 

Vienna, September ist 1329 
Salzburg, September 2nd 
Salzburg, September 9th 

Salzburg, September I4th- 

Salzburg, September 1330 
i 6th- I 7th 

Salzburg, September iyth 
Salzburg, September 22nd 

Salzburg, September 29th- 
October ist 

Salzburg, October 5th 

Salzburg, October 6th- 

Salzburg, October I4th- 

Salzburg, October 2Oth- 

Salzburg, October 27th- 

Salzburg, November 3rd- 1331 

Salzburg, November iith 1331 

Salzburg, November i6th- 

Salzburg, November i8th- 

Vienna, November 20th 1332 

Salzburg, November 

Salzburg, November 




534. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, December and- 1333 

St. Gilgen 3rd 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, December 7th- 

St. Gilgen loth 

535. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, December 1334 

St. Gilgen i6th 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, December 

St. Gilgen 22nd-23rd 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, December 

St. Gilgen 29th-3Oth 


Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January 4th- 

St. Gilgen 5th 

536. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January I3th 1334 

St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January i4th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January i8th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January I9th- 

St. Gilgen 2ist 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January 27th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburer, January 27th- 

St. Gilgen 28th 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, February ist- 

St. Gilgen 3rd 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, February oth- 

St. Gilgen I0 th 

*537. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Munich, February 

St. Gilgen [? x6th] 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Munich, February 22nd- 

St. Gilgen 23rd 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Munich, March 1st 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, March oth-nth 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, March mh- 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to Artaria and Salzburg, March 2 1st 
Co., Vienna 

538. Le P^ a Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, March 2 3 rd- 1335 




Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, March 28th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, March 3ist- 
St. Gilgen April ist 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, April I3th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, April i8th- 
St. Gilgen 22nd 

539. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, April [?25th] 1336 

St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, May $th-6th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, May 1 2th- 1 3th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, May i8th-2Oth 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, May 22nd 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, May 26th 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, June 1 3th- 1 4th 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, June i6th 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, June zyth 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, July 2ist-22nd 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, July 28th-2Qth 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, August 3rd~4th 

St. Gilgen 

540. Mozart to Sebastian Winter, Vienna, August 8th 1337 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, August I ith- 

St. Gilgen I2th 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, August I2th 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, August lyth- 

St. Gilgen 19*^ 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, August 23rd 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, August 25th 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, September ist-2nd 

St. Gilgen 





Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 

541. Mozart to Sebastian Winter, 


Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 
Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 

542. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 

St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, 
St. Gilgen 


Salzburg, September 3rd 

Salzburg, September 6th- 

Salzburg, September isth- 


Vienna, September soth 1340 
Salzburg, October I2th 
Salzburg, October iyth 
Salzburg, October aoth 
Salzburg, October ayth 

Salzburg, November 2nd- 

Salzburg, November yth 

Salzburg, November 9th 

Salzburg, November 1342 

Salzburg, November 2Oth 
Salzburg, November 24th 
Salzburg, November 29th 

Salzburg, December ist- 

Salzburg, December 8th 

Salzburg, December I4th- 

Salzburg, December I9th 
Salzburg, December 22nd 
Salzburg, December 29th 




Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January 4th 
St. Gilgen 

543. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January I2th 1343 

St. Gilgen 

544. Mozart to Baron Gottfried von Prague, January I4th 1343 

Jacquin, Vienna 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January i8th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January igth 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, January 26th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, February 2nd 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, February 5th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, February oth 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Munich, February I3th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, February 24th 
St. Gilgen 

545. Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, March ist-2nd 1347 

St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, March 9th- 
St. Gilgen nth 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, March I3th 
St. Gilgen 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, March i6th 
St. Gilgen 

546. Mozart to his father Vienna, April 4th 1349 

Leopold Mozart to his daughter, Salzburg, May roth-nth 
St. Gilgen 

547. Mozart to Baron Gottfried von Vienna, May 29th 1352 


548. Mozart to his sister Vienna, June i6th 1353 

549. Mozart to his sister ' Vienna, August 1st 1353 

550. Mozart to Baron Gottfried von Prague, October I5th- 1354 

Jacquin, Vienna 25th 

551. Mozart to Baron Gottfried von Prague, November 4th- 1357 

Jacquin, Vienna 9th 

'552. Mozart to his sister Vienna, December I9th 1359 

1 First published by Mr. C. B. Oldman in the Musical Times, July 1929. 







Mozart to 




Mozart to 




Mozart to 




Mozart to 




Mozart to 

his sister 



Mozart to 

Franz Hofdemel 


Mozart to 

his wife 


Mozart to 

his wife 


Mozart to 

his wife 


Mozart to 

his wife 


Mozart to 

his wife 


Mozart to 

his wife 


Mozart to 

his wife 


Mozart to 

his wife 


Mozart to 




Mozart to 




Mozart to 



570. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

571. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

572. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

573. Mozart to Michael Puchberg 


574. Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

575. Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

576. Mozart to Michael Puchberg 





Mozart to 
Mozart to 
Mozart to 

Mozart to 

Mozart to 
Mozart to 
Mozart to 
Mozart to 

Michael Puchberg 
Michael Puchberg 
Michael Puchberg 
the Archduke 

Michael Puchberg 
Michael Puchberg 
Michael Puchberg 
his wife 


Vienna, early in June 1360 

Vienna, June 1 7th 1361 

Vienna, June 27th 1363 

Vienna, beginning of July 1364 

Vienna, August 2nd 1365 

Vienna, end of March 1367 

Budwitz, April 8th 1368 

Prague, April loth 1368 

Dresden, April I3th 1370 

Dresden, April i6th 1372 

Leipzig, May i6th 1376 

Berlin, May I9th 1379 

Berlin, May 23rd 1379 

Prague, May 3ist 1382 

Vienna, July I2th~i4th 1383 

Vienna, July I7th 1385 

Vienna, second half of 1387 

Vienna, middle of August 1387 

Vienna, end of August 1389 

Vienna, Autumn 1390 

Vienna, December 29th 1391 

Vienna, January 2Oth 1392 

Vienna, February 2oth 1393 

Vienna, end of March or 1393 
beginning of April 

Vienna, April 8th 1395 

Vienna, April 23rd 1396 

Vienna, beginning of May 1 396 

Vienna, first half of May 1397 

Vienna, May I7th 1398 

Vienna, June I2th 1399 

Vienna, August I4th 1400 

Frankfurt am Main, 1400 
September 28th 





^^585. Mozart to his wife 

586. Mozart to his wife 

587. Mozart to his wife 

588. Mozart to his wife 

589. Mozart to his wife 

590. Mozart to his wife 

591. Mozart to his wife 


592. Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

593. Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

594. Mozart to the Municipal 

Council of Vienna 

595. Mozart to Choir-master Stoll 

at Baden 

596. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

597. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

598. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

599. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

600. Mozart to his wife at Baden 
**6oi. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

602. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

603. Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

604. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

605. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

606. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

607. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

608. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

609. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

610. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

611. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

612. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

613. Mozart to Choir-master Stoll 

at Baden 

614. Mozart to his wife at Baden 




Frankfurt am Main, 
September 3oth 


Frankfurt am Main, 
October 3rd 


Frankfurt am Main, 
October 8th 


Frankfurt am Main, 
October I5th 


Mainz, October I7th 


Mannheim, October 23rd 


Munich, November 2nd 


Vienna, April I3th 


Vienna, between April 
2 ist and 27th 


Vienna, beginning of 


Vienna, beginning of 


Vienna, June 5th 


Vienna, June 6th 


Vienna, June 7th 


Vienna, June nth 


Vienna, June I2th 


Vienna (undated) 


Vienna, June 2 5th 


Vienna, June 25th 


Vienna, June 3Oth or 
July ist 


Vienna, July 2nd 


Vienna, July 3rd 


Vienna, July 4th 


Vienna, July 5th 


Vienna, July 5th 


Vienna, July 6th 


Vienna, July 7th 


Vienna, July 9th 


Vienna, July I2th 


Vienna, October 7th-8th 1436 





615. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

6 1 6. Mozart to his wife at Baden 

Unnumbered. Sophie Haibel to G. N. 
von Nissen, Salzburg 


Vienna, October [?8th~9th] 1439 
Vienna, October 14th 1442 

Diakovar, April yth, 1825 1447 










Constanze Mozart to Johann 
Anton Andre", Offenbach am 

Constanze Mozart to Johann 
Anton Andre, Offenbach am 

Constanze Mozart to Johann 
Anton Andre, Offenbach am 

Constanze Mozart to Johann 
Anton Andre, Offenbach am 

Constanze Mozart to Johann 
Anton Andre", Offenbach am 

Constanze Mozart to Johann 
Anton Andre", Offenbach am 

Constanze Mozart to Johann 
Anton Andre", Offenbach am 

Constanze Mozart to Johann 
Anton Andre, Offenbach am 

Constanze Mozart to Johann 
Anton Andrd, Offenbach am 

Constanze Mozart to Johann 
Anton Andr6, Offenbach am 


Vienna, February 2ist- 1459 

Vienna, March I2th 1467 

Vienna, March 29th 1469 

Vienna, May sist 


Vienna, September loth 1483 

Vienna, October 4th 1485 

Vienna, October 22nd 1488 

Vienna, [? November I2th] 1489 

Vienna, November i6th 1491 

Vienna, November 26th 1494 


*XI. Constanze Mozart to Johann Vienna, January 26th 1501 
Anton Andre, Offenbach am 

*XII. Constanze Mozart to Johann Vienna [? February 1 8thl 1503 
Anton Andr6, Offenbach am 





*XIII. Constanze Mozart to Johann Vienna, March 4th 1504 

Anton Andre, Offenbach am 

*XIV. Constanze Mozart to Johann Vienna, March 22nd 1505 

Anton Andr6, Offenbach am 


*XV. Constanze Nissen to Johann Salzburg, October 28th 1507 
Anton Andre, Offenbach am 



*XVI. Constanze Nissen to Johann Salzburg, January 1st 1512 
Anton Andr6, Offenbach am 



Abert = Hermann Abert, W. A. Mozart. 2 volumes. Revised 

edition. Leipzig, 1923-1924. 

AMZ Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung (Oct. 1788-Dec. 1848). 

Bliimml =Emil Karl Blumml, Aus Mozarts Freundes- und Familien- 

kreis. Vienna, 1923. 

Jahn =Otto Jahn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 4 volumes. 

Leipzig, 1856-1859. 

Kochel =Dr. Ludwig Ritter von Kochel, Chronologisch-thematisches 

Verzeichnis samtlicher Tonwerke Wolfgang A made* Mozarts. 
3rd edition, revised by Alfred Einstein. Leipzig, 1937. 

Leitzmann = Albert Leitzmann, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Leben in 
seinen Briefen und Berichten der Zeitgenossen. Leipzig, 

MJ = Mozart-Jahrbuch. Herausgegeben von Hermann Abert. 

Munich, 1923-1924, and Augsburg, 1929. 

MM Mozarteums Mitteilungen, Zentralausschuss der Mozart- 

gemeinde in Salzburg. November, I9i8-May, 1921. 

MMB Mitteilungen filr die Mozartgemeinde in Berlin. Heraus 

gegeben von Rudolf Genee, 1895-1921. 

Niemetschek = Franz Niemetschek, Leben des K. K. Kapellmeisters Wolf- 
gang Gottlieb Mozart. Prague, 1798. (Reprinted Prague, 

Nissen =Georg Nikolaus von Nissen, Biografhie W. A. Mozarts. 

Leipzig, 1828. 

,Nohl = Ludwig Nohl, Mozarts Brief e. 2nd edition. Leipzig, 1877. 

Nottebohm =Gustav Nottebohm, Mozartiana. Leipzig, 1880. 

Schiedermair = Ludwig Schiedermair, Die Brief e Mozarts und seiner 
Familie. 4 volumes. Munich and Leipzig, 1914. 

Schurig = Arthur Schurig, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 2 volumes. 

2nd edition. Leipzig, 1923. 

WSF =T. de Wyzewa et G. de Saint- Foix, W. A. Mozart. Sa vie 

musicale et son ozuvre de Venfance a la fileine maturite t 
1756-1777. 2 volumes. Paris, 1912. The third volume of 
this epoch-making study of Mozart's musical development, 
which covers the years 1777-1783, was brought out by 
M. de Saint-Foix in 1936. 

ZMW = Zeitschrift fur Musikwissenschaft. 



THE following table has been compiled from information contained in 
Muret-Saunders's German-English Dictionary, in Professor W. H. 
Bruford's Germany in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1935), 
p. 329 f., and in the letters of Leopold Mozart, who frequently quotes 
the equivalent values of foreign coins and the fluctuating rates of ex 
change between the various German states. As there were several 
standards in common use for the minting of silver coins during the 
latter half of the eighteenth century, the values here given are of 
necessity only approximate. 


Taking the South German kreutzer (worth 4 pfennige, slightly 
more than the English farthing) as the standard, the following equi 
valent values of silver coins are obtained: 

60 kreutzer (or 16 groschen) = i gulden, about two shillings. 
90 kreutzer (or 24 groschen) = i reichsthaler, about three shillings. 
120 kreutzer (or 32 groschen) = i laubthaler or federthaler, about 
four shillings. 

The following gold coins were in common use in Germany and 

i ducat (used all over Europe) =4! gulden, about nine shillings. 
i max d'or (used chiefly in Bavaria) = 6 J- gulden, about thirteen 

i friedrich d'or (used chiefly in Prussia) = 8 gulden, about 

sixteen shillings. 

i pistole (used all over Europe) = 7 \ gulden, about fifteen shillings. 
i carolin (used chiefly in Southern Germany) = 9 gulden, about 

eighteen shillings. 
i souverain d'or (used chiefly in Austria) = 13! gulden, about 

twenty-seven shillings. 


i Hard = about one farthing. 
20 sous = i livre, about eleven pence. 
i louis d'or = 22 livres, about twenty shillings. 



i paolo (a silver coin of Tuscany, worth originally about 56 
centesimi, and still used as the equivalent of half a lira) = 
about sixpence. 

icigliato (or, more commonly, gigliato) = a ducat, about nine 

i zecchino (a Venetian gold coin) = about ten shillings. 

i doppio- probably a doppio zecchino, about twenty shillings. 

* = about twenty-eight shillings. 

1 Leopold Mozart calls this coin a 'reitter*. See p. 90. 




26. Mozart (1782) ...... Frontispiece 

From an unfinished portrait by Josef Lange. 
Mozart Museum, Salzburg. 


27. Emperor Joseph II . . . . .1072 

From an engraving by L. M. 

Gesellschaffc der Musikfreunde, Vienna. 

28. Stephanie der jiingere ...... 1088 

From an engraving by J. E. Mansfeld after a portrait by Josef 

Nationalbibliothek, Vienna. 

29. Constanze Mozart, nee Weber (1782) . . . 1168 

From a portrait by Josef Lange. 

Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. 

30. Lorenzo Da Ponte ...... 1201 

From a water-colour painting by an unknown artist. 
Signor Riccardo Rossi, Vittorio Veneto. 

31. Muzio dementi (1794) - .1216 

From an engraving by T. Hardy. 
British Museum. 

32. Marianne Mozart, Freifrau von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg 

(1785) ..- I2 33 

From a portrait by an unknown artist. 
Mozart Museum, Salzburg. 

33. Gottfried Van Swieten . . . . . .1264 

From an engraving by J. Axmann after a portrait by P. Fendi. 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna. 

34. Anna Storace in the character of Euphrosyne . . 1281 

From an engraving by Conde" after a portrait by De Wilde. 
British Museum. 

35. Joseph Haydn (1800) ...... I3 I 3 

From an engraving by P. N. Gue"rin. 
Paul Hirsch, Esq., Cambridge. 

36. Josef and Aloysia Lange (1785) .... 1328 

From an engraving by Daniel Berger after a drawing by Josef 

Mozart Museum, Salzburg. 




37. Emanuel Schikaneder ...... 1344 

From an engraving by LoschenkohL 

Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna. 

38. Antonio Salieri ....... 1360 

From an engraving by C. F, Riedel. 
C. B. Oldman, Esq., London. 

39. Mozart (1789) 1388 

From a silver point drawing by Doris Stock 
Musikbibliothek Peters, Leipzig. 

40. Constanze Mozart (1802) ..... 1453 

From a portrait by Hans Hansen. 
Mozart Museum, Salzburg. 



5. Letter from Mozart to his father (January 4th, 1783) . 1242-3 



Early in March Ij8l Mozart, as a member of the Arch" 
bishop 's household, was summoned by his master to Vienna, 
where he was to spend the remaining ten years of his life. 
The first months were marked by his breach with the Arch 
bishop and the renewal of his friendship with the Weber 
family, which eventually led to his marriage to Constanze 
Weber. This is the period of Mozart's masterpieces, his 
piano concertos, his operas, his symphonies and his finest 
contributions to chamber music. Letters 393-616. 

VOL. Ill 

(393) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

MON TRES CHER AMY! VlENNE, ce 17 de mars, 1781 

Yesterday, the i6th, I arrived here, 1 thank God, all 
by myself in a post chaise at nine o'clock in the morning 
I was nearly forgetting to mention the hour. I travelled 
in the mail coach as far as Unterhaag but by that time 
I was so sore in my behind and its surrounding parts that 
I could endure it no longer. So I was intending to proceed 
by the ordinaire, but Herr Escherich, a government 
official, had had enough of the mail coach too and gave 
me his company as far as Kemmelbach. There I was pro 
posing to wait for the ordinaire, but the postmaster assured 
me that he could not possibly allow me to travel by it, 
as there was no head office there. So I was obliged to 
proceed by extra post, reached St. Polten on Thursday, 
the 1 5th, at seven o'clock in the evening, as tired as a 
dog, slept until two in the morning and then drove on 
straight to Vienna. Where do you think I am writing this 
letter? In the Mesmers' garden in the Landstrasse. The 
old lady is not at home, but Fraulein Franzl, who is now 
Frau von Posch, 2 is here and asks me to send a thousand 
greetings to you and my sister. Well, upon my honour, I 
hardly recognised her, she has grown so plump and fat. 
She has three children, two young ladies and a young 
gentleman. The eldest young lady, who is called Nannerl, 
is four years old, but you would swear that she was six; 

1 Mozart left Munich on March I2th, having been summoned to Vienna 
by the Archbishop, who had gone there at the end of January, probably in 
connection with the death of the Empress. 

2 Fraulein Franzl, whom Dr. Mesmer had cured, had married his stepson 
von Posch. 



the young gentleman is three, but you would swear that 
he was seven; and the infant of nine months you would 
take to be two years old, they are all so strong and robust. 
Now for the Archbishop. I have a charming room in the 
very same house where he is staying. Brunetti and Cec- 
carelli are lodging in another. Che distinzione! l My neigh 
bour is Herr von Kleinmayr 2 who loaded me on my 
arrival with all sorts of kindnesses. He is indeed a charm 
ing man. We lunch about twelve 'o'clock, unfortunately 
somewhat too early for me. Our party consists of the two 
valets, that is, the body and soul attendants of His Worship, 
the controleur, Herr Zetti, 3 the confectioner, 4 the two 
cooks, Ceccarelli, Brunetti and my insignificant self. By 
the way, the two valets sit at the top of the table, but at 
least I have the honour of being placed above the cooks. 5 
Well, I almost believe myself back in Salzburg! A good 
deal of silly, coarse joking goes on at table, but no one 
cracks jokes with me, for I never say a word, or, if I have 
to speak, I always do so with the utmost gravity; and as 
soon as I have finished my lunch, I get up and go off. We 
do not meet for supper, but we each receive three ducats 
which goes a long way! The Archbishop is so kind as 
to add to his lustre by his household, robs them of their 
chance of earning and pays them nothing. We had a 
concert yesterday at four o'clock, and at least twenty 
persons of the highest rank were present. Ceccarelli has 
already had to sing at Count Palfy's. To-day we are to 
go to Prince Galitzin, 6 who was at the Archbishop's 

1 What a distinction! 

2 Private secretary to the Archbishop and chairman of the court council. 

3 Zetti was "Kammerfourier", or Private Messenger, to the Archbishop" 
^ E. M. Kolnberger. 

5 It was customary in the eighteenth century for court musicians to be 
treated in the same way as other servants in the retinue of a Prince Arch 
bishop or any other great lord. 

6 Russian Ambassador to the Viennese court. He .had filled the same post 
in Paris. 



yesterday. Well, I must wait and see whether I shall get 
anything. If I get nothing, I shall go to the Archbishop 
and tell him with absolute frankness that if he will not 
allow me to earn anything, then he must pay me, for I 
cannot live at my own expense. Well, I must close this 
letter which I shall hand in at the post office on my way, 
for I must be off to Prince Galitzin's. I kiss your hands 
a thousand times and embrace my sister with all my 
heart and am ever your most obedient son 


P.S. Rossi, 1 the buffo singer, is here. I have been to 
see the Fischers I cannot describe how delighted they 
were to see me the whole household send you their 
greetings. I hear that concerts are being given in Salz 
burg. Goodness, just think what I am missing! Adieu! 
My address is: 

Im Deutschen Hause, 
Singerstrasse. 2 

(394) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

VIENNA, March iZth-zqth, 1781 

Copie du billet autographe de Sa Majeste PEmpereur 
au Prince de Kaunitz-Rittberg dans une boite de tous les 
portraits de la famille Imperiale du 14 mars 1781: 


Je n'ai pas pu resister & 1'envie de vous envoyer cette 
tabatiere, que je viens de recevoir de Bruxelles et qui avait 

1 Rossi, a tenor, had" probably taken the part of the Podesta in the 
Munich production of "La finta giardiniera", 1775. See Kochel, p. 276, 

2 Mozart was allotted quarters in the Deutsches Ordenshaus, the head 
quarters of the Teutonic Order, in the Singerstrasse no. 856 (at present 
no. 7). For a full list of Mozart's many residences in Vienna during the last 
ten years of his life, see Abert, vol. ii. p. 1035 f. 



ete donnee par feue Sa Majeste au Prince Charles. 1 Quelque 
vilaine incommode qu'elle soit, il m'a paru qu'elle etait faite 
uniquement pour sejourner sur votre table et pour vous 
rappeler parfois les physionomies de personnes, qui toutes 
ensemble et chacune en particulier vous doivent beaucoup 
de reconnaissance pour les services essentiels que vous leur 
avez rendus. Je n'en fais qu'une partie, mais je ne crains 
point d'etre leur interprete, assure qu'ils pensent tous 
comme moi a ce sujet. Adieu. Pardonnez cette folie a 
1'amitie raisonnee que vous me connaissez inviolablement 

pour vous. 

Reponse du Prince Kaunitz-Rittberg! 

Par les expressions du billet autographe dont Votre 
Majeste Impdriale a eu la bonte d'accompagner la boite 
qu'elle a daigne m'envoyer, et qui contient le precieux 
receuil des portraits de toute la famille Imp6riale, elle vient 
de recompenser de la fagon du monde qui pourrait etre la 
plus agreable a mon coeur les services que j'eu pu avoir le 
bonheur de rendre a son auguste maison depuis quarante 
ans. II ne me reste a d6sirer que de les voir honorer des 
sentiments que Votre Majest6 veut bien leur accorder, et il 
ne manque plus rien moyennant cela a mon enti&re satis 
faction, qui est d'autant plus vive que les traits de ce genre 
ne peuvent manquer de transmettre les noms de Votre 
Majeste a la posterite dans le sens de ceux de Trajan, de 
Marc-Aurele et de Henri Quatre, dont jusqu'a nos jours on 
a beni la memoire et prononc^ encore les noms avec autant 
de veneration que d'attendrissement. Je ne puis en t6moigner 
ma reconnaissance a Votre Majest Imperiale qu'en con 
tinuant et en redoublant meme, s'il est possible, de zle pour 
son service et d'attachement pour sa personne. J'y prends 
bien plus d'interet qu'a moi-meme et comme je crois qu'il 
ne se trouvera peut-etre jamais T occasion plus propre a 
donner de Votre Majeste Imperiale I'opinion que je desire 
que toute la terre puisse prendre d'elle que ne Test le con- 
tenu de son gracieux billet, que je ne saurais lui cacher que je 

1 Brother of the Emperor Francis I and Governor of the Austrian Nether 
lands. He died in 1780. 



ddsirais fort qu'elle trouvat bon qu'il ne reste pas ignore. Je 
ne ferai cependant rien a cet egard avant d'en avoir obtenu 
la permission, si ce n'est un fide-commis dans ma famille de 
la boite ainsi que de ce respectable billet. Je supplie Votre 
Majeste Imperiale de vouloir bien accueillir en attendant 
avec bonte 1' assurance respectueuse de ma vive recon 
naissance et de mon attachement sans bornes pour sa per- 
sonne qui ne finira pas qu'avec moi. 


As I have just had the opportunity at Madame 
Lamotte's of copying out these two delightful billets, I 
thought I ought to do so. Mademoiselle Lamotte 1 is no 
longer living with the Countess Schonborn. 2 She has 
written to us and, moreover, has replied to all the points 
about Count Rosenberg 3 and Baron Kleinmayr. She 
swears that she has done so. Further, she and her mamma 
send a thousand greetings to you both; and so does Herr 
von Vogter, who was at Milan and who is to leave shortly 
for Klagenfurt with the Archduchess Maria Anna. 4 I kiss 
your hands a thousand times, embrace my sister most 
cordially and remain 5 

(395) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNA, March ZAfh-T&th, 1 78 1 

I have received your letter of the 2oth and am 
delighted to hear that both of you have reached home 6 

1 Probably the wife and sister of Franz Lamotte, a famous violinist, who 
had been in the service of the Empress Maria Theresa. See p. 216, n. 2. 

2 A sister of the Archbishop of Salzburg. 

3 Franz Xaver Wolf Orsini- Rosenberg (1723-1796), who had been appointed 
in 1779 Chief Chamberlain and Director of the Court Theatre in Vienna. 

* The Archduchess Maria Anna (1738-1787) was the second child of the 
Empress Maria Theresa. 

5 The signature and date have been cut off the autograph. 

6 Mozart's father and sister had remained on in Munich after he had been 
summoned by the Archbishop to Vienna. 



safely and are in very good health. You must put it down 
to my pen and this wretched ink, if you have to spell out 
this letter rather than read it. Basta! It must be written 
and the gentleman who cuts my pens, Herr von Lirzer, 
has let me down this time. You probably know him 
better than I do. I cannot describe him more appropriately 
than by saying that he is, I believe, a native of Salzburg 
and that up to the present I have never seen him except 
once or twice at the Robinigs' so-called eleven o'clock 
music. He, however, called on me at once and seems to be 
a very pleasant and (since he has been cutting my pens 
for me) a very civil fellow. I take him to be a secretary. I 
have also had a surprise visit from Gilowsky, Katherl's 
brother. 1 Why a surprise visit? Well, because I had 
entirely forgotten that he was in Vienna. How quickly a 
foreign city can improve a man! Gilowsky will certainly 
become an upright, honest fellow, both in his metier and 
in his demeanour. Meanwhile you will have received the 
letters exchanged between the Emperor and Prince 
Kaunitz. 2 What you say about the (Archbishop) is to a 
certain extent perfectly true I mean, as to the manner in 
which I tickle his (ambition). But of what use is all this to 
me? I can't subsist on it. Believe me, I am right in saying 
that he acts as a screen to keep me from the notice of 
others. What (distinction,) pray, does he confer upon me? 
Herr von Kleinmayr and Bonike 3 have (a separate 
table) with the illustrious Count (Arco). 4 It would be 
some distinction if (I sat at that table,) but there is none 
in sitting (with the valets,) who, when they are not 

1 Franz Wenzel Gilowsky (1757-1816), who became a doctor in Vienna. 
He was best man at Mozart's marriage to Constanze Weber in 1782. 
* See Letter 394. 

3 Johann Michael Bonike was private secretary to the Archbishop and a 
member of the Ecclesiastical Council. 

4 Count Karl Arco (1743-1830), one of the principal members of the 
Archbishop's household. He was the son of Count Georg Anton Felix Arco, 
Chief Chamberlain to the Archbishop. 



occupying the best seats <at table,) have to light the 
chandeliers, open the doors and wait in the anteroom 
(when / am within) and with the cooks too! Moreover, 
when we are summoned to a house where there is a con 
cert, Herr Angerbauer * has to watch outside until the 
Salzburg gentlemen arrive, when he sends a lackey to 
show them the way in. On hearing Brunetti tell this in 
the course of a conversation, I thought to myself, "J ust 
wait till I come along!". So the other day when we 
were to go to Prince Galitzin's, Brunetti said to me in his 
usual polite manner: "Tu, bisogna che sii qui stasera alle 
sette per andare insieme dal Principe Galitzin. L'Anger- 
bauer ci condurra." Ho risposto: "Va bene ma se in 
caso mai non fossi qui alle sette in punto, ci andate pure, 
non serve aspettarmi so bene dove sta, e ci verro 
sicuro" 2 I went there alone on purpose, because I really 
feel ashamed to go anywhere with them. When I got 
upstairs, I found Angerbauer standing there to direct the 
lackey to show m in. But I took no notice, either of the 
valet or the lackey, but walked straight on through the, 
rooms into the music room, for all the doors were open, 
and went straight up to the Prince, paid him my respects 
and stood there talking to him. I had completely forgotten 
my friends Ceccarelli and Brunetti, for they were not to 
be seen. They were leaning against the wall behind the 
orchestra, not daring to come forward a single step. If a 
lady or a gentleman speaks to Ceccarelli, he always 
laughs: and if anyone at all addresses Brunetti, he colours 
and gives the dullest answers. Oh, I could cover whole 
sheets if I were to describe all the scenes which have taken 
place between the (Archbishop) and the two of them since 

1 Johann Ulrich Angerbauer, one of the Archbishop's private valets. 

2 "You must be here at seven o'clock this evening, so that we may go 
together to Prince Galitzin's. Angerbauer will take us there." Ijreplied: 
"All right. But if I'm not here at seven o'clock sharp, just go ahead. You 
need not wait for me. I know where he lives and I will be sure to be there.'' 



I have been here and indeed before I came. I am only 
surprised that he is not ashamed of Brunetti. Why, I am 
ashamed on his account. And how the fellow hates being 
here! The whole place is far too grand for him. I really 
think he spends his happiest hours at table. Prince 
Galitzin asked Ceccarelli to sing to-day. Next time it 
will be my turn to perform. I am going this evening 
with Herr von Kleinmayr to Court Councillor Braun, 
a good friend of his, who is supposed to be one of 
the greatest enthusiasts for the clavier. I have lunched 
twice with Countess Thun 1 and go there almost every 
day. She is the most charming and most lovable lady 
I have ever met; and I am very high in her favour. 
Her husband is still the same peculiar, but well-meaning 
and honourable gentleman. I have also lunched with 
Count Cobenzl. 2 I owe this to his aunt, Countess von 
Rumbeck, sister of the Cobenzl in the Pagerie, who 
was at Salzburg with her husband. Weil, my chief 
object here is to introduce myself to (the Emperor) 
in some becoming way, for I am absolutely determined 
that he shall get to know me. I should love to run 
through my opera 3 for him and then play a lot of fugues, 
for that is what he likes. Oh, had I but known that I 
should be in Vienna during Lent, I should have written 
a short oratorio and produced it in the theatre for my 
benefit, as they all do here. I could easily have written it 
beforehand, for I know all the voices. How gladly would 
I give a public concert, as is the custom here. But I know 
for certain that I should never get permission to do so 
for just listen to this! You know that there is a society 
in Vienna which gives concerts for the benefit of the 

1 Countess Wilhelmine Thun (1744-1800), wife of Count Franz Josef 
Thun (1734-1788), and the mother of three beautiful daughters. She had 
been a pupil of Haydn and was later a friend of Beethoven. 

* Count Johann Philipp von Cobenzl, Court and State Chancellor in 
Vienna. 3 "Idomeneo." 



widows of musicians, 1 at which every professional 
musician plays gratis. The orchestra is a hundred and 
eighty strong. 2 No virtuoso who has any love for his 
neighbour, refuses to give his services, if the society asks 
him to do so. Besides, in this way he can win the favour 
both of the Emperor and of the public. Starzer was com 
missioned to invite me and I agreed at once, adding, 
however, that I must first obtain the consent of my 
Prince, which I had not the slightest doubt that he would 
give as it was a matter of charity, or at any rate a 
good work, for which I should get no fee. He would not 
permit me to take part. All the nobility in Vienna have 
made a grievance of it. I am only sorry for the following 
reason. I should not have played a concerto, but (as the 
Emperor sits in the proscenium box) I should have 
extemporised ahd played a fugue and then the variations 
on "Je suis Lindor" 3 on Countess Thun's beautiful Stein 
pianoforte, which she would have lent me. Whenever I 
have played this programme in public, I have always 
won the greatest applause because the items set one 
another off so well, and because everyone has something 
to his taste. But pazienza! 

Fiala has risen two thousand times higher in my 
estimation for refusing to play for less than a ducat. Has 
not my sister been asked to play yet? I hope she will 
demand two ducats. For, as we have always been utterly 
different in every way from the other court musicians, I 
trust we shall be different in this respect too. If they 

1 The "Wiener Tonkunstlersozietat", which was founded in 1771 by 
Florian Gassmann. Since 1862 it has been the Haydnverein. Mozart, who 
wished to join this society in 1785 and who had several times performed 
gratis for its benefit, was refused admission because he could not produce a 
certificate of baptism. See Pohl, Haydn, vol. ii. p. I34f-, and Hanslick, 
Geschichte des Konzertwesens in Wien, 1869, p. 6 ff. 

2 This figure includes, of course, the choir. 

3 K. 354. Twelve clavier variations, composed in Paris in 1778, on "Je suis 
Lindor", an arietta in Beaumarchais's "Le Barbier de Seville". 



won't pay, they can do without her but if they want her, 
then, by Heaven, let them pay. ' 

I shall go to Madame Rosa one of these days and you 
will certainly be pleased with your clever diplomat. I 
shall handle the matter as tactfully as dicLWeiser, x when 
the bell was tolled for his wife's mother. 

Herr von Zetti offered immediately after my arrival to 
deliver my letters. He will send them off with the parcel, 
I do not require the two quartets 2 nor the Baumgarten 
aria. 3 A propos. What about (the Elector's present?) Has 
anything (been sent yet?) Did you call on <the Countess 
Baumgarten) before you left Munich? 

Please give my greetings to all my good friends, and 
especially to Katherl, Schachtner and Fiala. Herr von 
Kleinmayr, Zetti, Ceccarelli, Brunetti, the controleur, 
the two valets, Leutgeb 4 and Ramm, who leaves on 
Sunday, send their compliments to all. A propos, Peter 
Vogtishere. Well, goodbye. I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and embrace my sister most cordially and am ever 
your most obedient son 


Rossi, the buffo singer, is here too. 

March 28 tA. I could not finish this letter, because Herr 
von Kleinmayr fetched me in his carriage to go to a 
concert at Baron Braun's. So I can now add that (the 
Archbishop has given me permission to play at the 

1 A former mayor of Salzburg. 

* Possibly one of these quartets is K. 370, an oboe quartet composed at 
Munich early in 1781 for Mozart's friend Ramm. 

3 K. 369. "Misera, dove son!", written for the Countess Baumgarten on 
March 8th, 1781. 

4 Ignaz Leutgeb, horn-player in the Salzburg court orchestra, had opened 
a cheesemonger's shop in a suburb of Vienna with the half of a money loan 
from Leopold Mozart. He continued to play in public, and he and Mozart 
became fast friends. Mozart's horn concertos, K. 412, 417, 447 and 495, 
composed between the years 1782 and 1786, were written for Leutgeb. 



concert for the widows.) For Starzer went to the concert 
at (Galitzin's) and he and <all the nobility worried the 
Archbishop until he gave his consent.) / am so glad. Since 
I have been here I have lunched at home only four times. . 
The hour is too early for me and the food is wretched. 
Only when the weather is very bad, as to-day, par exemple, 
I stay at home. 

Do write and tell me what is going on in Salzburg, for 
I have been plagued with questions. These gentlemen 
are far more anxious for news of Salzburg than I am. 
Madame Mara is here and gave a concert in the theatre 
last Tuesday. Her husband dared not let himself be seen, 
or the orchestra would not have accompanied her; for he 
published in the newspapers that there was no one in all 
Vienna fit to do this. Adieu. Herr von Moll paid me a 
visit to-day and I am to breakfast with him to-morrow 
or the day after and bring my opera 1 with me. He sends 
greetings to you both. As soon as the weather improves, I 
shall call on Herr von Aurnhammer and his fat daughter. 2 
From these remarks you will see that I have received 
your last letter of the 24th. Old Prince Colloredo 3 (at 
whose house we held a concert) gave each of us five ducats. 
Countess Rumbeck is now my pupil. Herr von Mesmer 
(the school inspector) and his wife and son send you their 
greetings. His son plays magnifique, but, as he imagines 
that he knows quite enough already, he is lazy. He has 
also considerable talent for composition, but is too indolent 
to devote himself to it, which vexes his father. Adieu. 

1 "Idomeneo." 

2 Fraulein Josephine Aurnhammer became Mozart's pupil on the clavier, 
and he wrote for her his sonata for two pianos, K. 448. She married in 1796 
and, as Frau Bosenhonig, was still performing in public in 1813. She herself 
composed several series of pianoforte variations. 

3 Prince Rudolf Colloredo, father of the Archbishop of Salzburg. 



(396) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MoN TRES CHER P&RE! VlENNE, ce 4 d'avril, 1781 

My letter to-day must be very short, but Brunetti 
returns to Salzburg on Sunday and then I shall be able 
to write you a longer one. 

You want to know how we are getting on in Vienna 
or rather, I hope, how I am getting on; for the other two 
I do not count as having anything to do with me. I told 
you in a recent letter that (the Archbishop) is a great ^ 
hindrance to me here, for he has done me out of at least >> 
a hundred ducats, which I could certainly have made f 
by giving <a concert in the theatre.) Why, the ladies 
themselves offered of their own accord to distribute the 
tickets. I can say with truth that I was very well pleased^ 
with the Viennese public yesterday, when I played at the 
concert for the widows * in the Kartnerthor theatre. I had 
to begin all over again, because there was no end to the 
applause. Well, how much do you suppose I should mak 
if I were to give a concert of my own, now that the public<C 
has got to know me? But this <arch-booby> of ours will 
not allow it. He does not want his people to have any'' 
profit only loss. Still, he will not be able to achieve this 
in my case, for if I have two pupils I am better off in 
Vienna than in Salzburg. Nor do I need his board and^ 
lodging. Now listen to this. Brunetti said to-day at table 
that Arco had told him on behalf of the Archbishop that 
he (Brunetti) was to inform us that we were to receive the 
money for our mail coach fares and to leave before Sunday. 
On the other hand, whoever wanted to stay on (oh, how 
judicious!} could do so, but would have to live at his own 

1 See p. 1067, n. i. Mozart played a piano concerto and one of his sym 
phonies, possibly K. 338, was performed. See E. Hanslick, Geschichte des 
Konzertwesens in Wien, p. 32. l 



expense, as he would no longer get .board and lodging 
from the Archbishop. Brunetti, qui ne demande pas 
mieux, smacked his lips. Ceccarelli, who would like to 
remain, but who is not so well known as I am and does 
not know his way about so well as ,1 do, is going to make 
a push to get something. If he does not succeed, well, in 
God's name, he must be off, for there is not a house in 
Vienna where he can get either a meal or a room without 
paying for it. When they asked me what I intended to do, 
I replied: "/ do not know as yet that / have to leave, for 
jQ until Count Arco tells me so himself, / shall not believe it. 
- When he does, / shall then disclose my intentions. Put 
that in your pipe and smoke it!' Bonike was present and 
& grinned. Oh indeed, <I shall certainly fool the Arch- 
\j-bishop to the top of his bent and how I shall enjoy doing 
f\ it!> I shall do it with the greatest politesse (and he will 
<7\ not be able to dodge me.) Enough of this. In my next 
letter I shall be able to tell you more. Rest assured that 
unless I am in a good position and can see clearly that it 
jr) is to my advantage to do so, I shall certainly not remain 
^ in Vienna. But if it is to my advantage, why should I not 
profit by it? Meanwhile, (you are drawing two salaries 
and have not got to feed me.) If I stay here, I can promise 
that I shall soon (be able to send home some money.) 
1 am speaking seriously, and if things turn out otherwise, 
_>! shall return to Salzburg. Well, adieu. You shall have 
^the full story in my next letter. I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and embrace my sister with all my heart, and I hope 
fythat she has replied to Mile Hepp. Adieu, ever your most 
^obedient son 


My compliments to all all all. 

P.S. I assure you that this is a splendid place and 



for my metier the best one in the world. Everyone will 
tell you the same. Moreover, I like being here and there-, 
fore I am making all the profit out of it that I can. 
Believe me, my sole purpose is to make as much money 
as possible; for after good health it is the best thing to 
have. Think no more of my follies, of which I have 
repented long ago from the bottom of my heart. Mis 
fortune brings wisdom, and my thoughts now turn in 
a very different direction. Adieu. You will have a full 
account in my next letter. 

(397) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRS CHER PRE! VIENNE, ce 8 d'aprile, 1781 

<I began a longer and more interesting letter to you, 
but I wrote too much about Brunetti in it, and was afraid 
that his curiosity might tempt him to open the letter, 
because Ceccarelli is with me.) I shall send it by the next 
post and in it I shall write more fully than I can to-day. 
Meanwhile you will have received my other letter. 1 I told 
you about the applause in the theatre, but I must add that 
what delighted and surprised me most of all was the 
amazing silence and also the cries of " Bravo!" while I 
was playing. This is certainly honour enough in Vienna, 
where there are such numbers and numbers of good 
pianists. To-day (for I am writing at eleven o'clock at 
night) we had a concert, where three of my compositions 
were performed new ones, of course; a rondo for a con 
certo for Brunetti; 2 a sonata with violin accompaniment 
for myself, 3 which I composed last night between eleven 
and twelve (but in order to be able to finish it, I only 

1 Letter 396. z K. 373. Rondo for violin and orchestra in C major. 

3 K. 379. See Kochel, p. 457. 



From an engraving by L. M. 
(Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna) 


wrote out the accompaniment for Brunetti and retained 
my own part in my head); and then a rondo for Ceccarelli, 1 
which he had to repeat. I must now beg you to send me a 
letter as soon as possible and to give me your fatherly and 
most friendly advice on the following matter. <It is said 
that we are to return to Salzburg in a fortnight. I can stay 
on here, and that too not to my loss, but to my advan 
tage.) So I am (thinking of asking the Archbishop to 
allow me to remain in Vienna.) Dearest father, (I love 
you dearly; that you must realise, from the fact that for 
your sake I renounce all my wishes and desires. For, were 
it not for you, I swear to you on my honour that) I should 
not hesitate for a moment (to leave the Archbishop's 
service.) I should (give a grand concert, take four pupils, 
and in a year I should have got on so well in Vienna that 
I could make at least a thousand thalers a year.) I assure 
you that I often (find it difficult to throw away my luck 
as I am doing.) As you say, I am still (young.) True 
but (to waste one's youth in inactivity in such a beggarly 
place is really very sad and it is such a loss.) I should 
like to have your kind and fatherly advice about this, and 
very soon, for I must tell him what I am going to do. 
But do have confidence in me, for I am more prudent now. 
Farewell. I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace 
my sister with all my heart and am ever your most obedient 


(398) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 

MON TRS CHER PRE! VIENNE, ce n d'avril, 1781 

Te Deum Laudamus that at last that coarse and 

dirty Brunetti has left, who is a disgrace to his master, to 

himself and to the whole orchestra or so say Ceccarelli 

1 K. 374. A recitative and aria, "A questo seno deh vieni". 
VOL. Ill 1073 C 


and I . There is not a word of truth in all the Vienna 
news which you have heard, except that Ceccarelli is to 
sing in the opera at Venice during the next carnival. 
Great Heavens! A thousand devils! I hope that this is 
not swearing, for if so, I must at once go and confess 
again. For I have just returned from confession, as 
to-morrow (Maundy Thursday) the Archbishop in his 
sublime person is to feed l the whole court personnel. 
Ceccarelli and I went off to-day after lunch to the 
Theatines 2 to find Father Froschauer, who can speak 
Italian. A pater or frater, who happened to be standing 
on the altar and trimming the lights, assured us, how 
ever, that the Father and another one who knows Italian 
had not lunched at home and would not return until 
four o'clock. So this time I went on alone and was 
shown upstairs into a room where there was a priest; 
while Ceccarelli waited for me below in the courtyard. 
What did please me was that when I told the reverend 
chandelier-cleaner that eight years ago 3 I had played 
a violin concerto in that very choir, he immediately 
mentioned my name. But now to return to my swearing, 
I must tell you that it is only a pendant to. my last letter, 
to which I hope to receive a reply by the next post. In 
short, next Sunday week, April 22nd, Ceccarelli and I 
are to go home. When I think that I must leave Vienna 
without bringing home at least a thousand gulden, my 
heart is sore indeed. So, for the sake of a (malevolent 
Prince) who (plagues me) every day and only pays me a 
(lousy salary of four hundred gulden,) I am to (kick 
away a thousand?) For I should (certainly) make that 
sum if I (were to give a concert.) When we had our first 
grand concert in this house, (the Archbishop sent each of 

1 Intentionally irreverent for "administer the sacrament". 

2 The order of the Theatines or Cajetans was dissolved in Vienna in 1784. 

3 During the Mozarts' visit to Vienna in the summer of 1773. 



us four ducats,) At the last concert for which I composed 
<a new rondo for Brunetti,) 1 a (new sonata) for myself, 2 
and (also a new rondo for Ceccarelli,) 3 I received (no 
thing). But what made me almost (desperate) was that 
the very same (evening) we had this (foul) concert I was 
invited to Countess Thun's, but of course could not go; 
and who should be there but {the Emperor!) Adam- 
berger 4 and Madame Weigl 5 were there and received 
fifty ducats each! Besides, what an opportunity! I cannot, 
of course, arrange for (the Emperor to be told that if 
he wishes to hear me he must hurry up,) as (I am leaving) 
Vienna in a few days. One has to (wait for) things like 
that. Besides, I (neither can nor will remain here unless 
I give a concert.) Still, even if I have only two (pupils,) 
I am better off here than in Salzburg. But if I had 1000 
or 1 200 gulden (in my pocket, I should be a little more 
solicited) and therefore (exact better terms.) That is what 
he (will not allow, the inhuman villain.) I must (call 
him that, for he is a villain and all the nobility call him 
so.) But enough of this. Oh, how I hope to hear by the 
next post whether I am to go on (burying my youth and 
my talents in Salzburg, or whether I may make my 
fortune as best I can, and not wait until it is too late.) It 
is true (that I cannot make my fortune) in a fortnight or 
three weeks, any more than I (can make it in a thousand 
years in Salzburg.) Still, it is more pleasant to wait (with 
a thousand gulden a year) than with (four hundred.) 6 For 

1 K. 373- * K. 379- 3 K. 374. 

4 Johann Valentin Adamberger (1743-1804), a famous tenor and a success 
ful teacher. He was born in Munich, studied under Valesi in Italy, where he 
assumed the name of Adamonti, and made his first appearance at the German 
National Theatre in Vienna in 1780. 

5 Madame Weigl, the prima donna of the German National Theatre, was 
the wife of Joseph Weigl (1740-1820), 'cellist in Prince Esterhazy's orchestra 
at Eisenstadt and later in the court orchestra in Vienna. Her son, Joseph 
Weigl (1766-1846), became a famous operatic composer. 

6 Mozart's yearly salary as court organist in Salzburg was 450 gulden. 



if I wish to do so, I am quite certain of making that sum 
( I have only to say that I am staying on here) and I 
am not (including in my calculations what I may com 
pose.) Besides, think of the contrast (Vienna and Salz 
burg!) When (Bonno dies, Salieri will be Kapellmeister,) 1 
and then (Starzer) will take the place of (Salieri) in con 
ducting the practices; and so far (no one) has been 
mentioned to take the place of (Starzer.) Basta; I leave 
it entirely to you, my most beloved father! You ask 
whether I have been to see Bonno? Why, it was at his 
house that we went through my symphony 2 for the second 
time. I forgot to tell you the other day that at the concert 
the symphony 3 went magnifique and had the greatest 
success. There were forty violins, the wind-instruments 
were all doubled, there were ten violas, ten double 
basses, eight violoncellos and six bassoons. 

The whole Bonno household send their greetings to 
you. They are truly delighted to see me again. He is just 
the same worthy and honourable man. Fraulein Nanette 
is married and I have lunched with her twice. She lives 
near me. A thousand compliments from the Fischers, on 
whom I called on my way home from the Theatines. 
Farewell; and remember that your son's sole object is to 
establish himself permanently for (he can get four 
hundred gulden anywhere.) Adieu. I kiss your hands a 
thousand times and embrace my dear sister with all my 
heart and am ever your most obedient son 

W. A. MZT. 

P.S. Be so kind as to tell M. D'Yppold that I shall 
answer his letter by the next post and that I received the 
letter of his good friend. Adieu. 

1 This did happen. Salieri succeeded Bonno on the latter's death in 1788. 

2 Possibly K. 338 in C major, composed in 1780. See Kochel, p. 427. 

3 No doubt the same symphony, K. 338. 



My compliments to all who are not too dreadfully 
(Salzburgish.) Court Councillor Gilowsky too has 
played a Salzburg trick on Katherl. 

(399) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 


I can't write much to-day either, as it is almost six 
o'clock and I must give this letter to Zetti directly. I have 
just come from Herr, Frau and Fraulein von Aurn- 
hammer, with whom I have been lunching and where we 
all drank your health. In regard to your long letter (you 
know the one I mean) I. can only say that you are both 
right and wrong; but the points where you are right far 
outweigh the points where you are wrong. Therefore I 
shall certainly return and with the greatest pleasure, too, 
as I am fully convinced that you will never prevent me 
from making my fortune. Up to this moment I have not 
heard a word about the date of my departure. I shall 
certainly not leave on Sunday, for from the very first I 
declared that I would not travel by the mail coach. For 
my part I shall travel by the ordinaire. If Ceccarelli wants 
to bear me company, it will be all the pleasanter for me, 
for then we can take an extra post-chaise. The whole 
difference <so small as to be laughable) consists in a few 
gulden; for I should travel day and night, and thus spend 
very little on the road. I have noticed that it is almost 
dearer by the diligence, or at all events about the same, 
as one has to pay all the expenses of the conductor. There 
is no hope of doing anything in Linz, for Ceccarelli told 
me that he only scraped together forty gulden and had to 
give more than thirty to the orchestra. Moreover it would 
not be {creditable) to perform (in such a small town,) nor 



would it be worth the trouble for such ^{bagatelle) much 
better for me to go straight home, unless <the nobility) were 
to get up something to make it worth while. Still, you can 
get me some (addresses) there. Well, I must close, or else I 
shall miss the parcel. < As for Schachtner's operetta, 1 ) there 
is nothing to be done for the same reason which I have 
often mentioned. Stephanie junior 2 is going to give me a 
new libretto, a good one, as he says; and, if in the mean 
time I have left Vienna, he is to send it to me. I could not 
contradict (Stephanie.) I merely said that save for the 
long dialogues, which could easily be altered, the piece 3 
was very good, but not suitable for Vienna, where people 
prefer comic pieces. Farewell. I am ever your most 
obedient son 

W. A. MZT. 

I embrace my sister with all my heart and send my 
greetings to all my good friends. 

(400) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 2$ d'avril, Ij8l 

You are looking forward to my return with great joy, 
my dearest father! That is the only thing that can make 
me decide to leave Vienna. I am writing all this in our 
plain language, 4 because the whole world knows and 
should know that the Archbishop of Salzburg has only 

1 "Zaide." 

2 Gottlieb Stephanie (1741-1800) first served in the army and then went 
on the stage, and finally became Director of the German Opera in Vienna. 
He arranged the text of Mozart's opera "Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail", 
1782, and wrote the libretto for his one-act opera "Der Schauspieldirektor", 
1786. His elder brother was Christian Gottlob Stephanie, an actor in Vienna. 

3 "Zaide." * Mozart means that he is not using cypher. 



you to thank, my most beloved father, that he did not lose 
me yesterday for ever (I mean, as far as he himself is con 
cerned). We had a grand concert here yesterday, probably 
the last of them. It was a great success, and in spite of all 
the obstacles put in my way by His Archiepiscopal Grace, 
I still had a better orchestra than Brunetti. Ceccarelli will 
tell you about it. I had a great deal of worry over arrang 
ing this. Oh, it is far easier to talk than to write about it. 
If, however, anything similar should happen again, which 
I hope may not be the case, I can assure you that I shall 
lose all patience; and certainly you will forgive me for 
doing so. And I beg you, dearest father, to allow me to 
return to Vienna during Lent towards the end of the next 
carnival. This depends on you alone and not on the Arch 
bishop. For if he does not grant me permission, I shall go 
all the same; and this visit will certainly not do me any 
harm! Oh, if he could only read this, I should be delighted. 
But what I ask, you must promise me in your next letter, 
for it is only on this condition that I shall return to Salz 
burg; but it must be a definite promise, so that I may 
give my word to the ladies here. Stephanie is going to give 
me a German opera to compose. So I await your reply. 
Up to the present Gilowsky has not brought me any 
fichu. If he does, I shall not fail to lay it nice and flat 
among the linen in the trunk, so that it may not be 
crushed or spoilt. And I shall not forget the ribbons. 

I cannot yet say when I shall leave or how. It is really 
very tiresome that no information can ever be got out 
of these people. All of a sudden we shall be told, 
"Aliens, off with you!" One moment we are told that a 
carriage is being got ready in which the controleur, 
Ceccarelli and I are to travel home; the next moment we 
are told that we are to return by the diligence; and again 
we are told that each will be given the diligence fare and 
may travel as he likes an arrangement which indeed I 



should much prefer. One moment we are told that we are 
to leave in a week; the next moment it is in a fortnight or 
three weeks; and then again, even sooner. Good God! We 
don't know what to believe; we simply can't make any 
plans. But by the next post I hope to be able to let you 
know % p eu prfa. Well, I must close, for I must be off 
to the Countess Schonborn. After the concert yesterday 
the ladies kept me at the piano for a whole hour. I believe 
that if I had not stolen away I should be sitting there still. 
I thought I had really played enough for nothing. Adieu. 
I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace my 
sister with all my heart and am ever your most obedient 


P.S. My greetings to all my good friends. I embrace 
young Marchand l most cordially. Please ask my sister, 
when she happens to be writing to Mile Hepp, to be so 
good as to give her a thousand compliments from me 
and to tell her that the reason why I have not written 
to her for so long is that I should have had to tell her not 
to reply until I wrote to her again. Thus, as I could 
not say anything else in my second letter, I should 
never have received a letter from her in Vienna (my 
future plans being so uncertain) and that would have 
been intolerable to me. Whereas, as things are, I have no 
right to expect one. I shall write to her before I leave. 

1 Heinrich Marchand (1770- ? ), son of Theobald Marchand (1741- 
1800), theatrical manager in Munich. In 1781 Leopold Mozart took him 
and his sister Margarete, aged fourteen, into his house and gave them their 
musical education. Margarete, who in 1790 married Franz Danzi (1763- 
1826), the 'cellist and composer, became an excellent operatic singer at 
Munich. Heinrich became a fine violinist and clavierist a.nd later obtained 
an appointment at Regensburg. 



(401) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER P^RE! VlENNE, ce 9 de maj, 1781 

I am still seething with rage! And you, my dearest 
and most beloved father, are doubtless in the same con 
dition. My patience has been so long tried that at last it 
has given out. I am no longer so unfortunate as to be in 
Salzburg service. To-day is a happy day for me. Just listen. 
Twice already that I don't know what to call him 
has said to my face the greatest sottises and impertin 
ences , which I have not repeated to you, as I wished to 
spare your feelings, and for which I only refrained from 
taking my revenge on the spot because you, my most 
beloved father, were ever before my eyes. He called me a 
(rascal) and a (dissolute fellow) and told me to be off. 
And I endured it all, although I felt that not only my 
honour but yours also was being attacked. But, as you 
would have it so, I was silent. Now listen to this. A week 
ago the footman came up unexpectedly and told me to 
clear out that very instant. All the others had been in 
formed of the day of their departure, but not I. Well, I 
shoved everything into my trunk in haste, and old 
Madame Weber 1 has been good enough to take me into 
her house, where I have a pretty room. Moreover, I am 

1 The widow of Fridolin Weber. Her second daughter Aloysia had obtained 
in September 1779 an appointment at the German Opera in Vienna, and the 
whole family had migrated from Munich to the Imperial capital. Fridolin 
Weber died during the following month, and Aloysia in 1780 married the 
actor Josef Lange. Frau Weber, who had moved with her family to a house 
Am Peter, called the "Auge Gottes", where they occupied the second floor, 
decided to let some vacant rooms to lodgers. Mozart went to live there on 
May 2nd, 1781. For a detailed account of Frau Weber's life and Mozart's 
relations with her, see Blumml, pp. 10-20. See also a short article in MM, 
November 1918, pp. 9-12, and an excellent character-study by Arthur 
Schurig, Konstanze Mozart ', 1922, p. xxi ff. 



living with people who are obliging and who supply me 
with all the things which one often requires in a hurry and 
which one cannot have when one is living alone. I 
decided to travel home by the ordinaire on Wednesday, 
that is, to-day, May gth. But as I could not collect the 
money still due to me within that time, I postponed my 
departure until Saturday. When I presented myself to 
day, the valets informed me that the Archbishop wanted to 
give me a parcel to take charge of. I asked whether it was 
urgent. They told me, "Yes, it is of the greatest import 
ance". "Well," said I, "I am sorry that I cannot have the 
privilege of serving His Grace, for (on account of the reason 
mentioned above) I cannot leave before Saturday. I have 
left this house, and must live at my own expense. So it is 
evident that I cannot leave Vienna until I am in a position 
to do so. For surely no one will ask me to ruin myself." 
Kleinmayr, Moll, Bonike and the two valets, all said that 
I was perfectly right. When I went in to the Archbishop 
that reminds me, I must tell you first of all that (Schlauka 1 ) 
advised me to (make the excuse) that the (ordinaire was 
already full,) a reason which would carry more weight 
with him than if I gave him the true one, well, when I 
entered the room, his first words were: Archbishop*. "Well, 
young fellow, when are you going off?" /: "I intended 
to go to-night, but all the seats were already engaged." 
Then he rushed full steam ahead, without pausing for 
breath I was the <most dissolute fellow he knew no 
one) served him so badly as I did I had better leave to 
day or else he would write home and have my {salary) 
stopped. I couldn't get a word in edgeways, for he 
blazed away like a fire. I listened to it all very calmly. He 
lied to my face that my salary was five hundred gulden, 2 

1 One of the Archbishop's valets. 

a According to Mozart's certificate of appointment as court organist his 
salary was 450 gulden. See Abert, vol. ii. p. 906. , 

1082 TV-'' 

1 .6 


called me (a scoundrel, a rascal, a vagabond.) Oh, I 
really cannot tell you all he said. At last my blood began 
to boil, I could no longer contain myself and I said, "So 
Your Grace is not satisfied with me?" "What, you dare to 
threaten me you (scoundrel?) There is the (door!) Look 
out, for I will have nothing more to do with such (a 
miserable wretch.)" At last I said: "Nor I with you!" 
"Well, be off!" 1 When leaving the room, I said "This is 
final. You shall have it to-morrow in writing." Tell me 
now, most beloved father, did I not say the word too late 
rather than too soon? Just listen for a moment. My honour 
is more precious to me than anything else and I know that 
it is so to you also. Do not be the least bit anxious about 
me. I am so sure of my success in Vienna that I would 
have resigned even without the slightest reason; and 
now that I have a very good reason and that too thrice 
over I cannot make a virtue of it. Au contraire, I had 
twice played the coward and I could not do so a third 

As long as (the Archbishop) remains here, I shall not 
(give a concert.) You are altogether mistaken if you think 
that I shall (get a bad name with the Emperor and the 
nobility,) for (the Archbishop) is detested here and (most 
of all by the Emperor.) In fact, he is furious because the 
Emperor did not invite him to Laxenburg. By the next 
post I shall send you a little (money) to show you that I 
am not starving. Now please be cheerful, for my good 
luck is just beginning, and I trust that my good luck will 
be yours also. Write to me (in cypher) that you are 
pleased and indeed you may well be so (but in public 
rail at me as much as you like, so that none of the blame 
may fall on you. But if, in spite of this, the Archbishop 
should be the slightest bit impertinent to you,) come at 

1 Throughout this conversation, as reported by Mozart, the Archbishop 
used the contemptuous form of address "Er". 



once with my (sister to Vienna, for I give you my word of 
honour that there is enough for all three of us to live on.) 
Still, I should prefer it if you could (hold out) for another 
year. Do not send any more letters to the Deutsches Haus, 1 
nor enclose them in their parcels I want to hear nothing 
more about Salzburg. I hate the Archbishop to madness. 
Adieu. I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace 
my dear sister with all my heart and am ever your 
obedient son 


Just address your letters: 

To be delivered Auf dem Peter, im Auge Gottes, 

2nd Floor. 2 

(Please inform me soon of your approval, for that is the 
only thing which is still wanting to my present happiness.) 

(402) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 12 de may, 1781 

You will know from my last letter that I have asked 
the Prince for my discharge, because he himself has told 
me to go. 3 For already in the two previous audiences he 
said to me: "Clear out of this, if you will not serve me 
properly". He will deny it, of course, but all the same it is 
as true as that God is in His Heaven. Is it any wonder 
then if, after being roused to fury by "knave, scoundrel, 

1 Mozart's quarters while he was in the Archbishop's service. 

2 Frau Weber's apartments, where she let vacant rooms to lodgers. The 
house "Zum Auge Gottes" still exists. It is Am Peter no. n. See Abert, 
vol. ii. p. 1035. 

3 For a good study of the reign of 4rc,hbishop Hieronymus Cplloredo, who, 
despite the autocratic and somewhat ruthless methods he adopted to carry out 
his reforms, appears to have had certain redeeming qualities, see Hans Wid- 
mann, GeschichteSalzburgs(Gvt\& t 1914), vol. iii. pp. 460-556. For an account 
of the Mozarts' relations with the Archbishop, see Abert, vol. i. p. 357 f. 



rascal, dissolute fellow", and other similar dignified ex 
pressions uttered by a Prince, I at last took u Clear out of 
this" in its literal sense? On the following day I gave 
Count Arco a petition to present to His Grace, and I 
returned my travelling expenses, which consisted of fifteen 
gulden, forty kreutzer for the diligence, and two ducats 
for my keep. He refused to take either and assured me 
that I could not resign without your consent, my father. 
"That is your duty," said he. I retorted that I knew my 
duty to my father as well as he did and possibly better, 
and that I should be very sorry if I had to learn it first 
from him. "Very well," he replied, "if he is satisfied, you 
can ask for your discharge; if not, you can ask for it all 
the same." A pretty distinction! All the edifying things 
which the Archbishop said to me during my three 
audiences, particularly during the last one, all the sub 
sequent remarks which this fine servant of God made to 
me, had such an excellent effect on my health that in the 
evening I was obliged to leave the opera in the middle of 
the first act and go home and lie down. For I was very 
feverish, I was trembling in every limb, and I was 
staggering along the street like a drunkard. I also stayed 
at home the following day, yesterday, and spent the morn 
ing in bed, as I had taken tamarind water. 

The Count has also been so kind as to write very 
flattering things about me to his father, 1 all of which you 
will probably have had to swallow by now. They will 
certainly contain some astounding passages. But who 
ever writes a comedy and wants to win applause, must 
exaggerate a little and not stick too closely to the truth. 
Besides, you must remember how very anxious these 
gentlemen are to serve the Archbishop. 

Well, without losing my temper (for my health and my 
life are very precious to me and I am only sorry when 

1 Count Georg Anton Felix Arco, Chief Chamberlain to the Archbishop. 



circumstances force me to get angry) I just want to set 
down the chief accusation which was brought against me 
in respect of my service. I did not know that I was a valet 
and that was the last straw. I ought to have idled away 
a couple of hours every morning in the antechamber. True, 
I was often told that I ought to present myself, but I could 
never remember that this was part of my duty, and I only 
turned up punctually whenever the Archbishop sent for me. 

I will now confide to you very briefly my inflexible 
determination, but so that the whole world may hear 
it. If I were offered a salary of 2000 gulden by the 
Archbishop of Salzburg and only 1000 gulden somewhere 
else, I should still take the second offer. For instead of the 
extra 1000 gulden I should enjoy good health and peace 
of mind. I trust, therefore, by all the fatherly love which 
you have lavished on me so richly from my childhood and 
for which I can never thank you enough (though indeed I 
can show it least of all in Salzburg), that, if you wish to 
see your son well and happy, you will say nothing to me 
about this affair and that you will bury it in the deepest 
oblivion. For one word about it would suffice to embitter 
me again and if you will only admit it to fill you too 
with bitterness. 

Now farewell, and be glad that your son is no coward. 
I kiss your hands a thousand times, embrace my sister 
with all my heart and am ever your most obedient son 


(403) Mozart to his Father 

\Autografh in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PRE! VlENNE, ce 12 de may, 1781 

In the letter you received by post I spoke to you as 

<if we were in the presence of the Archbishop, but now 



I am going to talk to you, my dearest father, as if we 
were quite alone.) I shall say nothing whatever about all 
the injustice with which the Archbishop has treated me 
from the very beginning of his reign l until now, of the 
incessant abuse, of all the impertinences and sottises which 
he has uttered to my face, of my undeniable right to 
leave him for that cannot be disputed. I shall only speak 
of what would have induced me to leave him even without 
any cause of offence. I have here the finest and most useful 
acquaintances in the world. I am liked and respected by 
the greatest families. All possible honour is shown me and 
I am paid into the bargain. So why should I pine away 
in Salzburg for the sake of 400 gulden, 2 linger on without 
remuneration or encouragement and be of no use to you 
in any way, when I can certainly help you here? What 
would be the end of it? Always the same. I should have 
to endure one insult after another or go away again. I 
need say no more, for you know it yourself. But this I 
must tell you, (that everyone in Vienna has already heard 
my story. All the nobility are urging me not to let myself 
be made a fool of.) Dearest father, people (will come to 
you with fair words, but they are serpents and vipers.) 
All base people are thus disgustingly proud and 
haughty, (yet always ready to crawl.) How horrible! 
The two (private valets have seen through the whole 
swinishness), and Schlauka in particular said to someone: 
"As for me, (I really cannot think that Mozart is wrong 
in fact, I think he is quite right. I should like to have seen 
the Archbishop treat me in the same way. Why, he spoke 
to him as if he were some beggarly fellow.) I heard him 
(infamous it was!" The Archbishop acknowledges that he 
has been unjust,) but has he not had frequent occasion to 
(acknowledge it?) Has he (reformed?) Not a bit. $o let us 
have done with him. If I had (not been afraid of injuring 
1 April 1772. * Seep, 1082, n. 2. 



you,) things would have been <on a very different footing) 
long ago. But after all what can he <do to you? Nothing. 
Once you know that all is going well with me, you can 
easily dispense with the Archbishop's favour. He cannot 
deprive you of your salary, and besides you always do 
your duty.) I pledge myself (to succeed.) Otherwise I 
(should never have taken this step,) although I must 
confess that after that insult, I should have gone off even 
if I had had to beg. For who will let himself be bullied, 
especially when he can do far better? So, if you (are 
afraid, pretend to be angry with me, scold me roundly in 
your letters, provided that we two know how things really 
are between us. But do not let yourself be won over by 
flatteries and be on your guard.) Adieu. I kiss your 
hands a thousand times and embrace my dear sister with 
all my heart. By the next occasion I shall send you the 
portrait, 1 the ribbons, the fichu and everything else. Adieu. 
I am ever your most obedient son 


My compliments to all Salzburg, and especially to 
Katherl and Marchand. 

(404) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 1 6 de may, 1781 

I could hardly have supposed otherwise than that in 
the heat of the moment you would have written just such 
a letter as I have been obliged to read, for the event must 
have taken you by surprise (especially as you were 
actually expecting my arrival). But by this time you must 

1 If this is a portrait of Mozart, it has completely disappeared. Possibly 
it was a portrait of his father, painted by Madame Rosa. See Letter 413. 



From an engraving by J. E. Mansfeld after a portrait by Josef Lange 
(Nationalbibliothek, Vienna) 


have considered the matter more carefully and, as a man 
of honour, you must feel the insult more strongly, and 
must know and realise that (what you have thought likely 
to happen, has happened already. It is always more diffi 
cult to get away in Salzburg, for there he is lord and 
master, but here he is a nobody, an underling, just as I 
am in his eyes.) Besides, pray believe me when I say that 
I know you and know (the strength of my affection) for 
you. Even if (the Archbishop had given me another two 
hundred gulden,) and I I had agreed we should 
have had the (same old story) over again. Believe me, 
most beloved father, I need all my manliness to write to 
you what common sense dictates. God knows how hard it 
is for me to leave you; but, even if I had to beg, I could 
never serve such a master again; for, as long as I live, I 
shall never forget what has happened, I implore you, I 
adjure you, by all you hold dear in this world, to strengthen 
me in this resolution instead of trying to dissuade me from 
it, for if you do you will only make me unproductive. (My 
desire and my hope is to gain honour, fame and money,) 
and I have every confidence that I shall be (more useful to 
you in Vienna than if I were to return to Salzburg. The 
road to Prague) 1 is now less closed to me than (if I were in 
Salzburg.) What you (say about the Webers,) I do assure 
you is not true. I was a fool, I admit, about Aloysia 
Lange, 2 but what does not a man do (when he is in love?) 
Indeed I loved her truly, and even now I feel that she is 
not a matter of indifference to me. It is, therefore, a good 
thing, for me that her husband is a jealous fool and lets 
her go nowhere, so that I seldom have an opportunity of 

1 Through his friendship with the Duscheks Mozart had already established 
a connection with Prague, which was renowned for its musical activities. 

* Aloysia Weber had married in October 1780 Josef Lange (1751-1831), 
an excellent actor and a talented portrait-painter. For an interesting account 
of Lange's connection with the Webers see Bliimml, p. 21 f. 

VOL. Ill 1089 * D 


seeing her. Believe me when I say that (old Madame 
Weber is a very obliging woman) and that I cannot do 
enough for her in return for her kindness, as unfortun 
ately I have no time to do so. Well, I am longing for a 
letter from you, my dearest and most beloved father. 
Cheer up your son, for it is only the thought of dis 
pleasing you that can make him unhappy in his very 
promising circumstances. Adieu. A thousand farewells. 
I am ever, and I kiss your hands a thousand times as, 
your most obedient son 

W. A. MZT. 

P.S. If you should imagine that I am staying here 
merely out of hatred for Salzburg and an unreasonable 
love for Vienna, then make enquiries. Herr von (Strack, 1 ) 
a very good friend of mine, will, as a man of honour, 
certainly tell you the truth. 

(405) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER P&RE! VlENNE, ce 1 9 de may, 1781 

I too do not know how to begin this letter, 2 my 
dearest father, for I have not yet recovered from my 
astonishment and shall never be able to do so, if you 
continue to think and to write as you do. I must confess 
that there is not a single touch in your letter by which I 
recognise my father! I see a father, indeed, but not that 
most beloved and most loving father, who cares for his 
own honour and for that of his children in short, not my 
father. But it must have been a dream. You are awake 
now and need no reply from me to your points in order to 

1 Joseph von Strack, an influential chamberlain of the Emperor Joseph II. 
* Mozart is obviously quoting the opening sentence of his father's last 



be fully convinced that now more than ever I can 
never abandon my resolve. Yet, because in certain 
passages my honour and my character are most cruelly 
assailed, I must reply to these points. You say that you 
can never approve of my having tendered my resignation 
while I was in Vienna. 1 I should have thought that if I 
wished to do so (although at the time I did not, or I 
should have done so on the first occasion) the most 
sensible thing was to do it in a place where I had a good 
standing and the finest prospects in the world. It is pos 
sible that you will not approve this in the presence of 
the Archbishop, but to me you cannot but applaud my 
action. You say that the only way to save my honour is 
to abandon my resolve. How can you perpetrate such a 
contradiction! When you wrote this you surely did not 
bear in mind that such a recantation would prove me to be 
the basest fellow in the world. All Vienna knows that 
I have left the Archbishop, and all Vienna knows the 
reason! Everyone knows that it was because my honour 
was insulted and, what is more, insulted three times. 
And am I publicly to prove the contrary? Am I to make 
myself out to be a cowardly sneak and the Archbishop a 
worthy prince? No one would like to do the former, and I 
least of all; and the latter God alone can accomplish, if it 
be His will to enlighten him. You say that I have never 
shown you any affection and therefore ought now to show 
it for the first time. Can you really say this? You add that 
I will never sacrifice any of my pleasures for your sake. 
But what pleasures have I here? The pleasure of taking 
trouble and pains to fill my purse? You seem to think that 

1 From now on Mozart, feeling that he has completely shaken off the Arch 
bishop's fetters, ceases to use cypher, except on very rare occasions. That the 
Archbishop still continued to read his letters is evident from occasional 
references in Leopold Mozart's letters to Nannerl after her marriage in 
1784. See Deutsch-Paumgartner: Leopold Mozarts Brief e an seine TochUr, 
1936, p. 241 f. 



I am revelling in pleasures and amusements. Oh, how 
you deceive yourself indeed! That is, as to the present 
for at present I have only just as much money as I need. 
But the subscription for my six sonatas 1 has been started 
and then I shall have some money. It is all right, too, 
about the opera, 2 and in Advent I am to give a concert; 
then things will continue to improve, for in the winter 
season a fine sum can be made here. If you call it 
pleasure to be rid of a prince, who does not pay a 
fellow and bullies him to death, then it is true that my 
pleasure is great. If I were to do nothing but think and 
work from early morning till late at night, I would gladly 
do so, rather than depend upon the favour of such a I 
dare not call him by his right name. I have been forced 
to take this step, so I cannot deviate from my course by 
a hair's breadth it is quite impossible! All that I can 
say to you is this, that on your account but solely on 
your account, my father I am very sorry that I was 
driven to take this step, and that I wish that the Arch 
bishop had acted more judiciously, if only in order that 
I might have been able to devote my whole life to you. 
To please you, my most beloved father, I would sacrifice 
my happiness, my health and my life. But my honour 
that I prize, and you too must prize it, above everything. 
You may show this to Count Arco and to all Salzburg 
too. After that insult, that threefold insult, were the 
Archbishop to offer me 1200 gulden in person, I would 
not accept them. I am no skunk, no rascal; and, had it 
not been for you, I should not have waited for him to say 
to me for the third time, "Clear out of this" , without 
taking him at his word! What am I saying? Waited! Why, 

1 K. 296, written in 1778 at Mannheim for Mozart's pupil Therese 
Pierron Serrarius, and K. 376-380, four of which were written in 1781. 
These are violin and clavier sonatas, which Mozart subsequently dedicated 
to his pupil Josephine Aurnhammer. They were published in November 
1781 by Artaria and Co. 3 See p. 1078. 



I should have said it, and not he\ I am only surprised that 
the Archbishop should have behaved with so little dis 
cretion, particularly in a place like Vienna! Well, he will 
see that he has made a mistake. Prince Breuner and 
Count Arco need the Archbishop, but I do not; and if 
the worst comes to the worst and he forgets all the duties 
of a prince of a spiritual prince then come and join me 
in Vienna. You can get four hundred gulden anywhere. 
Just imagine how he would disgrace himself in the eyes 
of the Emperor, who already hates him, if he were to do 
that! My sister too would get on much better in Vienna 
than in Salzburg. There are many distinguished families 
here who hesitate to engage a male teacher, but would 
give handsome terms to a woman. Well, all these things 
may happen some day. By the next occasion, it may 
be when Herr von Kleinmayr, Bonike or Zetti go to 
Salzburg, I shall send you a sum with which to pay the 
debt to which you refer. The controleur, who left to-day, 
will bring the lawn for my sister. Dearest, most beloved 
father, ask of me what you will, only not that anything 
but that the mere thought of it makes me tremble with 
rage. Adieu. I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
embrace my sister with all my heart and am ever your 
most obedient son 


(406) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 
VIENNA, May 26th. VIENNE, ce 6 de may, 1781 * 


You are quite right, and I am quite right too, my 
dearest father! I know and am aware of all my faults; but 

1 The double dating of the autograph is explained by the fact that Mozart 
used a sheet of paper on which he had begun a letter to his father on May 6th. 



is it impossible for a man to reform? May he not have 
reformed already? The more I consider the whole ques 
tion, the more I realise that the best way for me to serve 
myself and you, my most beloved father, as well as my 
dear sister, is to stay in Vienna. It seems as if good 
fortune is about to welcome me here, and now I feel that 
I must stay. Indeed, I felt that when I left Munich. With 
out knowing why, I looked forward most eagerly to 
Vienna. You must be patient for a little while longer and 
then I shall be able to prove to you how useful Vienna is 
going to be to us all. Believe me when I say that I have 
changed completely. Apart from my health I now think 
that there is nothing so indispensable as money. I am 
certainly no skinflint and it would be very difficult for me 
to become one. Yet people here think that I am more dis 
posed to be mean than to spend freely and surely that 
is enough to begin with. As for pupils, I can have as many 
as I want, but I do not choose to take many. I intend to 
be paid better than others, and so I prefer to have fewer 
pupils. It is advisable to get on your high horse a little 
at first, otherwise you are done for and must follow the 
common highway with the rest. The subscription I is 
going on well; and as for the opera I don't know why I 
should hesitate. Count Rosenberg, 2 on the two occasions 
when I called on him, received me most politely; and he 
heard my opera 3 at Countess Thun's, when Van Swieten 4 

1 For his violin and clavier sonatas. See p. 1092, n. i. 

2 Cp. p. 1063, n. 3. 

3 "Idomeneo". 

4 Baron Gottfried van Swieten (1734-1803), son of the Empress Maria 
Theresa's famous private physician Gerhard van Swieten, was born in 
Leyden and taken to Vienna in 1745. In *768 he accompanied the Duke of 
Braganza on his many travels, then entered the Austrian diplomatic service 
and was Imperial Ambassador at Brussels, Paris, Warsaw, and from 1771 to 
1778 in Berlin, where he had ample opportunity of indulging his great love 
of music. In 1778 he returned to Vienna and was made Director of the Court 
Library, and in 1781 President of the Court Commission on Education. His 
house was the meeting-place of writers, artists and musicians, and it was 



and Herr von Sonnenfels 1 were also present. And as 
(Stephanie) is a good friend of mine, everything is pro 
gressing satisfactorily. Believe me when I say that I do 
not like to be idle but to work. I confess that in Salzburg 
work was a burden to me and that I could hardly ever 
settle down to it. But why? Because I was never happy. 
You yourself must admit that in Salzburg for me at 
least there is not a farthing's worth of entertainment. / 
refuse to associate with a good many people there and 
most of the others do not think me good enough. Besides, 
there is no stimulus for my talent! When I play or when 
any of my compositions are performed, it is just as if the 
audience were all tables and chairs. If only there were 
even a tolerably good theatre in Salzburg! For in Vienna 
my sole amusement is the theatre. It is true that in 
Munich, without wishing to do so, I put myself in a 
false light as far as you were concerned, for I amused 
myself too much. But I swear to you on my honour that 
until the first performance of my opera 2 1 had never been 
to a theatre, or gone anywhere but to the Cannabichs'. 
It is true that during the last few days I had to compose 
the greater and most difficult part of my opera; yet this 
was not from laziness or negligence but because I had 
spent a fortnight without writing a note, simply because 
I found it impossible to do so. Of course I composed a 
lot, but wrote down nothing. I admit that I lost a great 
deal of time in this way, but I do not regret it. That I was 
afterwards too gay was only due to youthful folly. I 
thought to myself, where are you going to? To Salzburg! 

there that Mozart deepened his knowledge particularly of Handel and 
Johann Sebastian Bach. See Abert, vol. ii. p. 86, and an article by R. 
Bernhardt in Der Bar, 1929-1930, pp. 74-166. 

1 Josef von Sonnenfels (1733-1817), Professor at the University of Vienna, 
was a well-known dramatist and writer and a leader of the "Aufklarung" 
in Austria. He is commonly known as the "Austrian Lessing". 

2 "Idomeneo", the first performance of which was on January 29th, 1781. 



Well, you must have a good time. It is quite certain that 
when I am in Salzburg I long for a hundred amuse 
ments, but here not for a single one. For just to be in 
Vienna is in itself entertainment enough. Do have con 
fidence in me; I am no longer a fool, and still less can you 
believe that I am either a godless or an ungrateful son. 
So rely absolutely on my brains and my good heart, and 
you will never regret it. Why, where could I have learnt 
the value of money, when up to the present I have had 
so little to handle? All I know is that once when I had 
twenty ducats, I considered myself wealthy. Necessity 
alone teaches one to value money. 

Farewell, dearest, most beloved father! My duty now 
is to make good and to replace by my care and industry 
what you think you have lost by this affair. This I shall 
certainly do and with a thousand thrills of delight. Adieu. 
I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace my sister 
with all my heart, and am ever your most obedient son 


P.S. So soon as one of the Archbishop's people goes 
to Salzburg, I shall send the portrait. Ho fatto fare la 
soprascritta da un altro espressamente, perche non si pu6 
sapere I for who would trust a knave? 

My greetings to all my acquaintances. 

(407) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

VIENNA, between May 26th and June 2nd> 1781 

The day before yesterday Count Arco sent me a 
message to call on him at noon, saying that he would 

1 I have got somebody else to write the address on purpose, for you never 
can tell. 



expect me at that hour. He has often sent me this kind 
of message, and so has Schlauka. But as I detest dis 
cussions, in which every word to which I have to listen 
is a lie, I have always avoided going. And this time too I 
should have done the same, if he had not added that he 
had had a letter from you. I therefore went. It would be 
impossible to repeat the whole conversation, which was 
conducted in a very calm tone and, at my urgent request, 
without irritation on either side. In short, he put every 
thing before me in so friendly a manner that really I could 
have sworn that what he said came altogether from his 
heart. I think, however, that he would not be prepared to 
swear that the same was true of myself. In answer to his 
plausible speeches I told him the whole truth with all 
possible calmness and courtesy and in the most charming 
manner in the world; and he could not find a word to say 
against it. The result was that I tried to make him take 
my memorandum and my travelling expenses, both of 
which I had brought with me. But he assured me that it 
would be too distressing for him to interfere in this matter 
and that I had better give the document to one of the 
valets; and as for the money, he would not take it until the 
whole affair was settled. The Archbishop runs me down 
to everyone here and has not the sense to see that such a 
proceeding does him no credit; for I am more highly 
respected in Vienna than he is. He is only known as a 
presumptuous, conceited ecclesiastic, who despises every 
one here, whereas I am considered a very amiable person. 
It is true that I become proud when I see that someone is 
trying to treat me with contempt and en bagatelle] and 
that is the way in which the Archbishop invariably treats 
me; whereas by kind words he could have made me do 
as he pleased. I told this too to the Count and added 
among other things that the Archbishop did not deserve 
the good opinion you had of him. And towards the end I 



said: "Besides, what good would it do, if I were to go 
home now? In a few months' time and even if I did not 
receive any fresh insult, I should still ask for my discharge, 
for I cannot and will not serve any longer for such a 
salary/' "And pray why not?" "Because", said I, "I 
could never live happily and contentedly in a place where 
I am so badly paid that I am constantly thinking, 'Ah, if 
only I were there! or there!' But if I were paid such a 
salary that I should not be tempted to think of other 
places, then I should be perfectly satisfied. And if the 
Archbishop chooses to pay me that salary, well, then, I 
am ready to set off to-day." But how delighted I am that 
the Archbishop does not take me at my word! For there 
is no doubt, as you will see, that my being here is both to 
your advantage and to my own. Now farewell, my dearest, 
most beloved father. All will go well yet. I am not writing 
in a dream, for my own welfare also depends on it. Adieu. 
I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace my 
dearest sister most cordially and am ever your most 
obedient son 


P.S. My compliments to all my good friends. 

(408) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 

MON TRS CHER P^Rs! VlENNE, ce 2 de juin, 1781 

You will have gathered from my last letter that I 
have spoken to Count Arco himself. Praise and thanks be 
to God that everything has passed off so well! Do not be 
anxious; you have nothing whatever (to fear) from (the 
Archbishop,) for Count Arco did not say a single word 
to suggest that I ought to take care or the affair {might 



injure you.} When he told me that you had written to him 
and had complained bitterly about me, I immediately 
interrupted him and said: "And have / not heard from 
him too? He has written to me in such a strain that / have 
often thought I should go crazy. But> however much I re 
flect, I simply cannot, etc'' Upon which he said: "Believe 
me, you allow yourself to be far too easily dazzled in 
Vienna. A man's reputation here lasts a very short time. 
At first, it is true, you are overwhelmed with praises and 
make a great deal of money into the bargain but how 
long does that last? After a few months the Viennese want 
something new/' "You are right, Count/' I replied. 
"But do you suppose that I mean to settle in Vienna? 
Not at all. I know where I shall go. That this affair should 
have occurred in Vienna is the Archbishop's fault and not 
mine. If he knew how to treat people of talent, it would 
never have happened. I am the best-tempered fellow in 
the world, Count Arco, provided that people are the same 
with me." "Well," he said, "the Archbishop considers 
you a dreadfully conceited person." "I daresay he does," 
I rejoined, "and indeed I am so towards him. I treat 
people as they treat me. When I see that someone despises 
me and treats me with contempt, I can be as proud as a 
peacock." Among other things he asked me whether I did 
not think that he too often had to swallow very disagree 
able words. I shrugged my shoulders and said: "You no 
doubt have your reasons for putting up with it, and I 
have my reasons for refusing to do so". All the rest you 
will know from my last letter. Do not doubt, dearest and 
most beloved father, that everything will certainly turn 
out for my good and consequently for yours also. It is 
perfectly true that the Viennese are apt to change their 
affections, but only in the theatre] and my special line is 
too popular not to enable me to support myself. Vienna 
is certainly the land of the clavier! And, even granted that 



they do get tired of me, they will not do so for a few years, 
certainly not before then. In the meantime I shall have 
gained both honour and money. There are many other 
places; and who can tell what opportunities may not occur 
before then? Through Herr von Zetti, to whom I have 
already spoken, I am sending you a small sum. You must 
be content with very little this time, for I cannot let you 
have more than thirty ducats. Had I foreseen this event, 
I should have taken the pupils who wanted to come to 
me. But at that time I thought I should be leaving in a 
week, and now they are in the country. The portrait will 
also follow. 1 If Zetti cannot take it, I shall send it by the 
mail coach. Now farewell, dearest, most beloved father. I 
kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace my sister 
with all my heart and am ever your most obedient son 


My greetings to all my good friends. I shall reply to 
Ceccarelli shortly. 

(409) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 9 dejuin y 1781 

Well, Count Arco has made a nice mess of things! 
So that is the way to persuade people and to attract them! 
To refuse petitions from innate stupidity, not to say a 
word to your master from lack of courage and love of 
toadyism, to keep a fellow dangling about for four weeks, 
and finally, when he is obliged to present the petition in 
person, instead of at least granting him admittance, to 
throw him out of the room and give him a kick on his 
behind that is the Count, who, according to your last 

1 See p. 1088, n. i. 
1 100 


letter, has my interest so much at heart and that is the 
court where I ought to go on serving the place where 
whoever wants to make a written application, instead of 
having its delivery facilitated, is treated in this fashion! 
The scene took place in the antechamber. So the only 
thing to do was to decamp and take to my heels for, 
although Arco had already done so, I did not wish to 
show disrespect to the Prince's apartments. I have written 
three memoranda, which I have handed in five times; and 
each time they have been thrown back at me. I have care 
fully preserved them, and whoever wishes to read them 
may do so and convince himself that they do not contain 
the slightest personal remark. When at last I was handed 
back my memorandum in the evening through Herr von 
Kleinmayr (for that is his office), I was beside myself with 
rage, as the Archbishop's departure was fixed for the 
following day. I could not let him leave thus and, as I 
had heard from Arco (or so at least he had told me) that 
the Prince knew nothing about it, I realised how angry 
he would be with me for staying on so long and then at 
the very last moment appearing with a petition of this 
kind. I therefore wrote another memorandum, in which I 
explained to the Archbishop that it was now four weeks 
since I had drawn up a petition, but, finding myself for 
some unknown reason always put off, I was now obliged 
to present it to him in person, though at the very last 
moment. This memorandum procured me my dismissal 
from his service in the most pleasant way imaginable. 
For who knows whether the whole thing was not done at 
the command of the Archbishop himself? If Herr von 
Kleinmayr still wishes to maintain the character of an 
honest man, he can testify, as can also the Archbishop's 
servants, that his command was carried out. So now I 
need not send in any petition, for the affair is at an end. 
I do not want to write anything more on the subject, and 



if the Archbishop were to offer me a salary of 1200 gulden, 
I would not accept it after such treatment. How easy it 
would have been to persuade me to remain! By kindness, 
but not by insolence and rudeness. I sent a message to 
Count Arco saying that I had nothing more to say to him. 
For he went for me 50 rudely when I first saw him and 
treated me as if I were a rogue, which he had no right 
to do. And by Heaven! as I have already told you, I 
would not have gone to him the last time, if in his message 
he had not added that he had had a letter from you. Well, 
that will be the last time. What is it to him if I wish to 
get my discharge? And if he was really so well disposed 
towards me, he ought to have reasoned quietly with me 
or have let things take their course, rather than throw 
such words about as "clown" and "knave" and hoof a 
fellow out of the room with a kick on his arse; but I am. 
forgetting that this was probably done by order of our 
worthy Prince Archbishop. 

I shall reply very briefly to your letter, for I am so sick 
of the whole affair that I never want to hear anything 
more about it. In view of the original cause of my leaving 
(which you know well), no father would dream of being 
angry with his son; on the contrary, he would be angry if 
his son had not left. Still less ought you to have been angry, 
{as you knew that even without any particular cause I 
definitely wanted to leave. Really, you cannot be in 
earnest;) and I am therefore led to suppose that (you are 
driven to adopt this attitude on account of the court.) 
B ut I beg you, most beloved father, <not to cringe too much; 
for the Archbishop cannot do you any harm.) Let him 
try! I almost wish he would; for that would be a deed, a 
fresh deed, (which would ruin him completely with the 
Emperor, who, as it is, not only does not like him, but 
positively detests him.) If after (such treatment you were 
to come to Vienna and tell the story to the Emperor,) 



you would at all events receive (from him the salary you 
are drawing at present,) for in such cases (the Emperor) 
behaves most admirably. Your comparison of me to 
Madame Lange I positively amazed me and made me 
feel distressed for the rest of the day. That girl lived on her 
parents as long as she could earn nothing for herself. But 
as soon as the time came when she could show them her 
gratitude (remember that her father died before she had 
earned anything in Vienna), 2 she deserted her poor 
mother, attached herself to an actor and married him and 
her mother has never had a farthing from her. Good God! 
He knows that my sole aim is to help you and to help us 
all. Must I repeat it a hundred times that I can be of more 
use to you here than in Salzburg? I implore you, dearest, 
most beloved father, for the future to spare me such letters. 
I entreat you to do so, for they only irritate my mind and 
disturb my heart and spirit; and I, who must now keep on 
composing, need a cheerful mind and a calm disposition. 
The Emperor is not here, nor is Count Rosenberg. The 
latter has commissioned Schroder 3 (the eminent actor) 
to look around for a good libretto and to give it to me to 

Herr von Zetti has had to leave unexpectedly by com 
mand and has set off so very early that I can neither send 
the portrait, nor the ribbons for my sister, nor the other 
thing you know of 4 until to-morrow week by the mail 

Now farewell, dearest, most beloved father! I kiss your 
hands a thousand times and embrace my dear sister most 
cordially and am ever your most obedient son 


1 Aloysia Weber. See p. 1089, n. 2. 

2 Cp. p. 1081, n. i. 

3 Friedrich Ludwig Schroder (1744-1816), the famous Viennese actor, 
who translated, adapted and produced Shakespeare's plays. 

4 The thirty ducats. See p. uoo. 



(410) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TR&S CHER PRE! VlENNE, ce 13 de Juin, 1781 

Most beloved of all fathers! How gladly would I not 
continue to sacrifice my best years to you in a place where 
I am so badly paid if my salary were the only drawback! 
But to be badly paid and to be scoffed at, despised and 
bullied into the bargain is really too much. For the 
Archbishop's concert I composed a sonata for myself, a 
rondo for Brunetti and one for Ceccarelli. 1 At each concert 
I played twice and the last time when the concert was over 
I went on playing variations 2 (for which the Archbishop 
gave me the theme) for a whole hour and with such 
general applause that if the Archbishop had any vestige 
of humanity, he must have felt delighted. But, instead 
of showing me or not showing me, for all I care his 
pleasure and satisfaction, he treats me like a street urchin 
and tells me to my face to clear out, adding that he can 
-get hundreds to serve him better than I and why? Just 
because I could not set off from Vienna on the very day 
which he had chosen. I had to leave his house, live at my 
own expense and yet not be at liberty to delay my de 
parture until my purse should permit me to travel. Besides, 
I was not needed in Salzburg and the whole difference 
was a matter of two days. The Archbishop on two occa 
sions said the most insulting things to me and I never 
said a word in reply. Nay, what is more, I played at his 
concert with the same zeal and assiduity as if nothing had 
happened; and instead of acknowledging my readiness to 

1 K. 379. 373 and 374. See p. 1072 f. 

2 During the summer of 1781 Mozart wrote three sets of clavier variations, 
two with violin accompaniment, K. 359, 360 and 352. Possibly it was the 
theme of one of these that the Archbishop suggested. 



serve him and my endeavour to please him, he behaves 
for the third time, and at the very moment when I am 
expecting something quite different, in the most disgrace 
ful way imaginable; and, moreover, that I should not be 
in the wrong, but absolutely in the right, he acts as if he 
were resolved to get rid of me by force. Well, if he does 
not want me, that is exactly what I wish. Instead of 
taking my petition or procuring me an audience or 
advising me to send in the document later or persuading 
me to let the matter lie and to consider things more care 
fully, enfin, whatever he wanted Count Arco hurls me 
out of the room and gives me a kick on my behind. Well, 
that means in our language that Salzburg is no longer the 
place for me, except to give me a favourable opportunity 
of returning the Count's kick, even if it should have to be 
in the public street. I am not demanding any satisfaction 
from the Archbishop, for he cannot procure it for me in 
the way in which I intend to obtain it myself. But one of 
these days I shall write to the Count and tell him what 
he may confidently expect from me, as soon as my good 
fortune allows me to meet him, wherever it may be, 
provided it is not in a place that I am bound to respect. 
Do not be anxious, most beloved father, about the welfare 
of my soul. I am as liable to err as any young man, but for 
my own consolation I could wish that all were as free 
from sin as I am. Probably you believe things of me of 
which I am not guilty. My chief fault is that judging by 
appearances I do not always act as I should. It is not 
true that I boasted of eating meat on all fast-days; but I 
did say that I did not scruple to do so or consider it a sin, 
for I take fasting to mean abstaining, that is, eating less 
than usual. I attend mass every Sunday and every holy 
day and, if I can manage it, on weekdays also, and that 
you know, my father. The only association which I had 
with the person of ill repute was at the ball, and I 
VOL. m 1105 E 


talked to her long before I knew what she was, and solely 
because I wanted to be sure of having a partner for the 
contredanse. Afterwards I could not desert her all at once 
without giving her the reason; and who would say such a 
thing to a person's face? But in the end did I not on 
several occasions leave her in the lurch and dance with 
others? On this account too I was positively delighted 
when the carnival was over. Moreover, no one, unless 
he is a liar, can say that I ever saw her anywhere 
else, or went to her house. Do rest assured that I really 
hold to my religion; and should I ever have the misfortune 
(which God forbid!) to fall into evil courses, I shall 
absolve you, my most beloved father, from all responsi 
bility. For in that case I alone should be the villain, as 
I have you to thank for all good things and for both my 
temporal and spiritual welfare and salvation. Well, I 
must close, or I shall miss the post. I kiss your hands a 
thousand times and embrace my sister most cordially and 
am ever your most obedient son 


P.S. My greetings to young Marchand, to Katherl 
and to all my good friends. 

(411) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

MON TRS CHER PRE! VIENNE, ce ibdejuin, 1781 

To-morrow the portrait and the ribbons for my sister 
will sail off to Salzburg. I do not know whether the ribbons 
will be to her taste; but I assure her that they are in the 
latest fashion. If she would like to have some more or 
perhaps some which are not painted, she has only to let 
me know, and if there is anything else which she thinks 



can be got better in Vienna, she has only to write to me. 
I hope that she did not pay for the fichu, as it was paid for 
already. I forgot to mention this when writing, probably 
because I had so much to tell you about that accursed 
affair. I shall remit the money in the way you have 

Well, at last I can tell you something more about 
Vienna. Up to the present I have had to fill my letters 
with that swinish story. Thank God, it is over. The present 
season is, as you know, the worst for anyone who wants to 
make money. The most distinguished families are in the 
country. So all I can do is to work hard in preparation for 
the winter, when I shall have less time to compose. As 
soon as the sonatas are finished, 1 I shall look about for a 
short Italian cantata and set it to music, 2 so that it may be 
produced at the theatre in Advent for my benefit, of 
course. There is a little cunning in this, for then I can 
give it twice and make the same profit each time, since, 
when it is performed for the second time, I shall play 
something on a pianoforte. At present I have only one 
pupil, Countess Rumbeck, 3 Cobenzl's cousin. I could have 
many more, it is true, if I chose to lower my terms, but by 
doing so, I should lose credit. My terms are six ducats for 
twelve lessons and even then I make it clearly understood 
that I am giving them as a favour. I would rather have 
three pupils who pay me well than six who pay badly. 
With this one pupil I can just make both ends meet, and 
that is enough for the present. I simply mention this in 
order that you may not think me guilty of selfishness in 
sending you only thirty ducats. Believe me, I would 
gladly deprive myself of everything, if only I had it! 

1 K. 376, 377 and 380. 

> 2 According to Mozart's letter of August ist, 1781 (see p. 1123), Rossi 
provided the words for this cantata. Nothing more is known of this com 
position. See Kochel, p. 474. 

3 Countess Maria Karoline Thiennes De Rumbeck (1755-1812). 


But things are bound to improve. We must never let 
people know how we really stand financially. 

Well, let us talk about the theatre. I think I mentioned 
the other day that before his departure Count Rosenberg 
commissioned Schroder to hunt up a libretto for me. It 
has now been found, and Stephanie junior, who is manager 
of the opera, has got it. Bergopzoomer, a really good 
friend of Schroder's and of mine, gave me the hint at once. 
So off I went to Stephanie, en forme de visite. For we 
thought it possible that his partiality for Umlauf l might 
make him play me false. This suspicion proved, however, 
quite unfounded. For I heard afterwards that he had 
commissioned someone to ask me to go and see him, as 
there was something he wished to discuss with me. And 
the moment I entered his room, he said: "Ah, you are 
just the very person I wanted to see". The opera is in four 
acts; and he tells me that the first act is exceedingly fine, 
but that the rest is on a much lower level. If Schroder 
allows us to alter it as we think advisable, a good libretto 
can be made out of it. He does not want to give it to the 
management in its present state, that is, until he has 
discussed it with Schroder, as he knows in advance that 
it would be rejected. So the two of them can settle the 
matter between them. After what Stephanie told me, I 
did not express any desire to read it. For, if I do not like 
it, I must say so plainly, or I should be the victim. 
Besides, I do not want to lose the favour of Schroder, 
who has the greatest respect for me. Therefore I can 
always make the excuse that I have not read it. 

Well, I must now explain why we were suspicious of 
Stephanie. I regret to say that the fellow has the worst 

1 Ignaz Umlauf (1746-1796), a popular operatic composer. In 1772 he 
joined the orchestra at the Viennese Opera as viola-player and in 1778, after 
the great success of his light opera "Die Bergknappen", he was made 
musical director of the Opera. In 1789 he was appointed deputy to Salieri 
as conductor of the Imperial court orchestra. 



reputation in Vienna, for he is said to be rude, false and 
slanderous and to treat people most unjustly. But I pay no 
attention to these reports. There may be some truth in 
them, for everyone abuses him. On the other hand, he is in 
great favour with the Emperor. He was most friendly to 
me the very first time we met, and said: "We are old 
friends already and I shall be delighted if it be in my 
power to render you any service". I believe and hope 
too that he himself may write an opera libretto for me. 
Whether he has written his plays alone or with the help 
of others, whether he has plagiarised or created, he still 
understands the stage, and his plays are invariably 
popular. I have only seen two new pieces of his, and these 
are certainly excellent, the first being "Das Loch in der 
Tiire", 1 and the second "Der Oberamtmann und die 
Soldaten". 2 Meanwhile I am going to set the cantata to 
music; for even if I had a libretto, I would not put pen to 
paper, as Count Rosenberg is not here; and if at the last 
moment he did not approve of it, I should have had the 
honour of composing for nothing* None of that for me, 
thank you! I have not the slightest doubt about the 
success of the opera, provided the text is a good one. For 
do you really suppose that I should write an opera comique 
in the same style as an opera seria? There should be as 
little frivolity in an opera seria and as much seriousness 
and solidity as there should be little seriousness in an 
opera buffa, and the more frivolity and gaiety. That 
people like to have a little comic music in an opera seria, 
I cannot help. But in Vienna they make the proper 
distinction on this point. I do certainly find that in 
music the Merry Andrew has not yet been banished, and 
in this respect the French are right. I hope to receive my 

1 A comedy by Gottlieb Stephanie. 

2 "Der Oberamtmann und die Soldaten" was a free adaptation by Gottlieb 
Stephanie of a similar piece by Calderon. It was set to music later by Umlauf 
and performed in 1782. 



clothes safely by the next mail coach. I do not know when 
it goes, but as I think this letter will reach you first, I beg 
you to keep the stick for me. People carry sticks here, but 
for what purpose? To walk with, and for that purpose 
any little stick will do. So please use the stick instead 
of me, and always carry it if you can. Who knows 
whether in your hand it may not avenge its former master 
on Arco? I mean, of course, accidentaliter ', or by chance. 
That arrogant jackass will certainly get a very palpable 
reply from me, even if he has to wait twenty years for it. 
For to see him and to return his kick will be one and the 
same thing, unless I am so unlucky as to meet him first in 
some sacred place. 

Well, adieu. Farewell. I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and embrace my sister with all my heart and am 
ever your most obedient son 

W. A. MZT. 

My greetings everywhere. 

(412) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER P&RE! VlENNE, ce 2O de juin, 

I have received the parcel, and hope that by now 
you have got the portrait and the ribbons. I do not know 
why you did not pack everything together in a trunk or a 
chest, for it costs more to send things one by one, as you 
have to pay for each article separately, than to send one 
big package. I can well believe that the court flunkeys 
are eyeing you askance, but why should you worry about 
such miserable menials? The more hostile these people are 
to you, the more proudly, and contemptuously you must 
treat them. 



As for Arco, I have but to consult my own feelings and 
judgment and therefore do not need the advice of a lady 
or a -person of rank to help me to do what is right and 
fitting, and neither too much nor too little. It is the heart 
that ennobles a man; and though I am no count, yet I 
have probably more honour in me than many a count. 
Whether a man be count or valet, the moment he insults 
me, he is a scoundrel. I intend at first to tell him quite 
reasonably how badly and clumsily he has played his 
part. But in conclusion I shall feel bound to assure him in 
writing that he may confidently expect from me a kick on 
his behind and a few boxes on the ear in addition. For 
when I am insulted, I must have my revenge; and if I do 
no more than was done to me, I shall only be getting even 
with him and not punishing him. Besides, I should be 
placing myself on a level with him, and really I am too 
proud to measure myself with such a stupid booby. 

Unless I have something particularly important to tell 
you, I shall only write to you once a week, as I am very 
busy just now. I must close this letter, as I have some 
variations to finish for my pupil. 1 Adieu. I kiss your hands 
a thousand times and embrace my sister with all my heart 
and am ever 2 

(413) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 27 de juin> 1781 

As for Madame Rosa I must tell you that I called on 
her three times until at last I had the good fortune to find 
her at home. You would hardly recognise her, she has got 

* Countess Rumbeck. The variations to which Mozart refers are one of 
the sets K. 359, 360, 352, which were composed in the summer of 1781. 
2 The signature has been cut off the autograph. 



so thin. When I asked her about the portrait, she offered 
to make me a present of it, adding that she did not require 
it and that she would send it to me on the following day. 
But three weeks went by and no portrait came. Again 
I went to her house three times in vain. Finally, however, 
I went there one day very early in the morning when she 
and her plebeian spouse were still at breakfast. Well, 
instead of wanting to give me the portrait free, she had 
suddenly decided not to let me have it at all. Thereupon 
it occurred to me that in such cases the best way to treat 
Italians is to be extremely rude. So I told her that she 
was as cracked as ever, but that, just to pander to her 
ingrained failings, I did not choose to play in my father's 
eyes the part of a fool, who says black one day and white 
the next; and that I could assure her that I did not 
require the portrait. Whereupon she spoke very civilly 
and promised to send it the next day, which she did. 
You must, however, return it in due course. 

I have this moment come from Herr von Hippe, Prince 
Kaunitz's private secretary, who is an extremely amiable 
man and a very good friend of mine. He first came to 
visit me, and I then played to him. We have two harpsi 
chords in the house where I am lodging, one for galanterie 
playing and the other an instrument which is strung with 
the low octave throughout, like the one we had in London, 
and consequently sounds like an organ. So on this one I 
improvised and played fugues. I go to Herr von Aurn- 
hammer almost every afternoon. The young lady is a 
fright, but plays enchantingly, though in cantabile play 
ing she has not got the real delicate singing style. She 
clips everything. She has told me (as a great secret) of her 
plan, which is to work hard for two or three years more 
and then go to Paris and make music her profession. She 
said: "/ am no beauty au contraire, I am ugly. I have 
no desire to marry some chancery official with an income 



of three or four hundred gulden and I have no chance of 
getting anyone else. So I prefer to remain as I am and to 
live by my talent/' And there she is right. She begged me 
to assist her in carrying out her project, which she prefers 
not to mention beforehand to anyone else. 

I shall send you the Opera 1 as soon as possible. Countess 
Thun still has it and at present she is in the country. 
Please have the sonata in Bb a quatre mains 2 and the two 
concertos for two claviers 3 copied for me and send them to 
me as soon as possible. I should be very glad, too, to 
receive my masses 4 by degrees. 

Gluck has had a stroke and his health is in a very pre 
carious state. 5 Tell me whether it is true that Becke was 
almost bitten to death by a dog in Munich? Well, I must 
close, for I must go off to lunch with the Aurnhammers. 
Adieu. I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace 
my dear sister with all my heart and am ever your most 
obedient son 


Madame Bernasconi 6 is here and is drawing a salary of 
five hundred ducats because she sings all her arias a good 
comma higher than others. This is really a great achieve 
ment, for she always keeps in tune. She has now promised 
to sing a quarter of a tone higher still, but on condition 
that she is paid twice as much. Adieu. 

1 "Idomeneo." * K. 358, composed in 1774- 

* K. 365, composed in 1779, and K. 242, a concerto for three claviers, 

composed in 1776, which Mozart himself had arranged for two. See Kochel, 

p. 309 f. 
+ Probably K. 275, composed in 1777, K. 317, composed in I779> ai *d 

K. 337, composed in 1780. 

5 Gluck had had several apoplectic seizures in 1779 and again in May 

6 Antonia Bernasconi, who had sung in Mozart's "Mitridate", produced 
at Milan, December 1770. 



(414) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce ^juillet, 1781 

I have not written to Count Arco and shall not do so, 
as you ask me to desist for the sake of your peace of mind. 
It is just as I suspected. You really are too timid, and yet 
you have nothing whatever to fear; for you you your 
self are as much insulted as I am. I do not ask you to 
make a row or even to put forward the slightest complaint. 
But the Archbishop and the whole pack of them must be 
afraid of speaking to you on the subject. For you, my 
father, need have no scruples in saying boldly (if you are 
driven to it) that you would be ashamed of having brought 
up a son who would allow himself to be so grossly in 
sulted by such an infamous scoundrel as Arco; and you 
may assure them all that if I had the good fortune to meet 
him to-day, I should treat him as he deserves and he 
would certainly remember me as long as he lived. All I 
insist on, and nothing else, is that you should show the 
whole world that you are not afraid. Be silent, if you 
choose; but when necessary, speak and speak in such 
a way that people will remember it. The Archbishop 
secretly offered 1000 gulden to Kozeluch, 1 who, however, 
has declined, saying that he was better off in Vienna and 
that unless he could improve his position, he would never 
leave. But to his friends he added: "What deters me most 
of all is that affair with Mozart. If the Archbishop lets 

1 Leopold Kozeluch (1752-1818), a Czech, was trained in Prague, and in 
1778 went to Vienna as clavier teacher to the Archduchess Elizabeth. He 
soon gained a reputation as a clavier-player and composer of grand operas, 
symphonies and clavier music. He became one of the most bitter enemies 
and detractors of Mozart, whom he succeeded in 1792 in his post of chamber 
composer to the Emperor at almost twice the salary which his predecessor 
had received. 



such a man go, what on earth would he not do to me?" So 
you see how he knows me and appreciates my talents. I 
have received the chest with the clothes. If M. Marchall or 
the Syndic of the Chapter comes to Vienna, I should be 
delighted if you would send me my favourite watch. I will 
return yours, if you will let me have the small one too, 
which I should particularly like to have. I wrote to you 
the other day about the masses. 1 I badly need the three 
cassations 2 those in F and Bk would do me for the time 
being but you might have the one in D copied for me 
some time and sent on later, for the charge for copying is 
so very heavy in Vienna; in addition to which they copy 
most atrociously. Well, although I am in a great hurry, I 
must say a few words about Marchand, 3 as far as I know 
him. When his father corrected the younger boy at table, 
he took up a knife and said: "Look here, Papa. If you say 
another word, I shall cut off my finger at the joint and 
then I shall be a cripple on your hands and you will have 
to feed me." Both boys have frequently run down their 
father to other people. You will no doubt remember Mile 
Boudet 4 who lives in their house? Well, old Marchand 
being rather partial to her, these rascals made infamous 
remarks about it. When Hennerle 5 was eight years old 
he said to a certain girl: "Indeed I would far sooner 
sleep in your arms than find myself hugging the pillow 
when I wake up". He also made her a formal declara 
tion of love and a proposal of marriage, adding: "I cannot 
exactly marry you at present, but when my father dies, I 
shall have money, for he is not absolutely destitute, and 
then we shall live together very comfortably. Meanwhile 

1 Seep. 1113, n. 4. 

2 Probably K. 247 and 287, written in 1776 and 1777, and K. 334, written 
in 1779- 

3 Theobald Marchand, theatrical manager in Munich and father of 
Margarete (singer), Heinrich (violinist) and David ('cellist) Marchand. 

4 Marianne Boudet, who in 1782 married Martin Lang (1755- ? ), 
horn-player in the Munich court orchestra. s Little Heinrich. 



let us love one another and enjoy our love to the full For 
what you allow me to do now, you will not be able to 
permit later on/' I know too that in Mannheim no one 
ever allowed their boys to go where the Marchands were. 
For they were caught helping one another. Well, it is a 
great pity for the lad himself; but you, my father, will be 
able to reform him completely, of that I am quite sure. As 
their father and mother are on the stage, they hear nothing 
all day long (and nothing else is ever read out to them) 
but tales of love, despair, murder and death. Besides, the 
father has too little stability for his age. So they have no 
good examples at home. Well, I must stop, or my letter 
will reach Peisser too late. Farewell. I kiss your hands a 
thousand times and am ever your most obedient son 


P.S. My greetings to all my good friends. Do tell me 
the story about my sister's cap. You mentioned something 
about it in a letter. Adieu. 

(415) Mozart to his Sister 

[Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 
MA TR&S CHERE ScEURJ VlENNE, ce 4 de juillet, 1781 

I am delighted that the ribbons are to your taste. I 
shall find out the price of the ribbons, both the painted and 
the unpainted. At present I do not know it, as Frau von 
Aurnhammer, who was so kind as to procure them for me, 
refused to take any payment, but begged me to send you 
all sorts of nice messages, although she does not know 
you, and to tell you that she will be very glad at any time 
to be able to do you a kindness. I have already conveyed 
to her your greetings in return. Dearest sister! I wrote the 
other day to our dear father that if there is anything in 



Vienna which you would like to have, whatever it may be, 
I should be delighted to do this service for you. 1 I now 
repeat this, adding that it would distress me very greatly 
if I were to hear that you were commissioning someone 
else in Vienna. I am heartily glad when you are well. 
Praise and thanks be to God, I too am in good health and 
in excellent spirits. My sole entertainment is the theatre. 
How I wish that you could see a tragedy acted here! 
Generally speaking, I do not know of any theatre where 
all kinds of plays are really well performed. But they 
are here. Every part, even the most unimportant and 
poorest part, is well cast and understudied. I should very 
much like to know how things are progressing between 
you and a certain good friend, you know whom I mean. 2 
Do write to me about thisl Or have I lost your confidence 
in this matter? In any case, please write to me often, I 
mean, when you have nothing better to do, for I should 
dearly love to hear some news occasionally and you are 
the living chronicle of Salzburg, for you write down every 
single thing that occurs; so, to please me, you might write 
it down a second time. But you must not be angry with 
me, if now and then I keep you waiting a long time for a 

As for something new for the clavier I may tell you 
that I am having four sonatas engraved. Those in C and 
Bb are among them 3 and only the other two are new. Then 
I have written variations on three airs, 4 which I could 
send you, of course; but I think it is hardly worth the 
trouble and I would rather wait until I have more to send. 
Well, I suppose the marksmen's feast will soon be held? I 
beg you solemniter to drink the health of a loyal marks- 

1 See p. 1106 f. 2 Franz D'Yppold, Cp. p. 1021, n. I. 

3 The violin and clavier sonatas, K. 296 in C major, composed in 1778, and 
K. 378 in Bb, composed in 1779. 
* K. 359, 360, 352. 



man. When it is my turn again to provide the target, 
please let me know and I shall have one painted. Now 
farewell, dearest, most beloved sister, and rest assured that 
I shall ever remain your true friend and sincere brother 


(416) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

REISENBERG, near VIENNA, ce 13 dejuillet, 1781 


I cannot write very much, as Count Cobenzl is driv 
ing off to town this very moment and I must give him this 
letter if I wish it to be posted. I am writing to you at an 
hour's distance from Vienna, at a place called Reisenberg. 
I once spent a night here, and now I am staying for a few 
days. The little house is nothing much, but the country 
the forest in which my host has built a grotto which 
looks just as if Nature herself had fashioned it! Indeed 
the surroundings are magnificent and very delightful. I 
have received your last letter. I have long been intending 
to leave the Webers and I shall certainly do so. But I 
swear to you that I have not heard a word about going to 
live with Herr von Aurnhammer. It is true that I might 
have lodged with Mesmer, the writing-master, but really 
I prefer to stay with the Webers. Mesmer has Righini 1 
(formerly opera buffa singer and now a composer) in his 
house and is his great friend and protector; but Frau 
Mesmer is still more so. Until I find a good, cheap and 
comfortable lodging I shall not leave my present one; and 
even then I shall have to make up some story to tell the 

1 Vincenzo Righini (1756-1812), born at Bologna, first became a singer and 
later studied composition under Padre Martini. He was a prolific composer 
of operas and church music. One of his operas, "II convitato di pietra", a 
forerunner of Mozart's "Don Giovanni", was produced in Vienna in 1777. 



good woman, for really I have no reason to leave. Herr 
von <Moll> has, I know not why, a very malicious tongue, 
which particularly surprises me in his case. He says that 
he hopes that I shall think better of it and soon return to 
Salzburg, for I shall hardly find things so easy here as 
I do there, and that, as it is, I am here only on account 
of the Viennese women. Fraulein von Aurnhammer re 
peated this to me. But everywhere he gets very strange 
replies on this point. I can pretty well guess why he talks 
in this strain. He is a very strong supporter of Kozeluch. 
Oh! how silly it all is! 

The story about Herr von Molk greatly astonished me. 
I have always thought him capable of anything, but I 
never could have believed he was a scoundrel, I pity the 
poor family from my heart. Write to me soon and send 
me lots of news. I must stop, as the Count is going off. 
Farewell. I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace 
my dear sister with all my heart and am ever your most 
obedient son 


(417) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 2$ de juillet, 1781 

I repeat that I have long been thinking of moving to 
another lodging, and that too solely because people are 
gossiping. I am very sorry that I am obliged to do this 
on account of silly talk, in which there is not a word of 
truth. I should very much like to know what pleasure 
certain people can find in spreading entirely groundless 
reports. Because I am living with them, 1 therefore I am 
going to marry the daughter. 2 There has been no talk of 

1 i.e. Frau Weber and her daughters. 2 Constanze Weber. 



our being in love. They have skipped that stage. No, I just 
take rooms in the house and marry. If ever there was a 
time when I thought less of getting married, it is most 
certainly now! For (although the last thing I want is a 
rich wife) even if I could now make my fortune by a 
marriage, I could not possibly pay court to anyone, for 
my mind is running on very different matters. God has 
not given me my talent that I might attach it to a wife 
and waste my youth in idleness. I am just beginning to 
live, and am I to embitter my own life? To be sure, I have 
nothing against matrimony, but at the moment it would 
be a misfortune for me. Well, there is no other way; 
although it is absolutely untrue, I must at least avoid 
even the appearance of such a thing even though this 
appearance rests on nothing but the fact that I am living 
here. People who do not come to the house cannot even 
tell whether I associate with her as much as with the rest 
of God's creatures, for the children seldom go out; indeed 
they go nowhere except to the theatre, where I never 
accompany them, as I am generally not at home when 
the play begins. We went to the Prater a few times, but 
the mother came too, and, as I was in the house, I could 
not refuse to accompany them. Nor had I at that time 
heard anything of these foolish rumours. I must also tell 
you that I was only allowed to pay my own share. Fur 
ther, when the mother heard this talk herself and also 
heard it from me, she herself, let me tell you, objected to 
our going about together and advised me to move to 
another house in order to avoid further unpleasantness. 
For she said that she would not like to be the innocent 
cause of any misfortune to me. So this is the only reason 
why for some little time (since people began to gossip) I 
have been intending to leave. So far as truth goes, I have 
no reason, but these chattering tongues are driving me 
away. Were it not for these reports, I should hardly think 



of leaving, for, although I could easily get a nicer room, 
I could hardly find such comfort and such friendly and 
obliging people. I will not say that, living in the same 
house with the Mademoiselle to whom people have 
already married me, I am ill-bred and do not speak to 
her; but I am not in love with her. I fool about and have 
fun with her when time permits (which is only in the 
evenings when I take supper at home, for in the morning 
I write in my room and in the afternoon I am rarely in 
the house) and that is all. If I had to marry all those 
with whom I have jested, I should have two hundred 
wives at least. Now for the money question. My pupil l 
remained three weeks in the country, so I made nothing, 
while my own expenses went on. Therefore I could not 
send you thirty ducats only twenty. But as I was very 
hopeful about the subscriptions, I thought I would wait 
until I should be able to send you the promised sum. 
Countess Thun, however, has just told me that it is use 
less to think of subscriptions before the autumn, because 
all the people with money are in the country. So far she has 
only found ten subscribers and my pupil only seven. In 
the meantime I am having six sonatas engraved. Artaria, 
the music engraver, has already discussed the matter with 
me. 2 As soon as they are sold and I get some money, I 
shall send it to you. I must beg my dear sister to forgive 
me for not having sent her a letter of congratulation on 
her name-day. A letter I began is lying on my desk. After 
I had begun it on Saturday, Countess Rumbeck sent her 
servant to say that they were all going to the country and 
would I not go with them? So, because I do not like to 
refuse anything to Cobenzl, I left the letter lying there, 
hastily put my things together and went with them. I 

1 The Countess Rumbeck. 

2 See p. 1092, n. i. They were published by Artaria and Co. in November 

VOL. Ill 1 121 F 


thought to myself my sister will not make a grievance 
of it. I now wish her on the octave of her name-day * 
every possible good and every blessing which a sincere 
and loving brother can wish his sister with his whole 
heart; and I kiss her most tenderly. I drove in to 
Vienna to-day with the Count and to-morrow I am 
driving out with him again. Now farewell, dearest, most 
beloved father. Believe and trust your son, who cherishes 
the most kindly feelings towards all right-minded people. 
Why then should he not cherish them towards his dear 
father and sister? Believe in him and rely on him more 
than on certain individuals, who have nothing better to 
do than to slander honest folk. Well, adieu. I kiss your 
hands a thousand times and am ever your most obedient 


(418) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PlERE! VIENNA, ce I (Faotit, 1 78 1 

I fetched at once the sonata for four hands, 2 as Frau 
von Schindl lives just opposite the "Auge Gottes". If 
Madame Duschek happens to be in Salzburg, please give 
her my most friendly greetings and ask her whether, 
before she left Prague, a gentleman called on her and 
brought her a letter from me. If not, I shall write to him 
at once and tell him to forward it to Salzburg. This was 
Rossi of Munich, who asked me to help him with a letter 
of introduction. He took with him from here some ex 
cellent letters to Prague. If my letter only concerned his 
introduction, I should certainly let him dispose of it; 
but in it I also asked Mme Duschek to assist me in the 

1 July 26th. * K. 358, composed in 1774. 

1 122 


matter of subscriptions for my six sonatas. 1 1 was particu 
larly glad to render this service to Rossi, as he has written 
the poem for the cantata which I want to produce for my 
benefit in Advent. 2 

Well, the day before yesterday Stephanie junior gave 
me a libretto to compose. 3 I must confess that, however 
badly he may treat other people, about which I know 
nothing, he is an excellent friend to me. The libretto is 
quite good. The subject is Turkish 4 and the title is: Bel- 
monte und Konstanze, or Die Verfiikrung aus dem 
Serail. I intend to write the ouverture, the chorus in 
Act I and the final chorus in the style of Turkish music. 
Mile Cavalieri, 5 Mile Teiber, 6 M. Fischer, 7 M. Adam- 
berger, 8 M. Dauer 9 and M. Walter 10 are to sing in it. I 
am so delighted at having to compose this opera that I 

1 See p. 1092, n. i. 2 See p. 1107, n. 2. 

3 The original text was by Christoph Friedrich Bretzner (1748-1807), a 
Leipzig merchant, whose light-opera libretti were very popular, several 
having been collected and published in 1779. "Belmonte und Constanze" 
was written in 1780, set to music by the successful operatic composer Johann 
Andre (1741-1799), and performed in May 1781 at the Dobbelin Theatre in 
Berlin. Gottlieb Stephanie, chiefly at Mozart's instigation, made considerable 
alterations and additions to this text. For a full discussion of this revision see 
Abert, vol. i. p. 931 ff. 

4 Bretzner's text was not by any means an original work. Several opera 
libretti had already been written on subjects connected with life in a Turkish 
seraglio, notably Dancourt's "Pilgrimme von Mekka" (set to music by Gluck, 
1764), Martinelli's "Laschiavaliberata" (set to music by Jommelli, 1768, and 
Schuster, 1777) and Grossmann's "Adelheit von Veltheim", which appeared 
in 1780 and was set to music in 1781 by Neefe, who was Beethoven's teacher 
at Bonn. 

5 Katharina Cavalieri (1761-1801), an Austrian by birth, was trained in 
Vienna by Salieri. She made her first appearance in Italian opera in 1775. 
She took the part of Constanze. 

6 Therese Teiber (1765- ? ), daughter of a violinist in the Vienna court 
orchestra. She married Ferdinand Arnold, a well-known tenor. She took the 
part of Blonde. 

7 Karl Ludwig Fischer (1745-1825), one of the finest bass singers of his 
day. He created the part of Osmin. 

8 See p. 1075, n. 4. Adamberger took the part of Belmonte. 

9 Dauer (1746-1812), a fine tenor and an excellent actor. He took the part 
of Pedrillo. I0 Walter probably took the spoken part of Bassa Selim. 



have already finished Cavalieri's first aria, Adamberger's 
and the trio which closes Act I. The time is short, it 
is true, for it is to be performed in the middle of Sep 
tember; l but the circumstances connected with the date 
of performance and, in general, all my other prospects 
stimulate me to such a degree that I rush to my desk with 
the greatest eagerness and remain seated there with the 
greatest delight. The Grand Duke of Russia 2 is coming 
here, and that is why Stephanie entreated me, if possible, 
to compose the opera in this short space of time. For the 
Emperor and Count Rosenberg are to return soon and 
their first question will be whether anything new is being 
prepared? Stephanie will then have the satisfaction of 
being able to say that Umlaufs opera, 3 on which he has 
been engaged for a long time, will soon be ready and that I 
am composing one for the occasion. And he will certainly 
count it a merit on my part to have undertaken to compose 
it for this purpose in so short a time. No one but Adam- 
berger and Fischer knows anything about it yet, for 
Stephanie begged us to say nothing, as Count Rosenberg 
is still absent and any disclosure may easily lead to all kinds 
of gossip. Stephanie does not even wish to be regarded as 
too good a friend of mine; but he wants it to be thought 
that he is doing all this because Count Rosenberg desires 
it; and indeed the Count on his departure did actually 
order him to look around for a libretto, but no more. 

Well, 1 have nothing more to tell you, for I have heard 
no news. The room into which I am moving is being got 
ready. 4 1 am now going off to hire a clavier, for until there 

1 The first performance of the opera was on July i6th, 1782. 

2 The Grand Duke Paul Petrovitch, afterwards Paul I. 

3 Probably "Das Irrlicht", on C. F. Bretzner's libretto. This opera was 
performed in 1782. See MM, February 1919, p. 8, 

4 This was not Am Graben no. 1175 (now no. 8), the lodging into which 
Mozart moved early in September, but a room in the house of Herr Aurn- 
hammer. See p. 1130. 



is one in my room, I cannot live in it, because I have so 
much to compose and not a minute must be lost. Indeed 
I shall miss a great many comforts in my new lodging 
particularly in regard to meals. For whenever I had any 
thing very urgent to finish, the Webers always delayed 
the meal for me as long as I chose; and I could go on 
writing without dressing and just go to table next door, 
both for lunch and supper; whereas now, when I wish 
to avoid spending money on having a meal brought 
to my room, I waste at least an hour dressing (which 
up to the present I have postponed until the afternoon) 
and must go out particularly in the evening. You know 
that usually I go on composing until I am hungry. Well, 
the kind friends with whom I could have supper sit down 
to table as early as eight or half past eight at latest. At 
the Webers' we never did so before ten o'clock. Well, 
adieu. I must close, for I must go out and find a clavier. 
Farewell. I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace 
my dear sister with all my heart and am ever your most 
obedient son 


P.S. My greetings to all Salzburg. 


(419) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PRE! VlENNE, ce 8 d'aout, 1781 

I must write in haste, for I have only this very 
instant finished the Janissary chorus * and it is past 
twelve o'clock and I have promised to drive out at two 
o'clock sharp with the Aurnhammers and Mile Cavalieri 
to Mingendorf near Laxenburg, where the camp now is. 

' In Act I. 



Adamberger, Mile Cavalieri and Fischer are exceedingly 
pleased with their arias. I lunched yesterday with 
Countess Thun and am to do so again to-morrow. I 
played to her what I have finished composing and she 
told me afterwards that she would venture her life that 
what I have so far written cannot fail to please. But on 
this point I pay no attention whatever to anybody's 
praise or blame I mean, until people have heard and 
seen the work as a whole. I simply follow my own feelings. 
All the same you may judge from this how pleased she 
must have been to express herself so emphatically. 

As I have nothing of any consequence to write about, 
I will just tell you a shocking story; but perhaps you 
have heard it already. In Vienna it is called the Tyrolese 
tale. It particularly interests me, because when I was in 
Munich I knew intimately the unfortunate man con 
cerned in it, who, moreover, used to come to see us here 
every day. His name is Herr von Wiedmer, and he is a 
nobleman. Whether it was owing to misfortunes or to a 
natural inclination for the stage, I know not, but some 
months ago he collected a theatrical company with whom 
he went to Innsbruck. One Sunday morning at about 
twelve o'clock this good fellow was strolling along the 
street very quietly and some gentlemen were walking close 
behind him. One of them, Baron Buffa by name, kept on 
abusing the impresario, saying "That idiot ought to 
teach his dancer to walk before he lets her go on the 
stage", using at the same time all sorts of epithets. 
Herr von Wiedmer, after listening to this for a while, 
naturally looked round at last, upon which Buffa asked 
him why he was looking at him. Wiedmer replied very 
good-humouredly: "Why, you are looking at me as well. 
The street is free, anyone can look round if he pleases", 
and continued to walk ahead. Baron Buffa, however, 
went on abusing him, which in the end proved too much 



for the good man's patience, so that he asked Buffa for 
whom these remarks were intended. "For you, you con 
temptible cur!" was the reply, accompanied by a violent 
box on the ear, which Herr von Wiedmer instantly re 
turned with interest. Neither had a sword, or Wiedmer 
would certainly not have paid him back in his own coin. 
My friend went home very quietly in order to arrange 
his hair (for Baron Buffa had seized him by the hair as 
well) and he intended to bring the case before the 
President, Count Wolkenstein. But he found his house 
filled with soldiers, who took him off to the guard-room. 
Say what he would, it was of no avail and he was con 
demned to receive twenty-five lashes on his behind. At 
last he said: "I am a nobleman and I will not submit to 
be beaten when I am innocent. I would rather enlist as a 
soldier in order to have my revenge/' For in Innsbruck 
the stupid Tyrolese custom evidently is that no one may 
hit a nobleman, no matter what right he may have to do 
so. Whereupon he was taken to gaol, where he had to 
receive not twenty-five, but fifty lashes. Before he lay 
down on the bench, he cried out: "I am innocent and I 
appeal publicly to the Emperor". But the corporal 
answered him with a sneer: "Perhaps the gentleman will 
first take his fifty lashes and after that the gentleman can 
appeal". It was all over in two hours that is to say, at 
about two o'clock. After the fifth lash his breeches were 
torn already. I am amazed that he was able to stand it; 
and indeed he was carried away unconscious and was 
confined to bed for three weeks. As soon as he was cured, 
he came post-haste to Vienna, where he is anxiously 
awaiting the arrival of the Emperor, who has already 
been informed of the whole affair, not only by people 
here, but by his sister, the Archduchess Elizabeth, 1 at 
Innsbruck. Wiedmer himself has a letter from her to 
1 Archduchess Elizabeth (1743-1808), Maria Theresa's sixth child. 



the Emperor. On the day before this occurred the 
President had received orders to punish no one, whoever 
he might be, without first informing the authorities in 
Vienna which makes the case still worse. The President 
must indeed be a very stupid and malicious dolt. But how 
can this man ever obtain adequate compensation? The 
lashes must always remain. If I were Wiedmer, I would 
demand the following satisfaction from the Emperor 
that the President should receive fifty lashes on the same 
place and in my presence and, in addition, pay me 6000 
ducats. And if I could not obtain this satisfaction I would 
accept no other; but at the very first opportunity I would 
run my sword through his heart. By the way, Wiedmer 
has already been offered 3000 ducats to stay away from 
Vienna and to hush up the affair. The people of Inns 
bruck speak of him as "He who was scourged for us 
and who will also redeem us". No one can bear the 
President, and his house has had to be guarded the 
whole time. There is a regular gospel about him in 
Vienna. Nothing else is being talked of. I feel very 
sorry for poor Wiedmer, for he is never well now and is 
always complaining of headaches and bad pains in his 

Now, farewell. I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
embrace my dear sister with all my heart and am ever 
your most obedient son 

W. A. MZT. 

My greetings to the Duscheks, whom I hope to see in 
Vienna. Adieu. 



(420) Leopold Mozwt to J. G. I. Breitkopf, Leipzig 

[Extract] [Autograph in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 

SALZBURG, August \oth y 1781 

As for my son, he is no longer in service in Salzburg. 
When we were in Munich, the Prince, 1 who was then in 
Vienna, commanded him to join him there. So he left 
Munich on March I2th and my daughter and I returned 
to Salzburg on the I4th. As His Grace the Prince treated 
my son extremely badly in Vienna and as, on the other 
hand, all the great noble families marked him out for their 
special favours, he was easily persuaded to resign a 
service to which a miserable salary was attached, and to 
remain in Vienna. As far as I know, six sonatas for 
clavier and violin are being engraved in Vienna. Further, 
my son has been asked to compose an operetta, which 
is to be performed in the middle of September, He has 
undertaken to do this, as the operetta is to celebrate the 
arrival of the Grand Duke of Russia. 

The six sonatas dedicated to Her Highness the Elec- 
tress of the Bavarian Palatinate have been published by 
Herr Sieber 2 in Paris and can be bought from him. His 
address is: rue St. Honore, a T Hotel d'Aligre, Ancien 
Grand Conseil. He took them from my son and gave him 
15 louis d'or, thirty copies and full liberty in regard to 
their dedication. The opera my son wrote for Munich was 
"Idomeneo". The strange thing about it was that it was 
manufactured entirely by Salzburg people. The libretto 
was written by the Salzburg court chaplain, Abbate 
Varesco, the music by my son, and Herr Schachtner did 
the German translation. People tried hard to persuade us 
to have the opera printed or engraved, the whole score 

1 i.e. the Archbishop of Salzburg. 
2 Jean Georges Sieber (c. 1734-^. 1815), the famous Paris publisher. 



or possibly a clavier arrangement. Subscribers, among 
whom was Prince Max von Zweibriicken and so forth, 
put down their names for about twenty copies. But my 
son's departure for Vienna and other attendant circum 
stances obliged us to postpone everything. I should add 
that "Trois Airs Varies pour le clavecin ou le forte- 
piano" were also published in Paris by Herr Heina, rue 
de Seine, Faubourg St. Germain, a THotel de Lille, at 
the price of four livres. 1 But we haven't any copies left. 
Perhaps I ought to mention that my son never gives any 
compositions to be engraved or printed which are already 
in other hands. For we are very particular about having 
only one set of copies of every work. 2 

(421) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 22 d'Aout, 1 78 1 

I cannot let you know the address of my new lodging, 
as I have not yet got one. 3 But I am bargaining about 
the prices of two, one of which I shall certainly take, as I 
cannot stay here next month and so must move out. It 
appears that Herr von Aurnhammer wrote and told you 
that I had actually found a lodging! I had one, it is true, 
but what a habitation! fit for rats and mice, but not for 
human beings. At noon I had to look for the stairs with a 
lantern. The room was a little closet and to get to it I had 
to pass through the kitchen. In the door there was a tiny 
window and although they promised me to put up a curtain 
inside, they asked me at the same time to draw it back as 
soon as I was dressed, for otherwise they would not be 

1 The first edition of K. 180 (six variations on "Mio caro Adone", com 
posed in 1773), K. 179 (twelve variations on Fischer's minuet, composed in 
1774) and K. 354 (twelve variations on "Je suis Lindor", composed in 1778). 

* The autograph breaks off here. 3 See p. 1124, n. 4. 



able to see anything either in the kitchen or in the adjoin 
ing rooms. The owner's wife l herself called the house the 
rats' nest in short, it was a dreadful place to look at. Ah, 
what a splendid dwelling for me indeed, who have to 
receive visits from various distinguished people. The good 
man, of course, was only thinking of himself and his 
daughter, who is the greatest seccatrice I have ever met. 
As your last letter contains such a eulogy a la Count Daun 
of this family, I must really give you some account of 
them. I would have passed over in silence all you are 
going to read, regarding it as a matter of indifference and 
only as a private and personal seccatura, but, as your 
letter indicates that you place reliance on this family, I 
think myself bound to tell you frankly about their good 
and bad points. Well, he is the best-tempered fellow in the 
world indeed, too much so, for his wife, the most stupid, 
ridiculous gossip imaginable, so rules the roost, that when 
she opens her mouth, he does not dare to say a word. As 
we have often gone out walking together, he has begged 
me not to mention before his wife that we had taken a 
fiacre or drunk a glass of beer. Well, I simply cannot have 
any confidence in a man who is so utterly insignificant in 
his own family. He is quite a good fellow and a very kind 
friend; and I could often lunch at his house. But it is not 
my habit to allow people to pay me for my favours 
though indeed a midday plate of soup at lunch would be 
no payment. But people of that type think that it is! I do 
not go to their house for my own advantage, but for theirs, 
for I can see no profit for myself; and I have never yet 
met a single person there who would be worth mention 
ing in this letter. In short they are decent people, but 
nothing more people who have sense enough to see how 
useful an acquaintance with me is to their daughter who, 
as everyone says who heard her play before, has entirely 

1 Frau Aurnhammer. 


changed since I have been teaching her. I will not attempt 
to describe the mother. Suffice it to say that when I am 
at table it is all I can do not to burst out laughing. Basta! 
You know Frau Adlgasser? Well, this meuble is even 
more aggravating, for she is medisante into the bargain 
I mean, she is both stupid and malicious. Now for the 
daughter. If a painter wanted to portray the devil to the 
life, he would have to choose her face. She is as fat as a 
farm-wench, perspires so that you feel inclined to vomit, 
and goes about so scantily clad that really you can read as 
plain as print: " Pray, do look here" . True, there is enough 
to see, in fact, quite enough to strike one blind; but one 
is thoroughly well punished for the rest of the day if one 
is unlucky enough to let one's eyes wander in that 
direction tartar is the only remedy! So loathsome, dirty 
and horrible! Faugh, the devil! Well, I have told you how 
she plays, and also why she begged me to assist her. I am 
delighted to do people favours, provided they do not 
plague me incessantly. But she is not content if I spend a 
couple of hours with her every day. She wants me to sit 
there the whole day long and, what is more, she tries to 
be attractive. But, what is worse still, she is serieusement 
in love with me! I thought at first it was a joke, but now I 
know it to be a fact. When I perceived it for she took 
liberties with me for example, she made me tender re 
proaches if I came somewhat later than usual or could not 
stay so long, and more nonsense of the same kind I was 
obliged, not to make a fool of the girl, to tell her the truth 
very politely. But that was no use: she became more lov 
ing than ever. In the end I was always very polite to her 
except when she started her nonsense and then I was 
very rude. Whereupon she took my hand and said: "Dear 
Mozart, please don't be so cross. You may say what you like, 
I am really very fond of you!' Throughout the town people 
are saying that we are to be married, and they are very 



much surprised at me, I mean, that I have chosen such a 
face. She told me that when anything of the kind was said 
to her, she always laughed at it; but I know from a cer 
tain person that she confirmed the rumour, adding that 
we would then travel together. That enraged me. So 
the other day I gave her my mind pretty plainly and 
warned her not to abuse my kindness. Now I no longer 
go there every day, but only every other day, and I shall 
gradually drop it altogether. She is nothing but an amor 
ous fooL For before she got to know me, she once said in 
the theatre, on hearing me play: "He is coming to see me 
to-morrow and I shall play his variations to him in the 
very same style". On this account I did not go, because it 
was not only a conceited speech, but a downright lie, as I 
had never heard a word about calling on her the next day. 
Well, adieu, my paper is full. I have now finished the first 
act of my opera. 1 I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
embrace my sister with all my heart and am ever your 
obedient son 


(422) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 29 (faout, 1 78 1 

I will now reply to your questions. Herr von < Asee) is 
Herr von Moll. 2 Madame Bernasconi gets 500 ducats from 
the management or, for all I can tell, from the Emperor, 
but only for one year. I should add that she grumbles and 
wishes she had left long ago; but that is only a furberia 
italiana 3 and just because she is grumbling, she is going 

1 "Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail." 

2 See p, 1119. Evidently Leopold Mozart had not realised that the word 
was in cypher. 

3 A piece of Italian knavery. 



to remain here. Otherwise she would hardly have left 
London to come to Vienna. 1 For one fine day she turned 
up, no one knows how or why. I believe that Count 
Dietrichstein (Master of the Horse), who is her protector, 
knew something about it beforehand, and that Gluck (who 
wanted to have his French operas performed in German) 
also lent a hand. What is certain is that she was really 
forced on the Emperor. The great herd of the nobility are 
very much taken with her, but in his heart of hearts not 
the Emperor, who in fact is as little taken with her as he 
is with Gluck. Nor is she a favourite with the public. It 
is true that in great tragic parts she will always remain 
Bernasconi, but in operettas she is a total failure, as they 
no longer suit her. Moreover, as she herself admits, she is 
more Italian than German, and her accent on the stage is 
as thoroughly Viennese as it is in ordinary conversation. 
So now you can picture her to yourself. And when she 
occasionally tries to correct her accent, it is just as if you 
were to hear a princess declaim in a puppet-show. Her 
singing too is now so bad that no one will compose for 
her. 3 But that she may not draw her 500 ducats for 
nothing, the Emperor (with some difficulty) has been 
induced to have Gluck' s "Iphigenie" and "Alceste" per 
formed the former in German, the latter in Italian. 3 I 
know nothing of Signor Righini's success. He makes a 
good deal of money by teaching, and last Easter he was 
successful with his cantata, 4 which was performed twice in 
succession and had good receipts on both occasions. He 
composes very charmingly and he is not by any means 

1 Antonia Bernasconi (1741-1803) had been singing at the Italian Opera 
in London from 1778 until 1781. 

2 Antonia Bernasconi was well past her prime. 

3 Gluck's "Iphigenie in Tauris" was given in German on October 23rd, 
1781, and was followed by further performances of "Alceste" on December 
3rd and "Orfeo" in Italian on December 3ist. 

"II Natale d' Apollo." 



superficial; but he is a monstrous thief. He offers his stolen 
goods in such superfluity, in such profusion, that people 
can hardly digest them. As for the Dorotheans, 1 it is only 
gossip that is going round nothing has happened 
perhaps it will. The Emperor went off again for a fort 
night, but has now returned. 

We have had hardly any thunderstorms. At the most 
there were two, and they were very slight. But we have 
had terrible heat, so that everyone has been saying that 
never in his life has he endured anything like it. 

The Grand Duke of Russia is not coming until Novem 
ber, so I can write my opera more at leisure. I am 
delighted. I shall not have it performed before All Saints' 
Day, for that is the best time, as everyone returns from the 
country then. 

I have now taken a very prettily furnished room in the 
Graben and shall be living there when you read this 
letter. 2 I purposely chose one not looking on the street in 
order to be quiet. Continue to address your letters to 
Peisser, for I shall always get them. But, if you do not send 
them through Hagenauer, you must enclose them in a 
cover and put his address on it. For I have all my 
letters addressed to him. As for Herr Duschek, I have 
already mentioned in a letter to his wife the price of 
the sonatas, which is three ducats. 3 

Well, adieu. I have no more news. I kiss your hands a 
thousand times and embrace my sister with all my heart 
and am ever your most obedient son 


P.S. My greetings to all Salzburg. 

1 The Dorotheerkloster in Vienna, founded by Duke Albrecht II in the 
1 4th century, was occupied from 1414 onwards by the Augustinerchorherren, 
and incorporated with Klosterneuburg in 1782, 

a See p. 1124, n. 4. 3 See p. 1092, n. i. 



(42 2 a) Mozart to his Sister 1 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

You will probably have not been able to read this letter, 
for my pen is a wretched one. Please give my most cordial 
greetings to M, D'Yppold and tell him to count on my true 
friendship. My greetings to Katherl and all my good 
friends. Adieu. I have asked you to address your letters to 
Peisser. But, if you do, you will have to put each letter 
into a separate cover and then it will immediately cost 
sixteen kreutzers. So perhaps you had better direct them 
as usual: Auf dem Peter, im Auge Gottes; 2nd floor. This 
address is so well known at the post office that even 
when a letter has arrived in Vienna with only my name 
on it, it has been delivered to me. If you do this, I shall 
certainly receive your letters. Adieu. 

(423) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 

MON TRES CHER P^RE! VIENNA, ce $ de ?*", 1781 

I am now writing to you in my new room in the 
Graben, No. HJ5, 3rd floor. From the way in which you 
have taken my last letter as if I were an arch-scoundrel 
or a blockhead or both! I am sorry to see that you rely 
more on the gossip and scribblings of other people than 
you do on me and that in fact you have no trust in me 
whatever. But I assure you that all this does not disturb 
me; people may write themselves blind and you may 
believe them as much as you please but I shall not alter 
by a hair's breadth; I shall remain the same honest 

1 This postscript, which is written on a separate sheet,. is undated, but 
probably belongs to this letter. 



fellow as ever. And I swear to you that if you had not 
wanted me to move into another lodging, I should not 
have left the Webers; for I feel just like a person who has 
left his own comfortable travelling carriage for a post- 
chaise. But not another word on the subject. It is really 
no use talking about it. For the nonsense which God 
knows who puts into your head always outweighs any 
reasons of mine. But one thing I do beg of you. When you 
write to me about something I have done, of which you 
disapprove or which you think might have been done 
better, and in reply I send you my ideas on the subject, 
please regard the whole matter as one between father and 
son alone, a secret, I mean, and something which is not 
to be told to others, as I myself always regard it. I there 
fore entreat you to leave it at that and not to apply to 
other people, for, by God, I will not give the smallest 
account to others of what I do or leave undone, no, not 
even to the Emperor himself. Do trust me always, for 
indeed I deserve it. I have trouble and worry enough here 
to support myself, and it therefore does not help me in 
the very least to read unpleasant letters. From the first 
moment I came here I have had to live entirely on my 
own means, that is, on what I could make by my own 
efforts. The others always drew their pay. Ceccarelli made 
more money than I did, but blew every penny of it in 
Vienna. If I had done the same, I should never have been 
in a position to quit the service. It is certainly not my 
fault, my dearest father, that you have not yet had any 
money from me; it is due to the present bad season. Only 
have patience I, too, have to cultivate it. God knows 
that I shall never forget you! At the time of my affair with 
the Archbishop I wrote to you for clothes, for I had 
nothing with me but my black suit. The mourning was 
over, the weather was hot and my clothes did not arrive. 
So I had to have some made, as I could not go about 
VOL. in 1137 G 


Vienna like a tramp, particularly in the circumstances. 
My linen was a pitiful sight; no house-porter in Vienna 
wore shirts of such coarse linen as mine, which in a man is 
certainly the most objectionable thing. That meant more 
expense. I had only one pupil and she stayed away for 
three weeks, which was a further loss for me. One must 
not make oneself cheap here that is a cardinal point or 
else one is done. Whoever is most impertinent has the best 
chance. From all your letters I gather that you believe 
that I do nothing but amuse myself. Well, you are most 
dreadfully mistaken. I can truthfully say that I have no 
pleasure none whatever save that of being away from 
Salzburg. I hope that all will go well in winter; and then, 
my most beloved father, I shall certainly not forget you. 
If I see that it is to my advantage, I shall remain here. If 
not, I am thinking of going straight to Paris and I should 
like to have your opinion about this. Now farewell. I kiss 
your hands a thousand times and embrace my dear sister 
with all my heart and am ever your most obedient son 

W. A. MZT. 

P.S. My compliments to the Duscheks. Please send 
me too when you can the aria I composed for Countess 
Baumgarten, the rondo for Mme Duschek and the one 
for Ceccarelli. 1 Adieu. 

(424) Mozart to his Father 

{Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRS CHER PRE! VIENNE, ce 12 de Sept*", 1781 

I have received your two letters, the one of the 5th 

through M. Marchall and the one of the yth through the 

post and, what is more, that of the ;th reached me before 

1 K. 369, 272 and 374. 



that of the 5th. Rust's serenade must have sounded very 
effective in the Rock Theatre, 1 particularly as the singers 
were seated and sang from their music, which would not 
have been practicable in a room or a hall. Really I have 
to laugh. People are always talking here about concerts to 
be given in honour of the Grand Duke 2 and one fine day 
the Grand Duke will arrive and we shall have no Rock 
Theatre for him. Herr Lipp must have cut a nice figure 
before the great dignitaries, a little worse even than 
Haydn, if that were possible. The pluck which the latter 
displayed in the hospital grounds was of no little benefit to 
my health! 3 1 am dreadfully sorry for the poor unfortunate 
sufferers in Radstadt. Speaking of fire, I must tell you 
that the Magdalen Chapel in St. Stephen's Church has 
been blazing away the whole night. The smoke wakened 
the watchman at five o'clock in the morning, but until 
half past five not a soul came to extinguish it, and it 
was six o'clock and the fire was raging most fiercely 
before they brought water and hoses. The whole altar 
with all its decorations, and the chairs and everything in 
the chapel were burnt to ashes. They were obliged to drive 
the people with blows to assist in putting out the fire and, 
as scarcely anyone wanted to help, people in laced coats 
and embroidered waistcoats were seen lending a hand. It 
is said that no such disgraceful lack of organisation has 
ever been seen since Vienna was a city. The Emperor is 
not here, of course. If only Daubrawaick 4 would come 
soon, so that I could have my music. Fraulein von Aurn- 
hammer is worrying me to death about the two double con 
certos. 5 We are now having one rehearsal after another in 

1 A natural grotto in the park of Schloss Hellbrunn, the summer residence 
of the Archbishop, about half an hour's drive from Salzburg. 

2 The Grand Duke Paul Petrovitch of Russia. See p. 1124, n. 2. 

3 i.e. made me laugh heartily. 

4 Possibly a son of Johann Anton Daubrawa von Daubrawaick, Court 
Councillor in Salzburg. s See p. 1113, n. 3. 



the theatre. 1 The ballet-master Antoine has been sum 
moned from Munich, and supers are being recruited 
throughout Vienna and all its suburbs. There is still a 
sorry remnant of Noverre's ballet, 2 who, however, have 
not moved a leg for the last eight years and most of whom 
are like sticks. I think I mentioned the other day that 
Gluck's "Iphigenie" is to be given in German and his 
"Alceste" in Italian. 3 If only one of the two were to be 
performed, I should not mind, but both that is very 
annoying for me. I will tell you why. The translator of 
"Iphigenie" into German is an excellent poet, 4 and I 
would gladly have given him my Munich opera to trans 
late. 5 I would have altered the part of Idomeneo com 
pletely and changed it to a bass part for Fischer. In 
addition I would have made several other alterations and 
arranged it more in the French style. Mme Bernasconi, 
Adamberger and Fischer would have been delighted to 
sing it, but, as they now have two operas to study, and 
such exhausting ones, I am obliged to excuse them. 
Besides, a third opera would be too much. 

I must now hurry off to Marchall (for I have promised 
to introduce him to Count Cobenzl), or I shall be too late. 
Now farewell. I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
embrace my sister with all my heart and am ever your 
most obedient son 


P.S. My greetings to all my good friends. A kiss to 

1 For Mozart's opera "Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail". 

2 Noverre had left Vienna for good in 1775 to take up his appointment as 
maitre des ballets en chef to the Paris Opera. Hence Mozart's statement is a 
slight exaggeration. 3 See p. 1134. 

4 Johann Baptist von Alxinger (1755-1797), a young Viennese poet. Gluck 
helped with the translation. 

5 Evidently Mozart was not altogether satisfied with Schachtner's trans 
lation of his "Idomeneo". 



(425) Mozart to his Sister 

{Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MA TRES CHERE ScEUR! VlENNE, ce 1 9 de 7*" , 1 781 

I gather from our dear father's last letter that you are 
ill, which causes me no little sorrow and anxiety. I see 
that for a fortnight you have been drinking waters, so you 
must have been ill for a long time and yet I never heard a 
word about it. Well, I am going to be quite frank with you 
about your constantly recurring indispositions. Believe 
me, dearest sister, that I am quite serious when I say that 
the best cure for you would be a husband and if only 
because marriage would have such a profound influence 
on your health, I wish with all my heart that you could 
marry soon. In your last letter you scolded me, but not as 
much as I deserved, I am ashamed when I think of it 
and the only excuse I can offer is that I started to write to 
you the moment I received your last letter but one, and 
then left it unfinished! In the end I tore it up. For the 
time has not yet arrived for me to be able to give you 
more definite and comforting news, although I hope to be 
able to do so soon. Now listen to my suggestions. 

You know that I am composing an opera. Those por 
tions which I have finished have won extraordinary ap 
plause on all sides. I know this nation and I have reason 
to think that my opera will be a success. If it is, then I 
shall be as popular in Vienna as a composer as I am on 
the clavier. Well, when I have got through this winter, I 
shall know better how I stand, and I have no doubt that 
my circumstances will be favourable. For you and 
D' Yppold there are scarcely any indeed, I may say with 
certainty no prospects in Salzburg. But could not 
D' Yppold manage to get something here? I suppose he is 
not absolutely penniless? Ask him about it and if he 



thinks the project at all practicable, he has only to tell me 
what steps to take, and I will certainly do my utmost, for 
I take the greatest interest in this affair. If this were 
accomplished, you could certainly marry; for, believe 
me, you could earn a great deal of money in Vienna, for 
example, by playing at private concerts and by giving 
lessons. You would be very much in demand and you 
would be well paid. In that case my father would have to 
resign his post and come too and we could live very 
happily together again. I see no other solution and even 
before I knew that your affair with D' Yppold was serious, 
I had something like this in mind for you. Our dear father 
was the only difficulty, for I wanted him to enjoy his rest 
and not to have to worry and torment himself. But I think 
that in this way it might be arranged. For with your 
husband's earnings, your own and mine, we can easily 
manage, and enable our father to live in peace and comfort. 
Do talk this over soon with D' Yppold and let me know at 
once what you would like me to do, for the sooner I begin 
to arrange matters, the better. I can do most through the 
Cobenzls but D'Yppold must write and let me know 
how and what, 

M. Marchall sends his greetings to you and par 
ticularly to M. D' Yppold, whom he thanks most warmly 
for his great kindness to him on his departure. Well, I 
must close, for I have still to write to Papa. Farewell, 
dearest sister! I hope to have better news of your health in 
Papa's next letter and to have it confirmed soon by your 
own hand. Adieu. I kiss you a thousand times and am 
ever your brother who will always love you with all his 




(425a) Mozart to his Father 

[From Ludwig Nohl, Mozarts Brief e, ind edition, pp. 305-306] J 

Forgive me if you have to pay a little more for the 
letter this time. I wanted to give you some idea at least 
of the first act, so that you may judge what the whole 
opera will be like and I could not have done it with less. 
I hope that your fits of dizziness will soon cease. You 
gave me rather a fright about my sister, because it was 
so unexpected. I do hope that she is better now. I kiss 
her a thousand times and kiss your hands a hundred 
times and am ever your most obedient son 


(426) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the possession of Frau Floersheim-Koch, Florence'] 

MON TRES CHER P^REJ VlENNE, ce 26 de Septembre^ 1781 
Forgive me for having made you pay an extra heavy 
postage fee the other day. But I happened to have nothing 
important to tell you and thought that it would afford 
you pleasure if I gave you some idea of my opera. As 
the original text began with a monologue, 2 I asked 
Herr Stephanie to make a little arietta out of it and 
then to put in a duet instead of making the two chatter 
together after Osmin's short song. 3 As we have given the 

1 Nohl, p. 306, in a note to this undated postscript, of which he declares 
he used the autograph, states that the other side of the sheet contained a 
copy in Constanze Weber's handwriting of Constanze's aria "Ach, ich liebte, 
war so gliicklich". 

2 In the original text by C. F. Bretzner. See p. 1123, n. 3. 

3 It is worthy of note that the part of Osmin, which in Bretzner's libretto 
is negligible, was transformed by Mozart in collaboration with Stephanie to 
the towering figure in the "Entfuhrung". Possibly Mozart was encouraged 
to do this as he was composing for a magnificent singer. 



part of Osmin to Herr Fischer, who certainly has an 
excellent bass voice (in spite of the fact that the Arch 
bishop told me that he sang too low for a bass and that I 
assured him that he would sing higher next time), we 
must take advantage of it, particularly as he has the 
whole Viennese public on his side. But in the original 
libretto Osmin has only this short song and nothing else 
to sing, except in the trio and the finale; so he has 
been given an aria in Act I , and he is to have another in 
Act II. I have explained to Stephanie the words I require 
for this aria indeed I had finished composing most of 
the music for it before Stephanie knew anything what 
ever about it. I am enclosing only the beginning and the 
end, which is bound to have a good effect. Osmin's rage 
is rendered comical by the accompaniment of the Turkish 
music. In working out the aria I have given full scope 
now and then to Fischer's beautiful deep notes (in spite 
of our Salzburg Midas). 1 The passage "Drum beim Barte 
des Propheten" is indeed in the same tempo, but with 
quick notes; but as Osmin's rage gradually increases, 
there comes (just when the aria seems to be at an end) the 
allegro assai, which is in a totally different measure and 
in a different key; this is bound to be very effective. For 
just as a man in such a towering rage oversteps all the 
bounds of order, moderation and propriety and completely 
forgets himself, so must the music too forget itself. But as 
passions, whether violent or not, must never be expressed 
in such a way as to excite disgust, and as music, even in 
the most terrible situations, must never offend the ear, 
but must please the hearer, or in other words must never 
cease to be music, I have gone from F (the key in which 
the aria is written), not into a remote key, but into a 
related one, not, however, into its nearest relative D 
minor, but into the more remote A minor. Let me now 

1 i.e. the Archbishop. 


turn to Belmonte's aria in A major, "0 wie angstlich, o 
wie feurig". Would you like to know how I have ex 
pressed it and even indicated his throbbing heart? By 
the two violins playing octaves. This is the favourite aria 
of all those who have heard it, and it is mine also. -I wrote 
it expressly to suit Adamberger's voice. You feel the 
trembling the faltering you see how his throbbing 
breast begins to swell; this I have expressed by a cre 
scendo. You hear the whispering and the sighing which 
I have indicated by the first violins with mutes and a 
flute playing in unison. 

The Janissary chorus is, as such, all that can be desired, 
that is, short, lively and written to please the Viennese. 
I have sacrificed Constanze's aria a little to the flexible 
throat of Mile Cavalieri, "Trennung war mein banges 
Los und nun schwimmt mein Aug' in Tranen". I have 
tried to express her feelings, as far as an Italian bravura 
aria will allow it. I have changed the "Hui' J to "schnell", 
so it now runs thus "Doch wie schnell schwand meine 
Freude". I really don't know what our German poets are 
thinking of. Even if they do not understand the theatre, 
or at all events operas, yet they should not make their 
characters talk as if they were addressing a herd of swine. 
Hui, sow! 

Now for the trio at the close of Act I. Pedrillo has 
passed off his master as an architect to give him an 
opportunity of meeting his Constanze in the garden. 
Bassa Selim has taken him into his service. Osmin, the 
steward, knows nothing of this, and being a rude churl 
and a sworn foe to all strangers, is impertinent and refuses 
to let them into the garden. It opens quite abruptly and 
because the words lend themselves to it, I have made it a 
fairly respectable piece of real three-part writing. Then 
the major key begins at once pianissimo it must go 
very quickly and wind up with a great deal of noise, 



which is always appropriate at the end of an act. The 
more noise the better, and the shorter the better, so that 
the audience may not have time to cool down with their 

I have sent you only fourteen bars of the ouverture, 
which is very short with alternate fortes and pianos, the 
Turkish music always coming in at the fortes. The 
ouverture modulates through different keys; and I doubt 
whether anyone, even if his previous night has been a 
sleepless one, could go to sleep over it. Now comes the 
rub! The first act was finished more than three weeks 
ago, as was also one aria in Act II and the drunken 
duet * (per i signori viennesi) which consists entirely 
of my Turkish tattoo. But I cannot compose any more, 
because the whole story is being altered and, to tell the 
truth, at my own request. At the beginning of Act III 
there is a charming quintet or rather finale, but I should 
prefer to have it at the end of Act II. 2 In order to make 
this practicable, great changes must be made, in fact an 
entirely new plot must be introduced and Stephanie is 
up to the eyes in other work. So we must have a little 
patience. Everyone abuses Stephanie. It may be that in 
my case he is only very friendly to my face. But after all 
he is arranging the libretto for me and, what is more, as 
I want it exactly and, by Heaven, I do not ask any 
thing more of him. Well, how I have been chattering to 
you about my opera! But I cannot help it. Please send 
me the march 3 which I mentioned the other day. 4 Gilow- 
sky says that Daubrawaick will soon be here. Fraulein 

1 The duet between Pedrillo and Osmin, "Vivat Bacchus, Bacchus lebe". 

2 This is the quartet at the end of Act II. 

3 Probably K. 249, written in 1776 for the wedding of Elizabeth Haffner 
to F. X. Spath, for which Mozart also composed K. 250, the Haffner 

4 The letter in which Mozart made this request has unfortunately been 



von Aurnhammer and I are longing to have the two 
double concertos. 1 I hope we shall not wait as vainly as 
the Jews for their Messiah. Well, adieu. Farewell. I 
kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace with all 
my heart my dear sister, whose health, I hope, is im 
proving, and am ever your most obedient son 


(427) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum^ Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 6 tfoctobre, 1781 

I have so far always received your letters on Mondays 
and have been accustomed to reply to them on Wednes 
days; but the other day I did not receive your letter until 
Wednesday and, what is more, it arrived so late in the 
afternoon that I hadn't time to write to you. Meanwhile 
you will have received the description of the music of my 
opera. The day after I got your letter I went to see Herr 
von Scharf himself at the Post Office, had a word with 
him and gave him my address, so that he should send me 
the music at once. For I simply cannot bring myself 
to walk out to Leopoldstadt or spend a zwanziger 2 to 
drive out there just to please young Herr von Mayer. 
However, he has not yet arrived. Moreover, Herr von 
Scharf too knows nothing whatever about the arrival of 
his father-in-law, which is supposed to be so imminent. 
There was a rumour that the Archbishop intended to 
come here this month (with a numerous suite, too), but 
people are now contradicting it. As for Ceccarelli, I am 
quite sure that he will be appointed, for indeed I don't 
know where the Archbishop could find a better castrate 
for the money. Perhaps you already know what happened 

1 See p. 1113, n. 3. 2 i.e. twenty pfennigs, about twopence halfpenny. 



to the Alumni who were travelling to Strassburg on 
their arrival there? Why, they were actually refused 
permission to pass through the gates of the town, because 
they looked not only like beggars but scamps. Herr von 
Aurnhammer told me that he heard this from the cousin 
of the person to whom they had an introduction, adding 
that he said to them: "Well, my dear young men, you will 
have to stay in my house for four or five days, so that 
first of all I may have you decently dressed. For you 
cannot go out as you are, without running the risk of 
having street-urchins running after you and pelting you 
with mud." A nice testimonial to His Grace the Prince! 
I must now carry out a commission and put a question 
to you, exactly as it was put to me: Who were the 
Counts von Klessheim? And what has become of them? 
Schmidt, my cousin's x poor, unfortunate adorateur, who 
is now in Trattner's 2 bookshop, begged me most urgently 
to obtain some information for him on the point. 

Well, I am beginning to lose patience at not being able 
to go on writing my opera. True, I am composing other 
things in the meantime yet all my enthusiasm is for 
my opera, and what would at other times require fourteen 
days to write I could now do in four. I composed in one 
day Adamberger's aria in A, Cavalieri's in Bb and the 
trio, arid copied them out in a day and a half. 3 At the 
same time nothing would be gained if the whole opera 

1 Maria Anna Thekla Mozart, the "Basle". 

2 Johann Thomas Edler von Trattner (1717-1798) kept a printing busi 
ness and a bookshop in Vienna. His second wife, Therese Edle von Trattner 
(1758-1793), was an excellent clavierist. She became a pupil and an intimate 
friend of Mozart, who dedicated to her his clavier sonata in C minor, K. 457, 
written in 1784, and his clavier Fantasia in the same key, K. 475, written 
in 1785. Nottebohm, p. 131, quotes a statement of Constanze Mozart 
according to which Mozart is supposed to have written to Frau von Trattner 
"two interesting letters about music". Niemetschek, p. 59, mentions one 
letter. There is no trace of these valuable documents. 

* All in Act L 



were finished, for it would have to lie there until Gluck's 
two operas : were ready and there is still an enormous 
amount in them which the singers have to study. More 
over, Umlauf has been obliged to wait with his opera, 2 
which is ready and which took him a whole year to write. 
But (between ourselves) you must not believe that the 
opera is any good, just because it took him a whole year. 
I should have thought (again between ourselves) that it 
was the work of fourteen or fifteen days, particularly as 
the fellow must have learnt so many operas by heart, and 
all he had to do was to sit down and that is precisely 
how he composed it you notice it at once when you hear 
it! That reminds me, I must tell you that he invited me 
to his house in the most polite manner (c'est-a-dire> in his 
own manner) that I might hear his opera, adding: "You 
must not think that it is worth your while to hear it I 
have not got as far as you have, but indeed I do my 
best". I heard afterwards that he said: "It's quite certain 
that Mozart has a devil in his head, his limbs and his 
fingers why, he played off my opera (which I have 
written out so disgracefully that I myself can hardly 
read it) as if he had composed it himself. Well, adieu. 
I hope that my dear sister, whom I embrace with all my 
heart, will gradually recover. And you, my dear father 
get some cart-grease, wrap it in a bit of paper and wear 
it on your chest. Take the bone of a leg of veal and wrap 
it up in paper with a kreutzer's worth of leopard's bane 
and carry it in your pocket. I am sure that this will 
cure you. Farewell. I kiss your hands a thousand times 
and am ever your most obedient son 


1 "Iphigenie in Tauris" and "Alceste". 
2 Probably "Das Irrlicht". See p. 1124, 0.3. 



(428) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 13 d'octobre, 1781 

Fraulein von Aurnhammer and I thank you for the 
concertos. 1 M. Marchall brought young Herr von Mayer 
to my room yesterday morning and in the afternoon I 
drove out and fetched my things. M. Marchall has hopes 
of becoming tutor in the family of Count Jean Esterhazy; 
Count Cobenzl has given him a written recommendation 
to the Count. He said to me: "J'ai donne une lettre a 
Monsieur votre protege", and when he saw Marchall 
again, he said to him: "D'abord que j'aurai de reponse, 
je le dirai a M. Mozart, votre protecteur". 

Now as to the libretto of the opera. You are quite right 
so far as Stephanie's work is concerned. Still, the poetry 
is perfectly in keeping with the character of stupid, surly, 
malicious Osmin. I am well aware that the verse is not 
of the best, but it fitted in and it agreed so well with the 
musical ideas which already Were buzzing in my head, 
that it could not fail to please me; and I would like to 
wager that when it is performed, no deficiencies will be 
found. As for the poetry which was there originally, I 
really have nothing to say against it. Belmonte's aria "O 
wie angstlich" could hardly be better written for music. 
Except for "Hui" and "Kummer ruht in meinem 
Schoss" (for sorrow cannot rest), the aria too is not bad, 
particularly the first part. Besides, I should say that in an 
opera the poetry must be altogether the obedient daughter 
of the music. Why do Italian comic operas please every 
where in spite of their miserable libretti even in 
Paris, where I myself witnessed their success? Just be 
cause there the music reigns supreme and when one listens 

1 See p. 1113, n. 3. 


to it all else is forgotten. Why, an opera is sure of success 
when the plot is well worked out, the words written solely 
for the music and not shoved in here and there to suit 
some miserable rhyme (which, God knows, never en 
hances the value of any theatrical performance, be it 
what it may, but rather detracts from it) I mean, words 
or even entire verses which ruin the composer's whole 
idea. Verses are indeed the most indispensable element 
for music but rhymes solely for the sake of rhyming 
the most detrimental. Those high and mighty people who 
set to work in this pedantic fashion will always come to 
grief, both they and their music. The best thing of all is 
when a good composer, who understands the stage and is 
talented enough to make sound suggestions, meets an able 
poet, that true phoenix; in that case no fears need be 
entertained as to the applause even of the ignorant. Poets 
almost remind me of trumpeters with their professional 
tricks! If we Composers were always to stick so faithfully 
to our rules (which were very good at a time when nqjone 
knew Better), we should be concocting music as unpalat 
able as their libretti. 

"Well, I think I have chattered enough nonsense to 
you; so I must now enquire about what interests me 
most of all, and that is, your health, my most beloved 
father! In my last letter I suggested two remedies 
for giddiness, which, if you do not know them, you 
will probably not think any good. But I have been 
assured that they would certainly have a splendid effect; 
and the pleasure of thinking that you might recover made 
me believe this assurance so entirely that I could not re 
frain from suggesting them with my heart's wishes and 
with the sincere desire that you may not need them but 
that if you do use them, you will recover completely. I 
trust that my sister is improving daily. I kiss her with all 
my heart and, my dearest, most beloved father, I kiss 


your hands a thousand times and am ever your most 

obedient son 


As soon as I receive the watch, I shall return yours. 

(429) Mozart to his Cousin, Maria Anna Thekla 
Mozart, Augsburg 

[From Ludwig Nohl, Mozarts Brief e^ 2nd edition, p. 3io/.] 

MA TRES CHERE COUSINEJ VlENNE, ce 21 d'octobre, 1781 * 
I had been hungering all this long time for a letter 
from you, dearest cousin wondering what it would be 
like and it proved to be exactly what I had imagined. 
For after once letting three months elapse, I should never 
have written again even if the executioner had stood 
behind me with his naked sword. For I should not have 
known how, when, where, why and what? I simply had 
to wait for your letter. 

As you doubtless know, several important things have 
happened to me in the meantime, in connection with 
which I have had to do a good deal of thinking and have 
had a great amount of vexation, worry, trouble and anxiety, 
which indeed may serve to excuse my long silence. As for 
all the other things, let me tell you that the gossip which 
people have been so kind as to circulate about me, is 
partly true and partly false. That is all I can say at the 
moment. But let me add, in order to set your mind at rest, 
that I never do anything without a reason and, what is 
more, without a well-founded reason. If you had shown 
more confidence and friendship and had applied to me 
direct (and not to others and what is more ...!). But 

1 It is doubtful whether this date is correct. See p. 1154, n. 2. 


silence. If you had addressed yourself direct to me, you 
would certainly have heard more than everyone else and, 
possibly, more than I myself! But Well, I was nearly 
forgetting. Be so kind, dearest, most beloved cousin, as to 
deliver immediately, in person, the enclosed letter to Herr 
Stein, 1 and ask him to answer it at once or at any rate to 
tell you what you should write to me about it. For I hope 
that our correspondence, dear little cousin, will now start 
off again! That is, if our letters do not cost you too much! 
If, as I hope, you honour me with a reply, be so gracious 
as to address your letter as you did the other day, namely, 
Auf dem Peter, im Auge Gottes, 2nd floor. True, I no 
longer live there, but the address is so well known at the 
post office, that when a letter is addressed to my new 
lodging, it is held up for a day or two. 

Now farewell, dearest, most beloved cousin! Keep me 
in your friendship which is so precious to me. Be com 
pletely assured of my friendship. I am ever, ma tres chere 
cousine, your most sincere cousin and friend, 


My greetings to your father and mother and also to 
Fraulein Juliana. 

Mme 2 Weber and her three daughters 3 send their greet 
ings to you and she asks you to do her a favour. Herr 
Bartholomei, the bookseller (whom no doubt you know), 
asked for the portrait of Aloysia, who is now Mme Lange, 
in order to have an engraving made. Well, it will be two 
years next March and we have heard nothing either about 
the portrait or about the payment for it and its return 
was promised for last March. So Mme Weber requests 

1 There is no trace of this letter. 

2 The autograph of this portion of the postscript is in the Hatzfeld Collec 
tion, Paris, and was published in Le Menstrel, August i6th, 1932, p. 355. 

3 Josefa, Constanze and Sophie. 

VOL. Ill IIS3 H 


you to make a few enquiries, as she would like to know 
what she ought to do. I should add that it is the same 
portrait which Baron Gotz had in Munich. I think that 
you too have seen it. So it is very bad of him to have 
given it into strange hands without saying a word about 
it. Adieu, ma chere, write to me soon. 

(430) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 24 d'octobre, 1781 

I have had no letter from you to-day, most beloved 
father and my only consolation is the thought that 
probably you have had no time to write. Many thanks 
for the two divertimenti * and the cuffs, which I have 
received safely. I was not at home when young Daubra- 
waick called, and he would not entrust the watch to the 
people in the house. I shall fetch it myself some day soon 
and at the same time give him yours in exchange. I hear 
that he is going to remain here for two months, but this 
time he is not lodging in Trattner's house. I can't write 
very much to you at the moment, as I have still to write 
to my cousin and to Herr Stein at Augsburg; 2 for Count 
Czernin has asked me to order a pianoforte for his wife. 
A propos, do you know that Count Czernin ... I wish 
... I should not like . . . 3 The first performance of 
"Iphigenie" 4 took place yesterday, but I wasn't there, 

1 See p. 1115, n, 2. 

2 Mozart obviously refers to Letter 429, in which he enclosed a letter for 
Herr Stein. From Mozart's remark about the performance of Gluck's opera 
which took place on October 23rd, the date of Letter 430 is correct. Hence 
there must be some mistake about the date of Letter 429. 

3 In the first case two lines, in the second and third cases several words 
have been blotted out, probably by Nissen. 

4 Gluck's "Iphigenie in Tauris". 



for whoever wanted to get a seat in the parterre had to 
be at the theatre by four o'clock, so I preferred to stay 
away. I tried to get a reserved seat in the third circle six 
days beforehand, but they were all gone. However, I was 
at nearly all the rehearsals. Well, I must close. I trust 
that both you, my most beloved father, and my dear 
sister are in good health. Praise and thanks be to God, I 
am too. I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace 
my sister with all my heart and am ever, mon tres cher 
pere, your most obedient son 


(431) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 3 de 9*", 1781 

Please forgive me for not having acknowledged by 
the last post the receipt of the cadenzas, 1 for which I 
thank you most submissively. It happened to be my 
name-day, 2 so I performed my devotions in the morning 
and, just as I was going to write to you, a whole crowd 
of congratulating friends literally besieged me. At 
twelve o'clock I drove out to Baroness Waldstadten 3 at 
Leopoldstadt, where I spent my name-day. At eleven 
o'clock at night I was treated to a serenade performed by 
two clarinets, two horns and two bassoons and that too 
of my own composition 4 for I wrote it for St. Theresa's 

1 Probably the cadenzas for K. 242, Mozart's concerto for three claviers, 
which he himself had arranged for two. 

2 October 3ist. 

3 Martha Elizabeth, Baroness von Waldstadten, nle von Schafer (1744- 
1811). She was separated from her husband and lived at Leopoldstadt, no. 
360. She was an excellent performer on the clavier and became a friend and 
patroness of Mozart. 

4 K. 375, a serenade composed in October 1781. 



Day, 1 for Frau von HickeFs sister, or rather the sister-in- 
law of Herr von Hickel, court painter, 2 at whose house it 
was performed for the first time. The six gentlemen who 
executed it are poor beggars who, however, play quite 
well together, particularly the first clarinet and the two 
horns. But the chief reason why I composed it was in 
order to let Herr von Strack, who goes there every day, 
hear something of my composition; so I wrote it rather 
carefully. It has won great applause too and on St. 
Theresa's Night it was performed in three different 
places; for as soon as they finished playing it in one 
place, they were taken off somewhere else and paid to 
play it. Well, these musicians asked that the street door 
might be opened and, placing themselves in the centre of 
the courtyard, surprised me, just as I was about to un 
dress, in the most pleasant fashion imaginable with the 
first chord in E^. I shall add the second piano part to the 
cadenzas 3 and return them to you. 

It would be a very good thing if my opera were ready, 
for Umlauf cannot produce his at present, because both 
Mme Weiss and Mile Schindler are ill. I must go off to 
Stephanie at once, as he has sent word at last that he has 
something ready for me. 

I have no news whatever to give you, for small matters 
are not likely to interest you and important ones you 
surely know quite as well as we Viennese. There is now 
a Dauphin 4 a small thing, I admit, until it becomes a 
big one I am telling you this so that the Due d' Artois 
may not have all the credit of a bon mot. For when 

1 October I5th. 

2 Joseph' Hickel (1736-1807) studied in Vienna and in 1768 was sent to 
Italy by the Empress Maria Theresa. On his return he did a portrait of 
Joseph II and was appointed in 1772 court painter to the Emperor. 

3 See p. 1155, n. i. 

4 Louis Joseph Xavier Francois, born on October 22nd, 1781. He died on 
June 4th, 1789. 



during her pregnancy the Queen complained one day 
that the Dauphin was causing her great inconvenience 
and said: "II me donne de grands coups de pied au 
ventre", the Duke replied: "O Madame, laissez-le venir 
dehors; qu'il me donnera de grands coups de pied au 
cul". Well, the day the news arrived all the theatres and 
shows in Vienna were free. 

It is striking three, so I must hurry off to Stephanie, 
or I may miss him and then have to wait again. I hope 
that every day you will feel better and my dear sister too, 
whom I embrace with all my heart. Farewell. I kiss your 
hands a thousand times and am ever your most obedient 


(432) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER ?ERE! VlENNE, ce IO de </ re , 1 781 

I thank you a thousand times for your congratula 
tions on my name-day, and send you mine for St. 
Leopold's Day. 1 Dearest, most beloved father! I wish you 
every imaginable good that one can possibly wish. Nay 
rather, I wish nothing for you, but everything for myself. 
So I wish for my own sake that you may continue to 
enjoy good health, and that you may live many, many 
years for my happiness and my infinite pleasure. I ^yish for 
my own sake that every thing I do and undertake may be in 
accordance with your desire and pleasure, or rather that 
I may never do anything which may not cause you the 
very greatest joy. I hope it may be so, for whatever con 
tributes to your son's happiness must naturally be agree 
able to you. 

Herr von Aurnhammer, in whose house I am writing, 

1 November I5th. 


his wife and the two young ladies also send you their 

At the play the other day I was talking to Gschwendner, 
who told me that Frau Spath 1 has died. I hope that I 
may perhaps hear from you to-morrow whether this news 
is true or false. 

The Duke of Wurtemberg 2 is expected to-day, so 
to-morrow there is to be a Redoute and on the 25th there 
is to be a public Redoute at Schonbrunn. But people 
are extremely embarrassed about this, for, according to 
general report, the Grand Duke will only stay ten days, 
and the festival of St. Catherine, which the ball is to 
celebrate, falls according to the Greek calendar on 
December 6th. So no one knows yet what will be done. 
Now for another comical tale. The Emperor commanded 
each of the actors to select a part in which to appear before 
the Grand Duke. Lange 3 applied for that of Hamlet, but 
Count Rosenberg, who does not like Lange, said that this 
could not be, because Brockmann 4 had been playing that 
part for ages. When this was repeated to Brockmann, he 
went to Rosenberg and told him that he could not appear 
in the part and that the play could not be performed at all. 
And why? Because the Grand Duke himself was Hamlet* 
The Emperor (it is said it is said it is said) on hearing 
this sent Brockmann fifty ducats.. Now I have no more 

1 Probably Elise Haffner, daughter of Sigmund Haffner, merchant and 
burgomaster of Salzburg, for whose marriage to F. X. Spath, July 22nd, 
1776, Mozart composed a march, K. 249, and a serenade, K. 250. 

2 The visitors were Duke Karl Eugen of Wurtemberg and his wife, his 
daughter Princess Elizabeth, who was betrothed to the Archduke Francis, 
and his son Prince Ferdinand. They arrived in Vienna on November nth. 

3 Josef Lange, who had married as his second wife Aloysia Weber. See 
p. 1089, n. 2. 

4 Hieronymus Brockmann, a popular actor. 

5 A popular comparison at the time. After the death of his father, Peter III, 
and the establishment of his mother, Catherine, as sole ruler of Russia, the 
Grand Duke Paul, feeling that his rights had been usurped and that he had 
no part to play in the government of his country, fell into a state of melancholy. 



news. I thank you again a thousand times and renew my 
wishes. I shall write to my sister very soon. I kiss your 
hands a thousand times and embrace my dear sister with 
all my heart and am ever your most obedient son 


P.S. My thanks and greetings to all who sent me their 
congratulations. A propos. Is it true that the Elector of 
Bavaria is dying? l Adieu. 

(433) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 17 de Nov*", 1 78 1 

I have received your letter of the 6th. In regard to 
Ceccarelli, it is quite impossible even for a single night; 
for I have only one room, which is not large and is so 
crammed already with my wardrobe, table and clavier 
that really I do not know where I could put another bed 
and as for sleeping in one bed that I shall only do with 
my future wife. But I shall look about for as cheap a 
lodging as possible, provided I know precisely when he is 
to arrive. I have not seen Countess Schonborn at all this 
time. I had not the heart to call and I still feel just the 
same. I know her through and through. She would most 
certainly say something which I should probably not 
swallow without retorting, and it is always better to avoid 
such incidents. In any case she knows that I am here; and 
if she wants to see me, she can send for me. Czernin could 
not get the hang of the Molk affair and asked him at a 
public dinner whether he had any .news of his brother, the 
Court Councillor? Molk was taken aback and could not 

1 The Elector of Bavaria lived until 1799. 


reply. I would certainly have given him some answer. 
He was corrupted in a house which you frequented a 
great deal. 1 I shall look up the Kletzl family as soon as 
possible. Well, I have at last got something to work at 
for my opera. Indeed, if we were always to trust and 
believe tale-bearers, how often should we injure ourselves! 
I simply cannot tell you how people abused Stephanie 
junior to me. I really became quite uneasy about him, and 
if I had acted as I was advised, I should have transformed 
a good friend into an enemy who might have done me a 
great deal of harm; and all this without any just cause. 
Yesterday at three o'clock in the afternoon the Arch 
duke Maximilian 2 sent for me. When I went in, he was 
standing near the stove in the first room and was waiting 
for me. He came up to me at once and asked me if I had 
anything particular to do that day. I replied: " Nothing 
whatever, your Royal Highness; and if I had, I should 
still consider it a favour to be allowed to wait on your 
Royal Highness". "No, no/' he said, "I refuse to incon 
venience anyone/' He then told me that he was intending 
to give a concert that very evening to the visitors from 
Wurtemberg 3 and suggested that I should play and 
accompany the arias, adding that I was to come back at 
six o'clock when all the guests would be assembled. So I 
played there yesterday. When God gives a man a sacred 
office, He generally gives him understanding; and so it is, 
I trust, in the case of the (Archduke.) But before he 
became a priest, he was far more witty and intelligent and 
talked less, but more sensibly. You should see him now! 
(Stupidity) oozes out of his eyes. He talks and holds forth 
incessantly and always in falsetto and he has started a 

1 This obscure passage is probably connected with the passages in Letter 
430 which have been obliterated. 

2 The Archduke Maximilian (1756-1801) was the Emperor's youngest 
brother. He was Archbishop of Cologne. 

3 See p. 1158, n. 2. 



goitre. In short, the fellow seems to have changed com 
pletely. The Duke of Wurtemberg, however, is a charming 
person and so are the Duchess and the Princess. But the 
Prince, who is eighteen, is a regular stick and an out-and- 
out calf. 

Well, I must close. Farewell and be as cheerful as 
possible! I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace 
my dear sister with all my heart and am ever your most 
obedient son 


(434) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRfeS CHER PERE! VlENNE, C6 24 Nov*" t 1781 

I happened to be at Aurnhammer's concert yester 
day, when Ceccarelli brought your letter to my lodging. 
So, as he did not find me in, he left it with the Webers, 
who at once sent it on to me. At the concert there were 
Countess Thun (whom I had invited), Baron van Swieten, 
Baron Godenus, the rich converted Jew Wetzlar, 1 Count 
Firmian, Herr von Daubrawaick and his son. We played 
the concerto a due 2 and a sonata for two claviers, 3 which 
I had composed expressly for the occasion and which was 
a great success. I shall send you this sonata by Herr von 
Daubrawaick, who said he would be proud to have it lying 
in his trunk. The son told me this and, mark you, he is a 
native of Salzburg, The father, however, when he was 
leaving, said aloud to me: "I am proud of being your 

1 Baron Raimund Wetzlar von Plankenstern (1752-1810). Mozart and 
his wife occupied the third floor of his house at the Hohe Briicke 412 (now 
no. 17) from December 1782 until March 1783. He was godfather to their 
first child, Raimund Leopold, and appears to have helped them financially. 

2 K. 365, concerto in E^for two claviers, composed in 1779. 

3 K. 448, sonata in D major for two claviers. 


countryman. You are doing Salzburg great credit. I hope 
the times will change so that we shall have you back again, 
and then most certainly we shall not let you go." My 
reply was: "My own country will always have the first 
claim upon me". I have seen Herr Gschwendner once at 
the theatre and once at the Redoute. As soon as I meet 
him again, I shall ask him when he is leaving. Kersch- 
baumer, the king of the Moors, is also in Vienna; and 
when I went to see Mme Contrarini (who is living in this 
house and also on the third floor), in order to borrow a 
domino from her, who should walk in but Freysauf * and 
Atzwanger. 2 One damned Salzburger after another! 

The Grand Duke, 3 the big noise, has arrived. To 
morrow "Alceste" 4 is to be given (in Italian) at Schon- 
brunn, followed by a free Redoute. I have been looking 
about for Russian popular songs, so as to be able to play 
variations on them. 5 

My sonatas 6 have been published and I shall send 
them to you as soon as I get a chance. 

No doubt Ceccarelli will want to give a concert with 
me. But he won't succeed, for I don't care about going 
shares with people. All that I can do, as I intend to give 
a concert in Lent, is to let him sing at it and then to play 
for him gratis at his own. 

Well, I must close, for I must be off to Frau von 
Trattner. 7 Some time during the next few days I shall 
reply to my dear sister, whom I embrace with all my heart. 

1 Anton Freysauf, who with his brother Franz kept a shop in the Juden- 

2 Probably a son of Raimund Felix Atzwanger (1726-1804), a wealthy 
grocer and town councillor of Salzburg. 

3 The Grand Duke Paul Petrovitch of Russia. 

4 Gluck's "Alceste" was not performed until December 3rd. 

5 There is no trace of these compositions, if Mozart ever wrote them down. 

6 The six violin and clavier sonatas, K. 296 and 376-380. They were dedi 
cated to Mozart's pupil, Josephine Aurnhammer. 

7 See p. 1148, n. 2. 



Dearest, most beloved father, I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and am ever your most obedient son 


(435) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 5 de Dec*", 1781 

I have had no letter from you to-day, so I shall send 
you all the news I have heard, which -is, indeed, little 
enough and most of it made up. That is just the reason 
why I never send you any, because I am afraid of dis 
gracing myself. For example, General Laudon was 
positively dead and is now risen again, fortunately for 
the house of Austria! * The Grand Duke is to remain here 
until the New Year and the Emperor is wondering how 
he is going to entertain him for such a long time. But to 
avoid racking his brains too much he is not entertaining 
him at all. It is quite enough, he thinks, if he looks after 
(the Grand Duchess,) and for this <he himself suffices.) 
There was horrible confusion at the Schonbrunn ball. As 
the admirable arrangements made it perfectly easy to 
foresee what would happen, Herr Ego did not put in an 
appearance, for he is no lover of crushes, digs in the ribs 
and blows, even if they happen to be (Imperial) ones! 
Strobel, the Court messenger, had to distribute the tickets, 
and three thousand people were expected. It was publicly 
announced that everyone could be entered on the list by 
applying to Strobel. So they all went, and Strobel took 
down their names, and all they had to do was to send for 
their tickets. A few very eminent persons had theirs sent 
to their houses, this commission being entrusted to any 
scamp who chanced to be loitering about. Well, it 

1 Laudon lived until 1790. He had been in poor health for some time. 



happened that a fellow asked someone he met on the stairs 

whether his name was so-and-so, and for a joke he said it 

was and thus secured the ticket. I know of two families who 

owing to this lack of organisation got no tickets. They 

were on the list, but when they sent for their tickets, 

Strobel replied that he had despatched them long ago. In 

this way the ball was full of friseurs and housemaids. 

But now for the most amusing part of the story, which has 

greatly incensed (the nobility. The Emperor) walked 

about the whole time with (the Grand Duchess) on his 

arm. The nobility had arranged two sets of contredanses 

Romans and Tartars. Into one of these sets the Viennese 

mob, who are never particularly civil, pushed themselves 

so roughly that they forced (the Grand Duchess to let go) 

the (Emperor's) arm, and shoved her forward among the 

dancers. (The Emperor) began to stamp furiously, cursed 

like a lazzarone, pushed back a crowd of people and 

dealt blows right and left. Some of the Hungarian 

Guards wanted to support him and help him to clear a 

space, but he sent them off. All I say is that it serves him 

right. For what else can you expect from a mob? I have 

this moment received your letter of November 27th. It is 

quite true that, out of love for the Princess, (the Emperor) 

drove out to meet the Duke of Wurtemberg. This affair is 

an open secret in Vienna, but no one knows whether she is 

going to be a morsel for himself or for some Tuscan prince. 

Probably the latter. All the same (the Emperor) is far too 

(loving) with her for my taste. He is always kissing her 

hands, first one and then the other, and often both at once. 

I am really astonished, because she is, you might say, still 

a child. But if it be true, and what people predict does 

happen, then I shall begin to believe that in his case 

charity begins at home. For she is to remain here in a 

convent for two years and probably if there is no 

hitch she will become my pupil on the clavier. 



I know the bassoon-player well whom they want to 
foist on the Archbishop. He plays second to Ritter at the 
opera. You say that I must not forget you! That you 
rejoice to think that I do not, gives me the greatest 
pleasure. But if you could believe it possible that I should 
forget you, that indeed would pain me dreadfully. You 
say that I must remember that I have an immortal soul. 
Not only do I think it, but I firmly believe it. If it were 
not so, wherein would consist the difference between men 
and beasts? Just because I both know and most firmly 
believe this, I have not been able to carry out all your 
wishes exactly in the way you expected. Now farewell. I 
kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace my sister 
with all my heart and am ever your most obedient son 


(436) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 
MON TRES CHER ?ERE! VlENNE, ce 1 5 de Dec*", 1 78 1 

I have this moment received your letter of the I2th. 
Herr von Daubrawaick will bring you this letter, the 
watch, the Munich opera, 1 the six engraved sonatas, 2 
the sonata for two claviers 3 and the cadenzas. 4 As for 
the Princess of Wurtemberg and myself, all is over. The 
Emperor has spoilt everything, for he cares for no one but 
Salieri. The Archduke Maximilian recommended me to 
her and she replied that had it rested with her, she would 
never have engaged anyone else, but that on account of her 
singing the Emperor had suggested Salieri. She added 
that she was extremely sorry. What you tell me about the 

1 "Idomeneo." 2 See p. 1162. n. 6. 

3 K. 448, composed in November 1781. 4 See p. 1155, n. i. 



House of Wurtemberg and yourself may possibly prove 
useful to me. 

Dearest father! You demand an explanation of the 

words in the closing sentence of my last letter! Oh, how 

gladly would I have opened my heart to you long ago, but 

I was deterred by the reproaches you might have made to 

me for thinking of such a thing at an unseasonable time 

although indeed thinking can never be unseasonable. 

Meanwhile I am very anxious to secure here a small but 

certain income, which, together with what chance may 

provide, will enable me to live here quite comfortably 

and then to marry! You are horrified at the idea? But 

I entreat you, dearest, most beloved father, to listen to 

me. I have been obliged to reveal my intentions to you. 

You must, therefore, allow me to disclose to you my 

reasons, which, moreover, are very well founded. The 

voice of nature speaks as loud in me as in others, louder, 

perhaps, than in many a big strong lout of a fellow. I 

simply cannot live as most young men do in these days. 

In the first place, I have too much religion; in the second 

place, I have too great a love of my neighbour and too 

high a feeling of honour to seduce an innocent girl; and, 

in the third place, I have too much horror and disgust, too 

much dread and fear of diseases and too much care for my 

health to fool about with whores. So I can swear that I 

have never had relations of that sort with any woman. 

Besides, if such a thing had occurred, I should not have 

concealed it from you; for, after all, to err is natural enough 

in a man, and to err once would be mere weakness 

although indeed I should not undertake to promise that 

if I had erred once in this way, I should stop short at one 

slip. However, I stake my life on the truth of what I have 

told you. I am well aware that this reason (powerful as it 

is) is not urgent enough. But owing to my disposition, 

which is more inclined to a peaceful and domesticated 



existence than to revelry, I who from my youth up have 
never been accustomed to look after my own belong 
ings, linen, clothes and so forth, cannot think of anything 
more necessary to me than a wife. I assure you that I am 
often obliged to spend unnecessarily, simply because I do 
not pay attention to things. I am absolutely convinced 
that I should manage better with a wife (on the same 
income which I have now) than I do by myself. And how 
many useless expenses would be avoided! True, other 
expenses would have to be met, but one knows what 
they are and can be prepared for them in short, one 
leads a well-ordered existence. A bachelor, in my opinion, 
is only half alive. Such are my views and I cannot help it. 
I have thought the matter over and reflected sufficiently, 
and I shall not change my mind. But who is the object of 
my love? Do not be horrified again, I entreat you. Surely 
not one of the Webers? Yes, one of the Webers but not 
Josefa, 1 nor Sophie, 2 but Constanze, 3 the middle one. In 
no other family have I ever come across such differences 
of character. The eldest is a lazy, gross, perfidious woman, 
and as cunning as a fox. Mme Lange 4 is a false, 
malicious person and a coquette. The youngest is still 
too young to be anything in particular she is just a good- 
natured, but feather-headed creature! May God protect 
her from seduction! But the middle one, my good, dear 

1 Josefa Weber (1758-1819), the eldest daughter. She became a singer 
and took the part of the "Konigin der Nacht" in the first performances of 
the "Zauberflote" in Vienna. She married in 1788 Franz de Paula Hofer(i7S5- 
1796), an excellent violinist, and, after his death, Friedrich Sebastian Mayer 
( I 773- I ^35), a well-known actor. See Bliimml, p. 1 19 ff. 

2 Maria Sophie Weber (1767-1846), the youngest daughter. She married 
in 1806 the composer Jakob Haibel (] 761-1826), who occasionally sang in 
Schikaneder's productions in Vienna. 

3 Constanze Weber (1763-1842), the third daughter. The best account of 
Constanze's life and character is to be found in A. Schurig, Konstanze 
Mozart (Dresden, 1922). See also Farmer and Smith, New Mozartiana 
(Glasgow, 1935), pp. 29-52. 

4 Aloysia Weber (1760-1839), the second daughter, 



Constanze, is the martyr of the family and, probably for 
that very reason, is the kindest-hearted, the cleverest and, 
in short, the best of them all. She makes herself responsible 
for the whole household and yet in their opinion she does 
nothing right. Oh, my most beloved father, I could fill 
whole sheets with descriptions of all the scenes that I have 
witnessed in that house. If you want to read them, I shall 
do so in my next letter. But before I cease to plague you 
with my chatter, I must make you better acquainted with 
the character of my dear Constanze. She is not ugly, but at 
the same time far from beautiful. Her whole beauty con 
sists in two little black eyes and a pretty figure. She has no 
wit, but she has enough common sense to enable her to 
fulfil her duties as a wife and mother. It is a downright lie 
that she is inclined to be extravagant. On the contrary, 
she is accustomed to be shabbily dressed, for the little that 
her mother has been able to do for her children, she has 
done for the two others, but never for Constanze. True, 
she would like to be neatly and cleanly dressed, but not 
smartly, and most things that a woman needs she is able 
to make for herself; and she dresses her own hair every 
day. Moreover she understands housekeeping and has the 
kindest heart in the world. I love her and she loves me 
with all her heart. Tell me whether I could wish myself a 
better wife? 

One thing more I must tell you, which is that when I 
resigned the Archbishop's service, our love had not yet 
begun. It was born of her tender care and attentions when 
I was living in their house. 

Accordingly, all that I desire is to have a small assured 
income (of which, thank God, I have good hopes), and 
then I shall never cease entreating you to allow me to save 
this poor girl and to make myself and her and, if I 
may say so, all of us very happy. For you surely are happy 
when I am? And you are to enjoy one half of my fixed 



From a portrait by Josef Lange 
(Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow) 


income. My dearest father, I have opened my heart to you 
and explained my remarks. It is now my turn to beg you to 
explain yours in your last letter. You say that I cannot 
imagine that you were aware of a proposal which had 
been made to me and to which I, at the time when you 
heard of it, had not yet replied. I do not understand one 
word of this I know of no such proposal. Please take pity 
on your son! I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
am ever your most obedient son 


(436a) Mozart to his Sister 

[From Ludwig Nohl, Mozarts Brief e^ 2nd edition, p. 322] 
MA TRES CHERE S(EUR! VIENNA, December l$th, 1 78 1 1 

Here are the six engraved sonatas 2 and the sonata 
for two claviers. 3 I hope you will like them. Only four will 
be new to you. 4 The copyist was not able to finish the 
variations, 5 which I shall send you in my next letter. 

Dear sister! I have beside me a letter which I began to 
you, 6 but as I have written a long letter to Papa, I have 
not been able to go on with yours. So please be content 
this time with this cover, and I shall write to you by 
the next post. Addio, farewell. I kiss you a thousand times 
and am ever your sincere brother 


1 A postscript written on the cover of the letter to his father. 

2 K. 296, 376-380. 3 K. 448. 

4 K. 296 and 378 had been composed before Mozart went to Vienna, 
s K. 359, 360, 352. 

6 The following letter (Letter 437), begun on the I5th and finished on the 
22nd of December. 

VOL. Ill 1169 


(437) Mozart to his Sister 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MA TRES CHERE SCEUR! VlENNE, ce 15 de Decem*, 1781* 
I thank you for all the news you have sent me. Here are 
my six sonatas. Only four of them will be new to you. It is 
not possible to let you have the variations, as the copyists 
are too busy. But as soon as I can, I shall send them to you. 

December 22nd. Meanwhile you will have received 
the cover, 2 in which I sent a letter to my father. Herr 
von Daubrawaick has returned the opera, 3 so I must 
look about for some other opportunity of sending it to 
Salzburg. Indeed Ceccarelli would have been taken aback, 
had you accepted his offer, for when I spoke to him about 
it, he quickly replied: "Certo, Tavrei presa meco subito". 4 
And when I asked him why he had not done so, he had no 
better reason to give than "Where could I have put her 
here?" "Oh as to that/' I replied, "there would have 
been no difficulty, for I know plenty of houses where 
they would have been delighted to put her up." And, 
indeed, it is quite true. If you find a good opportunity of 
coming to Vienna for a time, just write and let me know 

Do you not think that "Das Loch in der Thur" 5 is a 
good comedy? But you ought to see it performed here. 
"Die Gefahren der Verfiihrung" 6 is also a capital piece. 
"Das offentliche Geheimnis" 7 is only endurable if one 

1 The beginning of this letter was written before the postscript to Letter 
436. Mozart continued the letter on December 22nd. 

2 See Letter 436a. 3 "Idomeneo." 

4 Certainly, I would have taken her with me at once. 
s Seep. 1109, n. i. 

6 It has not been possible to discover the author of this play. 

7 A German translation of Carlo Gozzi's "II pubblico segreto", which 
was an adaptation of Calderon's "El secreto a voces". Gozzi's comedy was 
first performed at Modena on May 2Oth, 1769. ' 



remembers that it is an Italian play, for the Princess's 
condescension to her servant is really too indecent and 
unnatural. The best part of this play is the public secret 
itself I mean, the way in which the two lovers, though 
preserving their secret, still contrive to communicate with 
one another publicly. What is the name of the acrobat? 
Elias Vogt is with Bohm and little Peter 1 is in Berlin. It 
was real news to me that Feigele has gone home and that 
Andretter is back in Salzburg. 

I cannot send you any news, my dear sister, because at 
the moment I have none. In regard to our old acquaint 
ances I must tell you that I have only been out once to 
see Frau von Mesmer. 2 The house is no longer what it was. 
If I want to get a free meal, I need not drive out to the 
Landstrasse for it, for there are plenty of houses in town 
to which I can go on foot. The Fischers are living in the 
Tiefer Graben where I scarcely ever happen to go; but if 
my way does take me in that direction, I pay them a visit 
of a few minutes, since I really cannot endure for longer 
their tiny, overheated room and the wine on the table. I 
am well aware that people of their class consider this to 
be the greatest possible compliment, but I am no lover of 
such compliments and still less of people of that type. I 
have not yet seen a single one of the Breans. I have 
talked quite often to Grill (who is now married) and to 
Heufeld. As for my shooting fund, I do not know either 
what is to be done. Surely there is some money there, 
some interest, I mean, on the hundred gulden? Why, you 
will just have to take some of it. Perhaps I shall be more 
fortunate next year. What about the target? 

Good God! I have received this very moment a letter 
from my dearest and most beloved father! How can there 

1 See p. 1049, n - 3- 

2 The wife of Dr. Franz Anton Mesmer, who in the meantime had settled 
in Paris. 



be such monsters in the shape of men? But patience! my 
rage and fury are such that I cannot write any more; but 
do tell him that I shall reply to his letter by the next post 
and that I shall convince him that there are men who are 
worse than devils. In the meantime let him be easy in 
his mind. Say that his son is possibly more worthy of him 
than he thinks. Adieu. I kiss my dearest, most beloved 
father's hands a thousand times and embrace you, my 
dearest sister, with all my heart and am ever your sincere 


A thousand compliments to M. D'Yppold. Adieu. 

(438) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 22 X*", 1 78 1 

I am still full of rage and fury at the disgraceful 
lies of that arch- villain Winter 1 and yet I am calm and 
composed, because they do not affect me and delighted 
and contented with my most inestimable, most dear and 
most beloved father. But I could never have expected 
anything else from your good sense, and your love and 
kindness to me. No doubt by this time you will have 
received my letter with the confession of my love and my 
intentions, and you will have gathered from it that I shall 

1 Peter von Winter (1754-1825), born in Mannheim, joined the Mannheim 
orchestra as violinist in 1775. In 1794 he became Vice- Kapellmeister to the 
Munich court orchestra, and in 1798 Kapellmeister. From 1793 to 1797 he 
had nine operas performed at the Burgtheater and Schikaneder's theatre in 
Vienna. He also composed a great deal of church music. He was in Vienna 
during the winter of 1781 for the production of three ballets, for which he 
had written the music. 



not be so foolish as to marry rashly in my twenty-sixth 
year without having some certain income and thaf I 
have very well founded reasons for getting married as 
soon as possible and that, from the description of her 
which I gave you, my girl will be a very suitable wife for 
me. For she is just as I have described her, not one whit 
better or worse. As for the marriage contract, I want to 
make the most frank confession, fully convinced as I am 
that you will forgive me for taking this step; for had you 
been in my place, you would most certainly have done the 
same thing. But for one thing alone I ask your pardon 
that is, that I did not tell you all about this long ago. In 
my last letter I apologised to you for my delay and gave 
you the reason which deterred me. So I hope that you will 
forgive me, particularly as no one has suffered more by 
it than I have and even if you had not provided the 
occasion for doing so in your last letter, I should have 
written to you and disclosed everything. For, by Heaven, 
I could not have stood it much much longer. 

Well, let's come to the marriage contract, or rather to 
the written assurance of my honourable intentions towards 
the girl. You know, of course, that as the father is no 
longer alive (unhappily for the whole family as well as for 
my Constanze and myself) a guardian 1 has taken his place. 
Certain busybodies and impudent gentlemen like Herr 
Winter must have shouted in the ears of this person (who 
doesn't know me at all) all sorts of stories about me as, 
for example, that he should beware of me that I have no 
settled income that I was far too intimate with her 
that I should probably jilt her and that the girl would 
then be ruined, and so forth. All this made him smell a 

1 Johann von Thorwart (1737-^. 1813). From 1776 to 1791 he was in charge 
of the financial affairs of the National Theatre in Vienna, and was Count 
Rosenberg's right hand. For a full study of Thorwart's strange career see 
Blumml, p. 54 ff. 



rat for the mother who knows me and knows that I am 
honourable, let things take their course and said nothing 
to him about the matter. For my whole association with 
her consisted in my lodging with the family and later in 
my going to their house every day. No one ever saw me 
with her outside the house. But the guardian kept on 
pestering the mother with his representations until she 
told me about them and asked me to speak to him myself, 
adding that he would come some day to her house. He 
came and we had a talk with the result (as I did not 
explain myself as clearly as he desired) that he told the 
mother to forbid me to associate with her daughter until 
I had come to a written agreement with him. The mother 
replied: "Why, his whole association with her consists in 
his coming to my house, and I cannot forbid him my 
house. He is too good a friend and one to whom I owe a 
great deal. I am quite satisfied. I trust him. You must 
settle it with him yourself." So he forbade me to have any 
thing more to do with Constanze, unless I would give him 
a written undertaking. What other course was open to me? 
I had either to give him a written contract or to desert 
the girl. What man who loves sincerely and honestly can 
forsake his beloved? Would not the mother, would not 
my loved one herself place the worst interpretation upon 
such conduct? That was my predicament. So I drew up a 
document to the effect that I bound myself to marry Mile 
Constanze Weber within the space of three years and that 
if it should prove impossible for me to do so owing to my 
changing my mind, she should be entitled to claim from me 
three hundred gulden a year. Nothing in the world could 
have been easier for me to write. For I knew that I should 
never have to pay these three hundred gulden, because I 
should never forsake her, and that even should I be so un 
fortunate as to change my mind, I should only be too glad 
to get rid of her for three hundred gulden, while Constanze, 



if I know her, would be too proud to let herself be sold. 
But what did the angelic girl do when the guardian was 
gone? She asked her mother for the document, and said 
to me: "Dear Mozart! I need no written assurance from 
you. I believe what you say', and tore up the paper. This 
action made my dear Constanze yet more precious to me, 
and the document having been destroyed and the guardian 
having given his parole dhonneur to keep the matter to 
himself, I was to a certain extent easy in my mind on 
your account, my most beloved father. For I had no fear 
but that ultimately you would give your consent to our 
marriage (as the girl has everything but money), because 
I know your sensible ideas on this subject. Will you for 
give me? Indeed I hope so! Nor do I doubt it for a 
moment. Well, now I want to talk about those black 
guards (however repulsive it may be to me). I believe that 
Herr Reiner's only disease was that he was not quite right 
in the head. I happened to meet him in the theatre, where 
he gave me a letter from Ramm. I asked him where he 
was lodging, but he could neither tell me the street nor the 
house, and he cursed the day when he had let himself be 
persuaded to come here. I offered to present him to the 
Countess 1 and to introduce him wherever 1 had the entree; 
and I assured him that if he found he could not give a 
concert, I should certainly take him to the Grand Duke. 2 
All he said was: "Pooh! There is nothing to be done here. 
I shall go off at once." "Only have a little patience/' I said, 
"and since you cannot tell me where you lodge, I shall 
give you my address, which is easy to find/' However, I 
saw nothing more of him. I made enquiries, but by the 
time I had found out where he was living, he had left. So 
much for this gentleman. As for Winter, if he deserves to 
be called a man (for he is married) or at least a human 

1 The Countess Thun. 
2 The Grand Duke Paul Petrovitch of Russia. 



being, I may say that on account of Vogler he has always 
been my worst enemy. 1 Since, however, he is a beast in his 
way of living and a child in the rest of his conduct and 
actions, I should be ashamed to write a single word about 
him. For he thoroughly deserves the contempt of every 
man of honour. So I shall not tell infamous truths about 
him in return for the infamous lies he has told about me, 
but give you instead some account of my own manner 
of life. 

Every morning at six o'clock my friseur arrives and 
wakes me, and by seven I have finished dressing. I com 
pose until ten, when I give a lesson to Frau von Trattner 
and at eleven to the Countess Rumbeck, each of whom pays 
me six ducats for twelve lessons and to whom I go every 
day, unless they put me off, which I do not like at all. I 
have arranged with the Countess that she is never to put 
me off, I mean that, if I do not find her at home, I am at 
least to get my fee; but Frau von Trattner is too eco- 
non\ical for that. I do not owe a single kreutzer to any 
man. I have not heard a word about any amateur concert 
where two persons played very finely on the clavier. And 
I must tell you candidly that I do not think it worth the 
trouble to reply to all the filth which such a lousy cad and 
miserable bungler may have said. He only makes himself 
ridiculous by doing so. If you really believe that I am 
detested at court and by the old and new aristocracy, 
just write to Herr von S track, the Countess Thun, the 
Countess Rumbeck, Baroness Waldstadten, Herr von 
Sonnenfels, Frau von Trattner, enfin, to anyone you 
choose. Meanwhile let me tell you that at table the other 
day the Emperor gave me the very highest praise, ac 
companied by the words: "Cest un talent decide!" and 
that the day before yesterday, December 24th, I played 

1 Peter von Winter was one of Abt Vogler's most loyal friends and 



at court. 1 Another clavier-player, an Italian called 
dementi, 2 has arrived here. He too had been invited to 
court. I was sent fifty ducats yesterday for my playing, 
and indeed I need them very badly at the moment. 

My dearest, most beloved father, you will see that little 
by little my circumstances will improve. Of what use is a 
great sensation and rapid success? It never lasts. Chiva 
piano, va sano? One must just cut one's coat according to 
one's cloth. Of all the mean things which Winter said, the 
only one which enrages me is that he called my dear 
Constanze a slut. I have described her to you exactly as 
she is. If you wish to have the opinion of others, write to 
Herr von Aurnhammer, to whose house she has been a few 
times and where she has lunched once. Write to Baroness 
Waldstadten, who had her at her house, though, un 
fortunately, for a month only, because she, the Baroness, 
fell ill. Now Constanze's mother refuses to part with her 
and let her go back. God grant that I may soon be able 
to marry her. 

Ceccarelli sends you his greetings. He sang at court 
yesterday. There is one thing more I must tell you 
about Winter. Among other things he once said to me: 
"You are a fool to get married. Keep a mistress. You 
are earning enough money, you can afford it. What pre 
vents you from doing so? Some damned religious scruple?" 
Believe JLOW what you will. Adieu. I kiss your hands a 

1 Mozart did nqt finish this letter, begun on December 22nd, until 
December 26th. 

* Muzio dementi (1752-1832), a famous composer for the pianoforte. He 
was born in Rome, where Peter Beckford, cousin of William Beckford, the 
author of Vathek, discovered him in 1766 and took him to England, where 
he was trained to be a musician. Clementi was conductor at the Italian Opera 
in London from 1777 until 1780. In 1781 he started on his travels to the 
various capitals of Europe and returned to England the following year, where 
he remained until 1802. He then spent eight years touring as a performer on 
the pianoforte, and again returned to England, where he remained until his 
death. He taught J. B. Cramer and John Field. 

3 . Slow and steady wins the race. 



thousand times and embrace my dear sister with all my 
heart and am ever your most obedient son 


The address of the Baroness is 

A Madame La Baronne de Waldstadten 
nee de S chafer 

a Vienne 
Leopoldstadt no. 360. 

(439) Mozart to his Father 

{Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 9 de Janvier, 1782 

I have not yet received a reply to my last letter, 
which accounts for my not having written to you by the 
last post. I do hope I shall have a letter from you to-day. 
As in my last letter, though without being aware of it, I 
partly replied in advance to yours of December 28th, I 
must first await your reply. 

Meanwhile I must inform you that the Pope is supposed 
to "be coming to Vienna. 1 The whole town is talking about 
it. But I do not believe it, for Count Cobenzl told me that 
the Emperor will decline his visit. The Russian Royalties 
left on the 5th. Well, I have just been to Peisser's myself to 
see whether there was a letter from you, and I have sent 
again; it is almost five o'clock. I cannot understand why 
I do not hear from you! Can it be that you are so angry 
with me? You may be annoyed with me for having so long 
concealed the affair from you, and no doubt you are right. 
But if you have read my apology, surely you can forgive 
me. And surely you cannot be vexed with me for wishing 

1 Pius VI (1717-1799), formerly Cardinal Braschi, who succeeded 
Clement XIV in 1775. He visited Vienna in order to obtain from the 
Emperor a promise that the latter' s ecclesiastical reforms would not contain 
any violation of Catholic dogmas nor compromise the dignity of the Pope. 
Though magnificently received, his mission on the whole proved a failure. 



to marry? I believe that in my wishing to do so you will 
have been able to recognise what is best of all, my religion 
and my honourable feelings. Oh, I could say a great deal 
more in reply to your last letter and make many re 
monstrances, but my maxim is: what does not affect me I 
do not consider it worth while to discuss. I cannot help it 
such is my nature. I am really shy of defending myself, 
when I am falsely accused. I always think that the truth 
will come out some day. Well I cannot write anything 
more "to you on the subject, because I have not yet 
received a reply to my last letter. I have no news. So 
farewell. Once more I ask your forgiveness and implore 
you to be indulgent and merciful towards me. I never can 
be happy and contented without my dearest Constanze, 
and without your approval I shall only be so in part. So 
make me altogether happy, my dearest, most beloved 
father! I entreat you to do so. I am ever your most 

obedient son TTr A ... 


P.S. I kiss my dearest sister a thousand times with all 
my heart. Fraulein von Aurnhammer played the treble in 
the sonata for two claviers. 1 

(440) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER FERE! VlENNE, ce 12 de Janvier > 1782 

I have begun a reply to your last letter of January 
7th, but I cannot possibly finish it, as a servant of 
Countess Rumbeck has just come with an invitation to a 
small musical party at her house. Well, I must first have 
my hair dressed and I must change all my clothes. So, 
although I do not wish to leave you entirely without any 
news of me, I cannot write very much. 

' K. 448. 



Clement! plays well, so far as execution with the right 
hand goes. His greatest strength lies in his passages in 
thirds. Apart from this, he has not a kreutzer's worth of 
taste or feeling in short he is simply a mechanicus. 

The friseur has arrived, so I must close. In my next 
letter I shall tell you more about dementi. I entreat you 
to make me happy by giving me your approval I im 
plore you to do so. I am convinced that you will learn to 
love my dear Constanze. I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and am ever your most obedient son 


I embrace my dear sister with all my heart. 
(441) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 16 de Janvier, 1782 
I thank you for your kind and affectionate letter. If 
I were to give you detailed replies to every point, I should 
have to fill a quire of paper. As this is impossible, I shall 
deal only with the most important of them. The guardian's 
name is Herr von Thorwart; he is Inspector of theatrical 
properties, that is to say, everything connected with the 
theatre has to pass through his hands; the Emperor's fifty 
ducats were sent to me through him; I applied to him too 
about my concert in the theatre, as most matters of this 
kind depend on him and because he has much influence 
with Count Rosenberg and Baron Kienmayr. 1 I must con 
fess that I myself thought that he would disclose the whole 
affair to you without saying a word to me on the subject. 
This he has not done. But (notwithstanding his word of 
honour) he has told the story to the whole town of Vienna, 

1 Johann Michael, Baron von Kienmayr (1727-1792), vice-manager of the 
Vienna court theatre. 



which has very much shaken the good opinion I once had 
of him. I quite agree with you in thinking that Madame 
Weber and Herr von Thorwart have been to blame in 
showing too much regard for their own interests, though 
the Madame is no longer her own mistress and has to 
leave everything, particularly all matters of this kind, to 
the guardian, who (as he has never made my acquaintance) 
is by no means bound to trust me. But that he was too 
hasty in demanding from me a written undertaking is 
undeniable, especially as I told him that as yet you knew 
nothing about the affair and that at the moment I could 
not possibly disclose it to you. I asked him to have 
patience for a short time until my circumstances should 
take another turn, when I should give you a full ac 
count of everything and then the whole matter would 
be settled. However, it is all over now; and love must be 
my excuse. Herr von Thorwart did not behave well, but 
not so badly that he and Madame Weber "should be put 
in chains, made to sweep streets and have boards hung 
round their necks with the words ( seducers of youth 3 ". 
That too is an exaggeration. And even if what you say were 
true, that in order to catch me she opened her house, let me 
have the run of it, gave me every opportunity, etc.,- even so 
the punishment would be rather drastic. But I need hardly 
tell you that it is not true. And it hurts me very much to 
think that you could believe that your son could frequent 
a house where such things went on. Let me only say that 
you should believe precisely the opposite of all you have 
been told. But enough of this. Now a word about 
dementi. -He is an excellent cembalo-player, but that is 
all. He has great facility with his right hand. His star 
passages are thirds. Apart from this, he has not a farthing's 
worth of taste or feeling; he is a mere mechanicus. - 

After we had stood on ceremony long enough, the 
Emperor declared that dementi ought to begin. "La 



Santa Chiesa Cattolica", he said, Clementi being a 
Roman. He improvised and then played a sonata. 1 The 
Emperor then turned to me: "Allons,. fire away". I 
improvised and played variations. The Grand Duchess 
produced some sonatas by Paisiello 2 (wretchedly written 
out in his own hand), of which I had to play the Allegros 
and Clementi the Andantes and Rondos. We then 
selected a theme from them and developed it on two piano 
fortes. The funny thing was that although I had borrowed 
Countess Thun's pianoforte, I only played on it when I 
played alone; such was the Emperor's desire and, by 
the way, the other instrument was out of tune and three 
of the keys were stuck. "That doesn't matter" , said the 
Emperor. Well, I put the best construction on it I could, 
that is, that the Emperor, already knowing my skill and 
my knowledge of music, was only desirous of showing 
especial courtesy to a foreigner. Besides, I have it from a 
very good source that he was extremely pleased with me. 3 
He was very gracious, said a great deal to me privately, and 
even mentioned my marriage. Who knows? Perhaps 
what do you think? At any rate I might make the 
attempt. More of this in my next letter. Farewell. I kiss 
your hands a thousand times and embrace ray dear sister 
with all my heart and am ever your most obedient son 


1 In the next edition which was published of this sonata Clementi headed 
it with the remark: "Cette sonate, avec la toccata qui la suit, a ete jouee par 
1'auteur devant Sa Majeste Joseph II en 1781, Mozart etant present". It is 
generally accepted that the first movement of dementi's sonata gave Mozart 
the idea for the theme of the opening allegro in his ouverture to the "Zauber- 

2 Giovanni Paisiello (1740-1816), an eminent composer of the Neapolitan 
school and a rival of Piccinni, who wrote over a hundred operas and many 
other works. During the years 1776-1784 he lived in St. Petersburg and 
dedicated some clavier compositions to the Grand Duchess. 

3 Bridi in his Brevi notizie, p. 51 f,, when describing this competition, 
states that the Emperor had laid a wager with the Grand Duchess that 
Mozart would excel, and won it, 



(442) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum^ Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER P^RE! VlENNE, ce 23 de Janvier, 1782 
There is nothing more disagreeable than to be 
obliged to live in uncertainty, not knowing what is happen 
ing. Such is my case at the moment with regard to my 
concert; and it is the same with everyone who wishes to 
give one. Last year the Emperor intended to continue the 
plays throughout Lent; perhaps he may do so this year. 
Basta! At all events I have secured the day (if there is no 
play), namely, the third Sunday in Lent. If I know a 
fortnight ahead, I shall be satisfied; otherwise my whole 
plan will be upset, or I shall be obliged to incur expenses 
for nothing. Countess Thun, Adamberger and other good 
friends of mine are advising me to select the best scenes 
from my Munich opera 1 and have them performed in the 
theatre, and myself to play only one concerto and to impro 
vise at the close. I too had thought of this and I have now 
quite decided to do so, particularly as dementi is also giving 
a concert. So I shall have a slight advantage over him, the 
more so as I shall probably be able to give mine twice. 

I have enquired at Peisser's, but no letter has arrived. 
Well, I want to give you my opinion as to my prospects 
of a small permanent income. I have my eye here on 
three sources. The first is not certain, and, even if it 
were, would probably not be much; the second would be 
the best, but God knows whether it will ever come to 
pass; and the third is not to be despised, but the pity is 
that it concerns the future and not the present. The first is 
young Prince Liechtenstein, 2 who would like to collect a 

1 "Idomeneo." 

2 Prince Alois Josef, nephew of Prince Karl Borromaus Josef Liechten 
stein (1730-1789), Imperial Field-marshal. 



wind-instrument band (though he does not yet want it to 
be known), for which I should write the music. This would 
not bring in very much, it is true, but it would be at least 
something certain, and I should not sign the contract 
unless it were to be for life. The second (in my estimation, 
however, it is the first) is the Emperor himself. Who 
knows? I intend to talk to Herr von Strack about it and 
I am certain that he will do all he can, for he has proved to 
be a very good friend of mine; though indeed these court 
flunkeys are never to be trusted. The manner in which the 
Emperor has spoken to me has given me some hope. 
Great lords do not like to hear these speeches, and, 
needless to say, they themselves do not make them; for 
they must always expect a stab in the back and are great 
adepts in avoiding it. The third is the Archduke Maxi 
milian. Now of him I can say that he thinks the world of 
me. He shoves me forward on every occasion, and I might 
almost say with certainty that if at this moment he were 
Elector of Cologne, I should be his Kapellmeister. It is, 
indeed, a pity that these great gentlemen refuse to make 
arrangements beforehand. I could easily manage to 
extract a simple promise from him, but of what use would 
that be to me now? Cash would be more acceptable. 
Dearest, most beloved father! If I could have it in writing 
from God Almighty that I shall keep in good health and 
not get ill, ah! then I should marry my dear, faithful girl 
this very day. I have three pupils now, 1 which brings me in 
eighteen ducats a month; for I no longer charge for twelve 
lessons, but monthly. I learnt to my cost that my pupils 
often dropped out for weeks at a time; so now, whether 
they learn or not, each of them must pay me six ducats. I 
shall get several more on these terms, but I really need 
only one more, as four pupils are quite enough. With four 

1 The Countess Rumbeck, Frau von Trattner and Fraulein Josephine 



I should have twenty-four ducats, or 102 gulden, 24 
kreutzer. With this sum a man and his wife can manage 
in Vienna if they live quietly and in the retired way which 
we desire; but, of course, if I were to fall ill, we should not 
make a farthing. I can write, it is true, at least one opera 
a year, give a concert annually and have some things 
engraved and published by subscription. There are other 
concerts too where one can make money, particularly if 
one has been living in a place for a long time and has a 
good reputation. But I should prefer not to count on such 
takings but rather to regard them as windfalls. However, 
if the bow will not bend, it must break, and I will rather 
take the risk than go on waiting indefinitely. My affairs 
cannot get worse; on the contrary, they must continue to 
improve. And my reason for not wishing to wait any 
longer is not so much on my account as on hers. I must 
rescue her as soon as possible. I shall tell you about this 
in my next letter. Now farewell. I kiss your hands a 
thousand times and embrace my dear sister with all my 
heart and am ever your most obedient son 


(443) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

MON TRS CHER P^RE! VIENNE, ce 30 de Janvier \ 1782 

I am writing to you in a great hurry, and at half past 

ten at night, as I had really intended to postpone writing 

until Saturday. But I have an urgent request to make. I 

hope that you will not take it amiss if I send you such 

a short letter. Will you please send me, when you next 

write, a libretto of "Idomeneo", with or without the 

German translation? I lent one copy to the Countess 

VOL. in 1185 K 


Thun, who has now moved into another house, and cannot 
find it. Probably it is lost. Fraulein Aurnhammer had 
my other copy, which she has looked for but has not yet 
found. Perhaps she will find it. But if she doesn't, I shall 
be left high and dry and at the very moment when I 
really require it. In order therefore to be on the safe side, 
please let me have it at once, whatever the cost may be, 
for I need it immediately in order that I may arrange the 
programme of my concert, which is to take place on the 
third Sunday in Lent. Please send it off to me directly. I 
shall forward the sonatas l by the next mail coach. My 
opera 2 has not gone to sleep, but has suffered a set 
back on account of G luck's big operas 3 and owing to many 
very necessary alterations which have to be made in the 
text. It is to be performed, however, immediately after 
Easter. 4 

Well, I must close. Just one thing more (for if I did not 
say it I could not sleep in peace). Please do not suspect 
my dear Constanze of harbouring such evil thoughts. 
Believe me, if she had such a disposition, I could not 
possibly love her. Both she and I long ago observed her 
mother's designs. But the latter is very much mistaken, for 
she wishes us (when we marry) to live with her, as she has 
apartments to let. This is out of the question, for on no 
account would I consent to it, and my Constanze still less. 
Au contraire, she intends to see very little of her mother 
and I shall do my best to stop it altogether, for we know 
her too well. Dearest, most beloved father, my only wish 
is that we may soon meet, so that you may see her and 
love her, for you love those who have kind hearts that I 
know* Now farewell, dearest, most beloved father. I kiss 

1 K. 296 and 376-380. 

2 "Die Entfiihrung- aus dem Serail." 

3 "Iphigenie in Tauris", "Alceste" and "Orfeo". 

4 The first performance took place on July 26th, 1782. 



your hands a thousand times and am ever your most 

obedient son 


I embrace my dear sister with all my heart. I shall not 
forget the variations. 1 

(444) Mozart to his Sister 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MA TRES CHERE SCEUR! VlENNE, ce l^febrier, 1782 

Thank you for sending me the libretto, 2 for which 
indeed I have been waiting with the greatest longing! I 
hope that by the time you receive this letter, you will have 
our dearest, most beloved father with you again. You 
must not gather from my not replying, that you and your 
letters are a nuisance to me! I shall always be delighted, 
dear sister, to have the honour of receiving a letter from 
you. If the necessary business of earning my living did 
not prevent me, God knows I should answer your letters 
at once! And have I never sent you a reply? Well, then 
forgetfulness it cannot be nor negligence, either; there 
fore it is entirely due to positive hindrances to genuine 
impossibility. Do I not write little enough to my father? 
And very wrong, too, you will say! But, in Heaven's 
name, you both know what Vienna is. In such a place 
has not a man (who has not a kreutzer of assured income) 
enough to think about and to work at day and night? 
Our father, when he has finished his duties in church, and 
you, when you have done with your few pupils, can both 
do what you like for the rest of the day and write letters 
containing whole litanies. But it is not so with me. I 
described my manner of life the other day to my father 
and I will repeat it to you. My hair is always done by 
1 K. 359, 360, 352. 2 The text of "Idomeneo". 



six o'clock in the morning and by seven I am fully dressed. 
I then compose until nine. From nine to one I give 
lessons. Then I lunch, unless I am invited to some house 
where they lunch at two or even three o'clock, as, for 
example, to-day and to-morrow at Countess Zichy's I and 
Countess Thun's. I can never work before five or six 
o'clock in the evening, and even then I am often pre 
vented by a concert. If I am not prevented, I compose 
until nine. I then go to my dear Constanze, though the 
joy of seeing one another is nearly always spoilt by her 
mother's bitter remarks. I shall explain this in my next 
letter to my father. For that is the reason why I am long 
ing to be able to set her free and to rescue her as soon as 
possible. At half past ten or eleven I come home it 
depends on her mother's darts and on my capacity to 
endure them! As I cannot rely on being able to compose 
in the evening owing to the concerts which are taking 
place and also to the uncertainty as to whether I may not 
be summoned now here and now there, it is my custom 
(especially if I get home early) to compose a little before 
going to bed. I often go on writing until one and am 
up again at six. Dearest sister! If you imagine that I can 
ever forget my dearest, most beloved father and you, 
then but I shall say no more. God knows all about me 
and that is consolation enough. May He punish me, if I 
can ever forget you. Adieu. I am ever your sincere brother 


P.S. If my dearest father is back in Salzburg, 2 tell 
him that I kiss his hands a thousand times. 

1 There were two Countesses Zichy, Anna Maria Antonia, n&e Kheven- 
hiiller-Metsch (1759-1809), the wife of Count Karl Zichy (1753-1826), 
Court Councillor in Vienna, and Maria Theresa, nte Palfy (1760-1833), the 
wife of Count Stefan Zichy. 

2 Leopold Mozart had gone to stay with the Marchands in Munich See 
p. HIS, n. 3. 



(445) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRIES CHER P^RE! VlENNE, ce 23 de mars, 1782 

I am very sorry that I heard only yesterday that a 
son of Leutgeb's was going to Salzburg by the mail 
coach, which would have been a capital opportunity of 
sending you a whole lot of things free of charge. But as 
it was impossible to copy out the variations J in these two 
days, I have only been able to give him the two copies of 
my sonatas. 2 I am sending you at the same time the last 
rondo 3 which I composed for my concerto in D major 
and which is making such a furore in Vienna. But I beg 
you to guard it like a jewel and not to give it to a soul 
to play not even to Marchand and his sister. 4 I composed 
it specially for myself and no one else but my dear 
sister must play it. I also take the liberty of presenting 
you with a snuff-box and a few watch-ribbons. The snuff 
box is quite pretty; the painting represents an English 
scene. The watch-ribbons are of no great value, but are 
now very much in fashion. I am sending my dear sister 
two caps in the latest Viennese mode. Both are the handi 
work of my dear Constanze. She sends her most devoted 
greetings to you and kisses your hands and also embraces 
my sister most affectionately and asks her to forgive her 
if the caps are not as becoming as she would have wished, 
but the time was "too short. Please return the bandbox by 
the next mail coach, for I borrowed it. But that the poor 

1 K. 359, 360, 352. 2 K. 296 and 376-380. 

3 K. 382, a rondo written for K. 175, clavier concerto in D major, composed 
in 1773. This is probably the rondo which Mozart sent to Baroness von 
Waldstadten. See p. 1228, 

4 Heinrich and Margarete Marchand, who had gone to live with Leopold 
Mozart. Heinrich, then aged twelve, became an excellent violinist, and 
Margarete, then aged fourteen, a fine operatic singer. 



fool may not travel all alone, be so good as to put the 
rondo in again (after you have had it copied) and also, 
if possible, the last scena I composed for Countess Baum- 
garten I and the scores of a few of my masses 2 enfin 
whatever you may find and may think might be useful to 
me. Well, I must close. But I must tell you that the Pope 
arrived in Vienna yesterday afternoon at half past three 
a pleasant piece of news. 3 And now for a sad one. Frau 
von Aurnhammer has at last worried her poor dear 
husband to death. He died yesterday evening at half past 
six. He had been poorly for some time, but his death was 
not expected so soon. It was all over in a moment. May 
God have mercy on his soul. He was a good, kind man. 
Well, I must close, for Leutgeb is waiting for my letter. 
I really recommend the lad to you, my dear father. His 
father would like to get him into a business house or into 
the Salzburg printing firm. Please lend him a helping 
hand. My dear Constanze has surprised me this very 
moment and has just asked me whether she might dare 
to send my sister a little souvenir? At the same time I am 
to apologise for her, and to say that, as she is a poor girl, 
she has nothing to give and that she hopes that my 
sister will take the will for the deed. The little cross is of 
no great value, but it is all the fashion in Vienna. But the 
little heart pierced by an arrow is something like my 
sister's heart with the arrow and will please her better 
on that account. Now farewell. I kiss your hands a thou 
sand times and embrace my dear sister with all my heart 
and am ever your 4 

1 K. 369. 

2 Probably K. 317, composed in 1779, and K. 337, composed in 1780. 

3 Cp. p. 1178, n. i. 

4 The autograph has no signature. 



(446) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce IO d'avril, 1782 

I see from your letter of April 2nd that you have 
received everything safely. I am glad that you are so 
pleased with the watch-ribbons and the snuff-box and my 
sister with the two caps. I did not buy either the snuff-box 
or the watch-ribbons, as Count Zapara made me a present 
of them. I have delivered greetings from you both to my 
dear Constanze, who kisses your hands in return, my 
father, and embraces my sister most cordially and hopes 
that she will be her friend. She was absolutely delighted 
when I told her that my sister was very much pleased 
with the two caps, so greatly did she desire to give her 
pleasure. Your postscript about her mother is justified 
only in so far as she likes wine, and more so, I admit, 
than a woman ought to. Still, I have never yet seen her 
drunk and it would be a lie if I were to say so. The 
children only drink water and, although their mother 
almost forces wine upon them, she cannot induce them to 
touch it. This often leads to a lot of wrangling can you 
imagine a mother quarrelling with her children about such 
a matter? 

I have said nothing to you about the rumour you 
mention of my being certainly taken into the Emperor's 
service, because I myself know nothing about it. It is true 
that here too the whole town is ringing with it and that a 
number of people have already congratulated me. I am 
quite ready to believe that it has been discussed with the 
Emperor and that perhaps he is contemplating it. But up 
to this moment I have no definite information. At all 
events things are so far advanced that the Emperor is 



considering it, and that too without my having taken a 
single step. I have been a few times to see Herr von 
Strack (who is certainly a very good friend of mine) in 
order to let myself be seen and because I like his society, 
but I have not gone often, because I do not wish to be 
come a nuisance to him, or to let him think that I have 
ulterior motives. As a man of honour he is bound to state 
that he has never heard me say a word which would give 
him reason to think that I should like to stay in Vienna, 
let alone enter the Emperor's service. We have only dis 
cussed music. Therefore it must have been quite spon 
taneously and entirely without self-interest that he has 
been speaking so favourably of me to the Emperor. If 
things have gone so far without any effort on my part, 
they can now proceed to their conclusion in the same way. 
For if one makes any move oneself, one immediately re 
ceives less pay, because, as it is, the Emperor is a niggard. 
If he wants me, he must pay me, for the honour alone of 
serving him is not enough. Indeed, if he were to offer me 
1000 gulden and some Count 2000, I should decline the 
former proposal with thanks and go to the Count that 
is, of course, if it were a permanent arrangement. A 
propos, I have been intending to ask you, when you 
return the rondo, 1 to enclose with it Handel's six fugues 2 
and Eberlin's toccatas and fugues. I go every Sunday at 
twelve o'clock to Baron van Swieten, where nothing is 
played but Handel and Bach. I am collecting at the 
moment the fugues of Bach not only of Sebastian, but 
also of Emanuel 3 and Friedemann. 4 I am also collecting 
Handel's and should like to have the six I mentioned. 
I should like the Baron to hear Eberlin's too. I 

1 See p. 1189, n. 3. 

2 Probably the six fugues for the clavecin, written about 1720. 

3 Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788), J. S. Bach's second son. 

4 Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710-1784), J. S. Bach's eldest son. 



suppose you have heard that the English Bach l is dead? 
What a loss to the musical world! Now, farewell. I kiss 
your hands a thousand times and embrace my dear sister 
with all my heart and am ever your most obedient son 


P.S. May I also ask you to send me when you can 
(but the sooner the better) my concerto in C major, 
written for Countess Liitzow ? 2 

(447) Mozart to his Sister 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

DEAREST SISTER! VIENNA, April 2Qth y 1782 

My dear Constanze has at last summoned up courage 
to follow the impulse of her kind heart that is, to write 
to you, my dear sister! Should you be willing to favour 
her with a reply (and indeed I hope you will, so that I 
may see the sweet creature's delight reflected on her face), 
may I beg you to enclose your letter to me? I only 
mention this as a precaution and so that you may know 
that her mother and sisters are not aware that she has 
written to you. I send you herewith a prelude and a 
three-part fugue. 3 The reason why I did not reply to 
your letter at once was that on account of the wearisome 
labour of writing these small notes, I could not finish 
the composition any sooner. And, even so, it is awkwardly 
done, for the prelude ought to come first and the fugue 
to follow. But I composed the fugue first and wrote it 
down while I was thinking out the prelude. I only hope 

1 Johann Christian Bach, J. S. Bach's youngest son, died on January 1st, 
1782. For the last twenty years of his life he had lived almost entirely in 
England. 2 K. 246, written in 1776. 

* K. 394, Fantasy and Fugue in C major. 



that you will be able to read it, for it is written so very 
small; and I hope further that you will like it. Another 
time I shall send you something better for the clavier. 
My dear Constanze is really the cause of this fugue's 
coming into the world. Baron van Swieten, to whom I go 
every Sunday, gave me all the works of Handel and 
Sebastian Bach to take home with me (after I had played 
them to him). When Constanze heard the fugues, she 
absolutely fell in love with them. Now she will listen to 
nothing but fugues, and particularly (in this kind of 
composition) the works of Handel and Bach. Well, as she 
had often heard me play fugues out of my head, she asked 
me if I had ever written any down, and when I said I had 
not, she scolded me roundly for not recording some of my 
compositions in this most artistic and beautiful of all 
musical forms, and never ceased to entreat me until I 
wrote down a fugue for her. So this is its origin. I have 
purposely written above it Andante Maestoso, as it must 
not be played too fast. For if a fugue is not played slowly, 
the ear cannot clearly distinguish the theme when it 
comes in and consequently the effect is entirely missed. 
In time, and when I have a favourable opportunity, I 
intend to compose five x more and then present them to 
Baron van Swieten, whose collection of good music, 
though small in quantity, is great in quality. And for 
that very reason I beg you to keep your promise not to 
show this composition to a soul. Learn it by heart and 
play it. It is not so easy to pick up a fugue by ear. If Papa 
has not yet had those works by Eberlin copied, so much 
the better, for in the meantime I have got hold of them 
and now I see (for I had forgotten them) that they are 
unfortunately far too trivial to deserve a place beside 
Handel and Bach. With due respect for his four-part 

1 K. App. 39 and K. App. 40, both unfinished, were Mozart's attempt to 
carry out this plan. See Kochel, p. 476 f. 



composition I may say that his clavier fugues are 
nothing but long-drawn-out voluntaries. Now farewell. I 
am glad that the two caps suit you. I kiss you a thousand 
times and remain your sincere brother 


Tell Papa I kiss his hand. I received no letter to-day. 

(447 a) Constance Weber to Nannerl Mozart 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

VIENNA, April 2ot&, 1782 


I should never have been so bold as to follow the 
dictates of my heart and to write to you, most esteemed 
friend, had not your brother assured me that you would 
not be offended by this step which I am taking solely 
from an earnest longing to communicate, if only in writing, 
with a person who, though unknown to me, is yet very 
precious, as she bears the name of Mozart. Surely you 
will not be angry if I venture to tell you that though I 
have not the honour of knowing you personally I esteem 
you most highly, as the sister of so excellent a brother, 
and that I love you and even venture to ask you for your 
friendship. Without undue pride I may say that I partly 
deserve it and shall endeavour to do so wholly! May I 
in exchange offer you mine, which, indeed, has long 
been yours in the secrecy of my heart? Ah! I trust you 
will accept it, and in this hope I remain, most honoured 
and valued friend, your most obedient servant and 


Please tell your Papa that I kiss his hand, 



(448) Mozart to Constance Weber 

[Autograph in the possession of Fraujahns, Berlin] 

VIENNA, April 2gtk, 1782 

Surely you will still allow me to address you by this 
name? Surely you do not hate me so much that I may be 
your friend no longer, and you no longer mine? And 
even if you will not be my friend any longer, yet you 
cannot forbid me to wish you well, my friend, since it has 
become very natural for me to do so. Do think over what 
you said to me to-day. In spite of all my entreaties you 
have thrown me over three times and told me to my face 
that you intend to have nothing more to do with me. I 
(to whom it means more than it does to you to lose the 
object of my love) am not so hot-tempered, so rash and 
so senseless as to accept my dismissal. I love you far too 
well to do so. I entreat you, therefore, to ponder and 
reflect upon the cause of all this unpleasantness, which 
arose from my being annoyed that you were so impud 
ently inconsiderate as to say to your sisters and, be it 
noted, in my presence that you had let a ckapeau 1 
measure the calves of your legs. No woman who cares 
for her honour can do such a thing. It is quite a good 
maxim to do as one's company does. At the same time 
there are many other factors to be considered as, for 
example, whether only intimate friends and acquaintances 
are present whether I am a child or a marriageable girl 
more particularly, whether I am already betrothed 
but, above all, whether only people of my own social 
standing or my social inferiors or, what is even more 
important, my social superiors are in the company? If it 
be true that the Baroness 2 herself allowed it to be 
done to her, the case is still quite different, for she is 

1 A young gallant, a The Baroness von Waldstadten. 



already past her prime and cannot possibly attract any 
longer and besides, she is inclined to be promiscuous 
with her favours. I hope, dearest friend, that, even if you 
do not wish to become my wife, you will never lead a life 
like hers. If it was quite impossible for you to resist the 
desire to take part in the game (although it is not always 
wise for a man to do so, and still less for a woman), then 
why in the name of Heaven did you not take the ribbon 
and measure your own calves yourself (as all self-respect 
ing women have done on similar occasions in my presence) 
and not allow a chapeau to do so? Why, I myself in the 
presence of others would never have done such a thing to 
you. I should have handed you the ribbon myself. Still 
less, then, should you have allowed it to be done to you 
by a stranger a man about whom I know nothing. But 
it is all over now; and the least acknowledgment of your 
somewhat thoughtless behaviour on that occasion would 
have made everything all right again; and if you will not 
make a grievance of it, dearest friend, everything will 
still be all right. You realise now how much I love you, / 
do not fly into a passion as you do. I think, I reflect and I 
feel. If you will but surrender to your feelings, then I know 
that this very day I shall be able to say with absolute 
confidence that Constanze is the virtuous, honourable, 
prudent and loyal sweetheart of her honest and devoted 


(449) Leopold Mozart to J. G. I. Breitkopf, Leipzig 

[Extract} [Autograph in the Universitdtsbibliothek, Bonri[ 

SALZBURG, April 29^, 1782 

My son is in Vienna and is remaining there. Herr 
Artaria has published some of his clavier sonatas. 1 

1 K. 296 and 376-380, the violin and clavier sonatas dedicated to Fraulein 



Meanwhile I am having a pleasant time with two 
pupils, the twelve-year-old son and the fourteen-year-old 
daughter of Herr Marchand, 1 theatrical manager in 
Munich, whom I am instructing. I hope to make a great 
violinist and clavierist out of the boy and a good singer 
and excellent clavierist out of the girl. 

(450) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg~\ 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 8 de maj, 1782 

I have received your last letter of April 30th and yester 
day too my sister's letter with the enclosure for my dear 
Constanze, to whom I gave it at once. It caused her sincere 
pleasure and she will take the liberty of writing to her 
again very soon. Meanwhile (as I cannot possibly find 
time to write to my sister to-day) I must put a question 
to you on behalf of Constanze, which is, whether fringes 
are being worn in Salzburg? Whether my sister is wearing 
them already? Whether she can make them herself? Con 
stanze has just trimmed two pique dresses with them, for 
they are all the fashion in Vienna. As she can make them 
herself now, she would like to send some to my sister, if 
the latter will tell her which shade she prefers. For they are 
worn in all colours, white, black, green, blue, puce, etc. 
A satin or gros de turc silk dress must be trimmed, of 
course, with silk fringes, and Constanze has a dress of this 
kind. An ordinary dress of pretty Saxon pique, trimmed 
with cotton fringes (which, unless you feel them, can 
hardly be distinguished from silk), looks very well; and 
the advantage of such a combination is that the fringes 
can be washed on the dress. 

1 Heinrich and Margarete Marchand. 


Please write and tell me how Salieri's opera x in 
Munich went off. I am sure that you managed to hear it, 
but, if not, you are certain to know how it was received. 
I called twice on Count Daun, 2 but each time he was not 
at home. However, I sent for the music. Indeed he is 
only at home in the mornings, when not only do I never 
go out, but I do not even dress, as I have such a lot of 
composing to do. All the same I shall try to see him next 
Sunday. Perhaps he will be able to take my Munich 
opera 3 as well as the variations. 4 

I was at Countess Thun's yesterday and played 
through my second act 5 to her, with which she seems no 
less pleased than she was with the first. I have had 
RaafFs aria 6 copied long ago and have given it to 
Fischer, whom he had commissioned to get it. You said 
once in a letter that you would like to have the Robinig 
music. 7 Who has it? I haven't. I think Eck gave it back 
to you. I asked you for it in my letter as well as for the 
Cassations in F and Bb. 8 Do please send me soon the scena 
I composed for Countess Baumgarten. 9 This summer 
there is to be a concert every Sunday in the Augarten. 10 
A certain Martin " organised last winter a series of 
amateur concerts, which took place every Friday in the 
Mehlgrube. 12 You know that there are a great many 

1 Salieri's "Semiramide", performed during the Munich carnival season, 
1782. 2 Count Daun, canon of the Sabburg Cathedral. 

"Idomeneo." 4 K. 359, 360, 352. 

Of his opera "Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail". 

K. 295, composed in 1778. 

A divertimento, K. 334, and a march, K. 445, composed in 1779. 

K. 247, composed in 1776, and K. 287, composed in 1777. 9 K. 369. 

A well-known public garden in the Leopoldstadt suburb of Vienna, 
where, as at Vauxhall and Ranelagh, public concerts were held. It was 
opened in 1775 by the Emperor Joseph II. 

11 Philipp Martin of Regensburg. 

12 A very old building in the Neuer Markt, to which a flour warehouse in 
the basement gave its name. It was then an inn with a large hall, where 
balls and concerts were held. The Hotel Kranz- Ambassador now occupies 
the site. 



amateurs in Vienna, and some very good ones too, both 
men and women. But so far these concerts have not been 
properly arranged. Well, this Martin has now got per 
mission from the Emperor under charter (with the 
promise too of his gracious patronage) to give twelve 
concerts in the Augarten and four grand serenades in 
the finest open places of the city. The subscription for 
the whole summer is two ducats. So you can imagine 
that we shall have plenty of subscribers, the more so as 
I am taking an interest in it and am associated with it. 
Assuming that we get only a hundred subscribers, then 
each of us will have a profit of three hundred gulden (even 
if the costs amount to two hundred gulden, which is most 
unlikely). Baron van Swieten and the Countess Thun are 
very much interested in it. The orchestra consists entirely 
of amateurs, with the exception of the bassoon-players, 
the trumpeters and drummers. I hear that dementi is 
leaving Vienna to-morrow. Have you seen his sonatas? 

Please have a little patience with poor Leutgeb. If you 
knew his circumstances and saw how he has to muddle 
along, you would certainly feel sorry for him. I shall 
have a word with him and I feel sure that he will pay 
you, at any rate by instalments. Now farewell. I kiss 
your hands a thousand times and am ever your most 
obedient son 


P.S. I kiss my dear sister a thousand times. My 
remembrances to Katherl and a greeting to Thresel 
and tell her that she is to be my nursery-maid, but that 
she will have to practise her singing hard. Adieu, A 
pinch of Spanish snuff for Bimperl. 



From a water-colour painting by an unknown artist 
(Signor Riccardo Rossi, Vittorio Veneto) 


(451) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 2$ de may, 1782 

This time I must really steal a moment, so that you 
may not wait too long for a letter. For to-morrow our first 
concert takes place in the Augarten and at half past eight 
Martin is fetching me in a carriage and we have still six 
visits to pay, which I must finish off by eleven o'clock, as 
I then have to go to the Countess Rumbeck. Afterwards I 
am lunching with the Countess Thun and, I should add, in 
her garden. In the evening we are having the rehearsal of 
the concert. A symphony by Van S wieten and one of mine 1 
are being performed; an amateur singer, Mile Berger, is 
going to sing; a boy of the name of Turk is playing a 
violin concerto; and Fraulein Aurnhammer and I are 
playing my Ei> concerto for two pianos. 2 

(45 1 a) Constance Weber to Leopold Mozart 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg 

VIENNA, May z$th, 1782 

Your dear son has been summoned this very moment 
to Countess Thun's and hasn't time to finish this letter 
to his dear father, which he much regrets. He has com 
missioned me to let you know this, for, as to-day is post- 
day, he does not wish you to be without a letter from him. 
He will write more to his dear father the next time. Please 
forgive me for writing to you. These few lines cannot be 
as agreeable to you as those which your son would have 

1 Probably K. 338, composed in 1780. 
2 K. 365, composed in 1779. 

VOL. Ill 1 20 1 L 


I am ever your faithful servant and friend 


Please give my compliments to your amiable daughter. 
(452) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRIDS CHER P&RE! VlENNE, ce 29 de may, 1782 

I was positively prevented the other day from 
finishing my letter and therefore asked my dear Constanze 
to make my apologies to you. She hesitated for some time, 
fearing that you might laugh at her spelling and style; 
and she is giving me no peace until I write to you and 
convey her excuses. 

The first amateur concert went off tolerably well. The 
Archduke Maximilian was there, the Countess Thun, 
Wallenstein, Baron van Swieten and a whole crowd of 
other people. I am earnestly longing for the arrival of the 
next mail coach, which is to bring me some music. In re 
gard to the Robinig music * I can assure you most faithfully 
that I never took it with me and that Eck must still have 
it, for he had not returned it when I left Munich. The 
organiser of these amateur concerts, M. Martin, knows 
Abbe Bullinger very well, for he was a pupil at the 
Munich seminary in his day. He is a very worthy young 
man, who is trying to make his way by his music, by his 
elegant writing and generally by his ability, intelligence 
and sound judgment. When he came to Vienna, he had a 
hard struggle and had to manage for a fortnight on half 
a gulden. Adamberger, who knew him in Munich, has 
been very kind to him. He is a native of Regensburg and 
his father was private physician to Prince Taxis. My dear 
Constanze and I are lunching to-morrow with Countess 

1 See p. 1199, n. 7. 


Thun and I am to play over my third act x to her. At the 
moment I have nothing but very tiresome work that is, 
correcting. We are to have our first rehearsal next Mon 
day. I must confess that I am looking forward with much 
pleasure to this opera. A propos. A few days ago I had a 
letter from whom? From Herr von Feigele. And the 
contents that he is in love and with whom? With my 
sister? Not at all with my cousin! 2 Well, he will have to 
wait a long time before getting an answer from me; for you 
know how little time I have for writing. But I am rather 
curious to see how long his infatuation will last. 

Now for something that I heard quite by accident and 
which makes me very much annoyed with Count 
Kiihnburg. Fraulein von Aurnhammer told me yesterday 
that Herr von Moll had asked her whether she would be 
willing to enter a nobleman's family in Salzburg at a 
salary of three hundred gulden a year. The name was 
Kiihnburg. What do you think of that? So it seems that my 
sister's services count for nothing! Make your own use of 
this information. He was only here for a day, but if he 
returns, I shall find an opportunity of speaking to him 
on the subject. Now farewell. I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and embrace my dear sister with all my heart. I also 
send to Mile Marchand (with my dear Constanze's per 
mission) a few kisses, and I am ever your most obedient 


P.S. My dear Constanze kisses your hands and em 
braces my sister as her true friend and future sister-in- 

1 Of the "Entfuhrung aus dem Serail". 

2 Maria Anna Thekla Mozart, the "Basle". She died in 1841 at the age 
of eighty-three. According to Schurig, vol. i. p. 455, descendants of her 
illegitimate daughter, Marianne Viktoria Mozart (1793-1857), were living 
in Vienna in 1923. 



(453) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 2O de Juliet, 1782 

I hope that you received safely my last letter in 
forming you of the good reception of my opera. 1 Tt was 
given yesterday for the second time. Can you really 
believe it, but yesterday there was an even stronger cabal 
against it than on the first evening! The whole first act 
was accompanied by hissing. But indeed they could not 
prevent the loud shouts of "bravo" during the arias. I was 
relying on the closing trio, 2 but, as ill-luck would have 
it, Fischer went wrong, which made Dauer (Pedrillo) go 
wrong too; and Adamberger alone could not sustain the 
trio, with the result that the whole effect was lost and that 
this time it was not repeated. I was in such a rage (and 
so was Adamberger) that I was simply beside myself and 
said at once that I would not let the opera be given again 
without having a short rehearsal for the singers. In the 
second act both duets were repeated as on the first night, 
and in addition Belmonte's rondo "Wenn der Freude 
Tranen fliessen". The theatre was almost more crowded 
than on the first night and on the preceding day no 
reserved seats were to be had, either in the stalls or in the 
third circle, and not a single box. My opera has brought 
in 1 200 gulden in the two days. I send you herewith the 
original score and two copies of the libretto. You will see 
that I have cut out several passages. I knew that here the 
practice is for the score to be copied at once; but I first 
gave free rein to my ideas and then made my alterations 
and cuts at the last moment. The opera was performed 
just as you now have it; but here and there the parts 

1 The "Entfiihrung aus dem Serail" was performed on July i6th. The 
letter to which Mozart refers is unfortunately lost. 

2 The last number of Act I. 



for trumpets, drums, flutes, and clarinets, and the 
Turkish music are missing, because I could not get 
any music paper with so many lines. Those parts were 
written out on extra sheets, which the copyist has probably 
lost, for he could not find them. 1 The first act, when I was 
sending it somewhere or other I forget where, unfortun 
ately fell in the mud, which explains why it is so dirty. 

Well, I am up to the eyes in work, for by Sunday week 
I have to arrange my opera for wind-instruments. If I 
don't, someone will anticipate me and secure the profits. 
And now you ask me to write a new symphony! * How on 
earth can I do so? You have no idea how difficult it is to 
arrange a work of this kind for wind-instruments, so that 
it suits these instruments and yet loses none of its effect. 
Well, I must just spend the night over it, for that is the only 
way; and to you, dearest father, I sacrifice it. You may 
rely on having something from me by every post. I shall 
work as fast as possible and, as far as haste permits, I shall 
turn out good work. 

Count Zichy 3 has this moment sent me a message 
inviting me to drive with him to Laxenburg, so that he 
may present me to Prince Kaunitz. So I must close this 
letter and dress. For when I have no intention of going 
out I always remain en neglige. The copyist has just sent 
me the remaining parts. Adieu. I kiss your hands a thou 
sand times and embrace my dear sister with all my heart 
and am ever your most obedient son w ^ MOZART 

P.S. My dear Constanze sends greetings to you both. 

1 Cp. p. 1480, n. 2. 

2 K. 385, the "Haffner" symphony in D major. Mozart had already 
written a march (K. 249) and a serenade (K. 250) for the wedding of Elise 
Haffner, daughter of Sigmund Haffner, merchant and burgomaster of 
Salzburg. According to Deutsch-Paumgartner, op. cit. p. 533, the symphony 
was commissioned to celebrate the granting of a title of nobility to young 
Sigmund Haffner (1756-1787)- See also Kochel, p. 490. 

3 His wife, Countess Zichy, was Mozart's pupil on the clavier. 



(454) Mozart to his Sister 

\Autograph in the possession of Frau Floersheim-Koch, Florence] 

VIENNA, July 24^, 1782 

Forgive me, dear sister, for not sending you a formal 
letter of congratulation, but I really have no time. Besides 
you know that, as it is, I wish you daily every good thing. 
It was impossible for me to find a moment to-day to write 
to my father. But I shall certainly do so next post-day. 
Adieu. Farewell. My opera is to be performed in your 
honour on your name-day. 1 I kiss my dear father's hands 
and I kiss you a thousand times and am ever your sincere 


(454a) Constance Weber to Nannerl 

[Autograph in the possession of Frau Floersheim-Koch, Florence} 


Forgive me for taking the liberty of worrying you 
again with my scrawl. Your approaching name-day must 
be my excuse! And if my good wishes are a nuisance to 
you, as indeed all congratulations are, my consolation 
must be that already I am not the only one who is 
bothering you in this way. All that I deserve is that for 
the love of God you should suffer me as you do all the 
others. Yet could you but see into my heart and read what 
is there, perhaps I might be exempted from your general 
complaint; that at least. Possibly, nay assuredly, among 
the exempted I should even be given some preference. So 
I wish with all my heart that you will be, and not only 
become, very happy, and that you will really be as happy 

1 July 26th, 


as I am confident that I shall be in the future. If you are ; 
then . . - 1 

(455) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! ' VlENNE, ce 27 Juliet, 1782 

You will be surprised and disappointed to find that 
this contains only the first Allegro; 2 but it has been quite 
impossible to do more for you, for I have had to compose 
in a great hurry a serenade, 3 but only for wind-instruments 
(otherwise I could have used it for you too). On Wednes 
day the 3ist I shall send the two minuets, the Andante 
and the last movement. 4 If I can manage to do so, I shall 
send a march too. 5 If not, you will just have to use the one 6 
in the Haffner music, which hardly anyone knows 

I have composed my symphony in D major, because 
you prefer that key. 

My opera was given yesterday for the third time in 
honour of all the Nannerls 7 and won the greatest applause; 
and again, in spite of the frightful heat, the theatre was 
packed. It was to be given again next Friday, but I have 
protested against this, for I do not want it to become 
hackneyed. I may say that people are absolutely infatuated 
with this opera. Indeed it does one good to win such 
approbation. I hope that you have safely received the 
original score. Dearest, most beloved father, I implore you 

1 The autograph breaks off here. 

2 Of his new symphony for the Haffner family, K. 385. 3 K. 388. 
4 Of his new symphony, K. 385. One minuet seems to have been lost. See 

Kochel, p. 490. s K. 408, No. 2. 

K. 249, composed in 1776. 7 July 26th, St. Anne's Day. 



by all you hold dear in the world to give your consent to 
my marriage with my dear Constanze. Do not suppose 
that it is just for the sake of getting married. If that were 
the only reason, I would gladly wait. But I realise that it is 
absolutely necessary for my own honour and for that of 
my girl, and for the sake of my health and spirits. My heart 
is restless and my head confused; in such a condition 
how can one think and work to any good purpose? And 
why am I in this state? Well, because most people think 
that we are already married. Her mother gets very much 
annoyed when she hears these rumours, and, as for the 
poor girl and myself, we are tormented to death. This 
state of affairs can be remedied so easily. Believe me, it is 
just as easy to live in expensive Vienna as anywhere else. 
It all depends on economy and good management, which 
cannot be expected from a young fellow, particularly if he 
is in love. Whoever gets a wife like my Constanze will 
certainly be a happy man. We intend to live very 
modestly and quietly and yet we shall be happy. Do not 
be uneasy, for, if I were to fall ill to-day, which God 
forbid, I would wager that the leading nobles would stand 
by me manfully and the more so if I were married. I can 
say this with entire confidence. I know what Prince 
Kaunitz has said about me to the E mperor and to the Arch 
duke Maximilian. Most beloved father, I am longing to 
have your consent. I feel sure that you will give it, for my 
honour and my reputation depend upon it. Do not post 
pone too long the joy of embracing your son and his wife. 
I kiss your hands a thousand times and am ever your 

obedient son 


P.S. I embrace my dear sister most cordially. My 
dear Constanze sends her kind regards to you both. 



(456) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 31 de Julliette, 1782 
You see that my intentions are good only what one 
cannot do one cannot! I am really unable to scribble off* 
inferior stuff. So I cannot send you the whole symphony x 
until next post-day. I could have let you have the last 
movement, but I prefer to despatch it all together, for 
then it will cost only one postage. What I have sent you 
has already cost me three gulden. I received to-day your 
letter of the 26th, but a cold, indifferent letter, such as I 
could never have expected in reply to my news of the good 
reception of my opera. 2 I thought (judging by my own 
feelings) that you would hardly be able to open the parcel 
for excitement and eagerness to see your son's work, 
which, far from merely pleasing, is making such a sensa 
tion in Vienna that people refuse to hear anything else, 
so that the theatre is always packed. It was given 
yesterday for the fourth time and is to be repeated on 
Friday. But you have not had the time. So the whole 
world declares that by my boasting and criticising I have 
made enemies of the professors of music and of many 
others! What world pray? Presumably the world of 
Salzburg, for everyone in Vienna can see and hear 
enough to be convinced of the contrary. And that shall be 
my reply. In the meantime you will have received my 
last letter; and I feel confident that your next will contain 
your consent to my marriage. You can have no objection 
whatever to raise and indeed you do not raise any. Your 
letters show me that. For Constanze is a respectable honest 
girl of good parentage, and I am able to support her. We 
love each other and want each other. All that you have 

1 K. 385. 2 "Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail." 



written and may possibly write to me on the subject can 
only be well-meaning advice which, however fine and 
good it may be, is no longer applicable to a man who has 
gone so far with a girl. In such a case nothing can be 
postponed. It is better for him to put his affairs in order 
and act like an honest fellow! God will ever reward that. 
I mean to have nothing with which to reproach myself. 

Now farewell. I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
am ever your most obedient son 


P.S. I embrace my dear sister with all my heart. 

(457) Mozart to Baroness von Waldstadten 

[Autograph in the possession of Mrs. Enid Lamb art, London} 

VIENNA, August [? 2nd], 1782 * 


Madame Weber's maid-servant has brought me my 
music, for which I have had to give her a written receipt. 
She has also told me something in confidence which, 
although I do not believe it could happen, as it would be 
a disgrace to the whole family, yet seems possible when 
one remembers Madame Weber's stupidity, and which 
consequently causes me anxiety. It appears that Sophie 2 
went to the maid-servant in tears and when the latter 
asked her what was the matter, she said: "Do tell 
Mozart in secret to arrange for Constanze to go home, for 
my mother is absolutely determined to have her fetched 
by the police". Are the police in Vienna allowed to go 
into any house? Perhaps the whole thing is only a trap to 
make her return home. But if it could be done, then the 

1 The autograph is undated. 
2 Sophie, Frau Weber's youngest daughter. 



best plan I can think of is to marry Constanze to-morrow 
morning or even to-day, if that is possible. For I should 
not like to expose my beloved one to this scandal and 
there could not be one, if she were my wife. One thing 
more. Thorwart has been summoned to the Webers 
to-day. I entreat you, dear Baroness, to let me have your 
friendly advice and to assist us poor creatures. I shall be 
at home all day. I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
am your most grateful servant 


In the greatest haste. Constanze knows nothing of this 
as yet. Has Herr von Thorwart been to see you? Is it 
necessary for the two of us to visit him after lunch to-day? 

(458) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER FERE! VlENNE, ce 7 cTaout, 1782 

You are very much mistaken in your son if you can 
suppose him capable of acting dishonestly. My dear 
Constanze now, thank God, at last my wife I knew my 
circumstances and heard from me long ago all that I had 
to expect from you. But her affection and her love for 
me were so great that she willingly and joyfully sacrificed 
her whole future to share my fate. I kiss your hands 
and thank you with all the tenderness which a son has 
ever felt for a father, for your kind consent and fatherly 
blessing. But indeed I could safely rely on it. For 
you know that I myself could not but see only too 
clearly all the objections that could be raised against 
such a step. At the same time you also know that I could 
not act otherwise without injury to my conscience and my 

1 The marriage took place on August 4th, 1782. 


honour. Consequently I could certainly rely on having 
your consent. So it was that having waited two post-days 
in vain for a reply and the ceremony having been fixed 
for a day by which I was certain to have received it, I 
was married by the blessing of God to my beloved 
Constanze. I was quite assured of your consent and was 
therefore comforted. The following day I received your 
two letters at once Well, it is over! I only ask your for 
giveness for my too hasty trust in your fatherly love. In 
this frank confession you have a fresh proof of my love of 
truth and hatred of a lie. Next post-day my dear wife will 
ask her dearest, most beloved Papa-in-law for his fatherly 
blessing and her beloved sister-in-law for the continuance 
of her most valued friendship. No one was present at the 
wedding save her mother and her youngest sister, Herr 
von Thorwart as guardian and witness for both of us, 
Herr von Cetto, district councillor, who gave away the 
bride, and Gilowsky as my best man. 1 When we had been 
joined together, both my wife and I began to weep. All 
present, even the priest, were deeply touched and all wept 
to see how much our hearts were moved. Our whole 
wedding feast consisted of a supper given for us by the 
Baroness von Waldstadten, which indeed was more 
princely than baronial. My dear Constanze is now looking 
forward a hundred times more to a visit to Salzburg, and 
I wager I wager that you will rejoice in my happiness 
when you get to know her, that is, if you agree with me 
that a right-minded, honest, virtuous and amiable wife 
is a blessing to her husband. 

I send you herewith a short march. 2 I only hope that 
all will reach you in good time, and be to your taste. The 
first Allegro must be played with great fire, the last as 
fast as possible. My opera was given again yesterday 

1 For Mozart's certificate of marriage see Abert, vol. ii. p. 907. 
2 K. 408, No. 2, the promised addition to K. 385, the Haffner symphony. 



and that too at Gluck's request. He has been very com 
plimentary to me about it. I am lunching with him 
to-morrow. You see by my writing how I must hurry. 
Adieu. My dear wife and I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and we both embrace our dear sister with all our 
hearts and I am ever your most obedient son 

August 7th, 1782. 

(459) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 

MON TR&S CHER PJERE! VIENNE, ce 17 d'Aout, 1782 

I forgot to tell you the other day that on the Day of 
Portiuncula * my wife and I performed our devotions 
together at the Theatines. Even if a sense of piety had 
not moved us to do so, we should have had to do it on 
account of the banns, without which we could not have 
been married. Indeed for a considerable time before we 
were married we had always attended mass and gone to 
confession and taken communion together; and I found 
that I never prayed so fervently or confessed and took 
communion so devoutly as by her side; and she felt the 
same. In short, we are made for each other; and God who 
orders all things and consequently has ordained this also, 
will not forsake us. We both thank you most submissively 
for your fatherly blessing. I hope you have now received 
my wife's letter. 

1 August 2nd. In 1223 Pope Honorius III, at the request of St. Francis, 
granted an annual indulgence to anyone who should visit the Portiuncula 
chapel in the Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli at Assisi on August 2nd. 
Gregory XVI in 1622 extended it to all churches of the Observant Fran 
ciscans; in 1856 it was further extended to all churches where the Third 
Order of St. Francis was canonically established, and in 1910 to all Catholic 
churches and chapels. 



In regard to Gluck, my ideas are precisely the same 
as yours, my dearest father. But I should like to add 
Something. The Viennese gentry, and in particular the 
(Emperor,) must not imagine that I am on this earth solely 
for the sake of Vienna. There is no monarch in the world 
whom I should be more glad to serve than the Emperor, 
but I refuse to beg for any post. I believe that I am capable 
of doing credit to any court. If Germany, my beloved 
fatherland, of which, as you know, I am proud, will not 
accept me, then in God's name let France or England 
become the richer by another talented German, to the 
disgrace of the German nation. You know well that it is 
the Germans who have always excelled in almost all the 
arts. 1 But where did they make their fortune and their 
reputation? Certainly not in Germany! Take even the 
case of Gluck. Has Germany made him the great man he 
is? Alas no! Countess Thun, Count Zichy, Baron van 
Swieten, even Prince Kaunitz, are all very much dis 
pleased with the Emperor, because he does not value men 
of talent more, and allows them to leave his dominions. 
Kaunitz said the other day to the Archduke Maximilian, 
when the conversation turned on myself, that "such 
people only come into the world once in a hundred years 
and must not be driven out of Germany, particularly when 
we are fortunate enough to have them in the capital!' You 
cannot imagine how kind and courteous Prince Kaunitz 
was to me when I visited him. When I took my leave, 
he said: "/ am much obliged to you, my dear Mozart, 
for having taken the trouble to visit me" You would 
scarcely believe what efforts Countess Thun, Baron van 
Swieten and other eminent people are making to keep me 
here. .But I cannot afford to wait indefinitely, and indeed 
I refuse to remain hanging on here at their mercy. 

1 For an interesting article on Mozart's patriotism as revealed in his 
letters, see MM, November 1918, pp. 14-18. 



Moreover, I think that even though he is the Emperor, 
I am not so desperately in need of his favour. My idea is 
to go to Paris next Lent, but of course not simply on 
chance. I have already written to Le Gros about this and 
am awaiting his reply. I have mentioned it here too 
particularly to people of position -just in the course of 
conversation. For you know that often in conversation 
you can throw out a hint and that this is more effective 
than if the same thing were announced in the tones of a 
dictator. I might be able to get engagements for the 
Concert Spirituel and the Concert des Amateurs and 
besides, I should have plenty of pupils and now that I 
have a wife I could superintend them more easily and 
more attentively and then with the help of compositions 
and so forth but indeed I should rely chiefly on opera 
commissions. Latterly I have been practising my French 
daily and have already taken three lessons in English. In 
three months I hope to be able to read and understand 
English books fairly easily. Now farewell. My wife and 
I kiss your hands a thousand times and I am ever your 
most obedient son 


P.S. What does Luigi Gatti 1 say? 

My compliments to Perwein* I hope my dear sister's 
indisposition will not have serious consequences. My dear 
wife and I kiss her a thousand times and hope that she is 
now quite well again. Adieu. 

1 See p. 810, n. I. Abbate Luigi Gatti was appointed Kapellmeister at 
Salzburg in February 1783. 

2 Probably Ignaz Perwein (1758-1812), a schoolmaster and organist in 
the neighbourhood of Salzburg. See Hammerle, op. cit. p. 56. 



(460) Leopold Mozart to Baroness von Waldstadten, 


[Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin] 

SALZBURG, August 2$rd, 1782 

I thank your Ladyship most warmly for the very 
special interest you take in my circumstances and for your 
extraordinary kindness in celebrating my son's wedding 
day with such liberality. When I was a young fellow I 
used to think that philosophers were people who said 
little, seldom laughed and turned a sulky face upon the 
world in general. But my own experiences have com 
pletely persuaded me that without knowing it I must be 
a philosopher. For having done my duty as a father, 
having in countless letters made the clearest and most 
lucid representations to Wolfgang on every point and 
being convinced that he knows my trying circumstances, 
which are extremely grievous to a man of my age, and 
that he is aware of the degradations I am suffering in 
Salzburg, as he must realise that both morally and 
materially I am being punished for his conduct, all that 
I can now do is to leave him to his own resources (as he 
evidently wishes) and pray God to bestow on him His 
paternal blessing and not withdraw from him His Divine 
grace. For my part I shall not abandon the cheerfulness 
which is natural to me and which in spite of my advancing 
years I still possess, and I shall continue to hope for the 
best. On the whole, I should feel quite easy in my mind, 
were it not that I have detected in my son an outstanding 
fault, which is, that he is far too patient or rather easy 
going, too indolent, perhaps even too proud, in short, that 
he has the sum total of all those traits which render a 
man inactive\ on the other hand, he is too impatient, too 


From an engraving by T. Hardy 
(British Museum) 


hasty and will not bide his time. Two opposing elements 
rule his nature, I mean, there is either too muck or too 
little, never the golden mean. If he is not actually in want, 
then he is immediately satisfied and becomes indolent and 
lazy. If he has to bestir himself, then he realises his worth 
and wants to make his fortune at once. Nothing must 
stand in his way; yet it is unfortunately the most capable 
people and those who possess outstanding genius who 
have the greatest obstacles to face. Who will prevent him 
from pursuing his present career in Vienna if he only has 
a little patience? Kapellmeister Bonno is a very old man. 
After his death Salieri J will be promoted and will make 
room for someone else. And is not Gluck too an old man? 
My dear lady, please instil a little patience into my son. 
And may I ask you to let me have your opinion of his 
circumstances? My daughter sends you her most respect 
ful regards and both she and I wish that we had the good 
fortune to be able to kiss your Ladyship's hands. She is 
very much touched at being honoured quite undeservedly 
with a remembrance from your Ladyship. Ah, if only we 
were not so far away from Vienna! How delightful it 
would be to devote ourselves together to music! May 
Hope, sole consolation of our desires, soothe my spirit! 
Perhaps I may yet be happy enough to be able to assure 
your Ladyship in person not only of my friendship, which, 
though it may be of little advantage to you, is heartfelt 
and true, but also of my deepest esteem and regard. I am 
indeed your most humble and obedient servant 


My son wrote to me some time ago saying that, when 
he married, he would not live with his wife's mother. 

1 After the death of Bonno in 1788 Salieri was appointed Kapellmeister 
to the Viennese court. 

VOL. in 1217 M 


I trust that by now he has left that house. If not, he is 
storing up trouble for himself and his wife. 

(461) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER P^REl VlENNE, ce 24 d'Aout, 1782 

You have only imagined what I was really intending 
and still intend to do, I must likewise confess the truth to 
you, which is, that my wife and I have been waiting from 
day to day for some sure information about the arrival of 
the Russian visitors, in order to decide whether to under 
take or to postpone the journey we have planned; and as 
we have heard nothing definite up to this moment, I have 
not been able to write to you on the subject. Some say 
they are to arrive on September yth, others again that 
they are not coming at all If the latter be the truth, we 
shall be in Salzburg by the beginning of October. If, 
however, they do come, then, according to the advice of 
my good friends, it is not only very necessary that I 
should be here, but my absence would be a real triumph 
for my enemies and consequently highly detrimental to 
me. If I am appointed music master to the Princess of 
Wurtemberg, which is extremely probable, I can easily 
obtain leave of absence for a time in order to visit my 
father. If our project has to be postponed, no one will be 
more disappointed than my dear wife and I, for we can 
hardly await the moment to embrace our dearest, most 
beloved father and our dearest sister. 

You are perfectly right about France and England! 
It is a step which I can always take, and it is better for 
me to remain in Vienna a little longer. Besides, times may 
change too in those countries. Last Tuesday (after, thank 



Heaven! an interval of a fortnight) my opera was again 
performed with great success. 

I am delighted that the symphony 1 is to your taste. 
A propos, you have no idea (but perhaps you have?) where 
I am living. Where do you think? In the same house where 
we lodged fourteen years ago, on the Hohe Briicke, in 
Griinwald's house. But now it is called Grosshaupt's 
house, No. 387.* Stephanie junior arrived yesterday and 
I went to see him to-day. Elizabeth Wendling is also here. 
Well, you must forgive me if I close this letter already, 
but I have been wasting my time gossiping to Herr von 
S track. I wish with all my heart that those Russian people 
may not come, so that I may soon have the pleasure of 
kissing your hands. My wife sheds tears of joy when she 
thinks of our journey to Salzburg. Farewell. We kiss your 
hands a thousand times and embrace our dear sister with 
all our hearts and are ever your most obedient children 


Man and wife 
Are one life. 

(462) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 31 August, 1782 

You wonder how I can flatter myself that I shall be 
maestro to the Princess? 3 Why, Salieri is not capable of 
teaching her the clavier! All he can do is to try to injure 
me in this matter by recommending someone else, which 
quite possibly he is doing! On the other hand the Emperor 

1 K - 385 ' 

2 Now Wipplingerstrasse no. 25. The Mozarts took rooms in this house 
on their return to Vienna from Olmutz in 1768. 

3 Princess Elizabeth of Wurtemberg. 



knows me; and the last time she was in Vienna the Prin 
cess would gladly have taken lessons from me. Moreover, 
I know that my name is in the book which contains the 
names of all those who have been chosen for her service. 
Le Chevalier Hypolity has not put in an appearance yet. 
You say that I have never told you on what floor we are 
living? That in truth must have stuck in my pen! Well, I 
am telling you now that we are living on the second 
floor. But I cannot understand how you got the idea that 
my highly honoured mother-in-law is living here too. For 
indeed I did not marry my sweetheart in such a hurry in 
order to live a life of vexations and quarrels, but to enjoy 
peace and happiness; and the only way to ensure this was 
to cut ourselves off from that house. Since our marriage 
we have paid her two visits, but on the second occasion 
quarrelling and wrangling began again, so that my poor 
wife started to cry. I put a stop to the bickering at once by 
saying to Constanze that it was time for us to go. We have 
not been there since and do not intend to go until we have 
to celebrate the birthday or name-day of the mother or of 
one of the two sisters. You say too that I have never told 
you on what day we got married. I must indeed beg your 
pardon but either your memory has deceived you this 
time, in which case you need only take the trouble to look 
among my letters for that of August yth, where you will 
find it stated clearly and distinctly that we confessed on 
Friday, the Day of Portiuncula, and were married on the 
following Sunday, August 4th or you never received that 
letter, which, however, is not very likely, as you got the 
march 1 which was enclosed with it and also replied to 
various points in the letter. I now have a request to make. 
Baroness Waldstadten is leaving here and would like to 
have a good small pianoforte. As I have forgotten the name 
of the pianoforte maker in Zweibriicken, I should like to 

1 See p. 1 212, n. 2, 


ask you to order one from him. It must, however, be ready 
within a month or six weeks at the latest and the price 
should be the same as that of the Archbishop's. May I also 
ask you to send me some Salzburg tongues either by 
some acquaintance or by mail coach (if the customs duty 
does not make it impossible)? I am under great obligations 
to the Baroness and when the conversation one day 
turned on tongues and she said she would very much like 
to try a Salzburg one, I offered to get one for her. If you 
can think of any other delicacy for her and will send it 
to me, I shall indeed be very much obliged to you. I am 
particularly anxious to give her some such pleasure. I 
can refund the cost through Peisser or give it to you when 
we meet. 

Can you send me some Schwarzreuter? 1 Now farewell. 
My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times and we 
embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and are ever 

most obedient daughter 
^ most obedient son 

P.S. Should you be writing to my cousin, 3 please give 
her kind regards from us both. Addio. 

(463) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum^ Salzburg] , 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNA, September Ilth, 1782 

Many thanks for the tongues. I gave two to the 
Baroness and kept the other two for myself; and we are 

1 A kind of trout (Salmo salvelinis) found in the Salzkammergut lakes, 

2 After his marriage to Constanze Weber, Mozart's letters to his father 
and to his sister bear, almost without exception, this double signature. 

3 Maria Anna Thekla Mozart, the "Basle". 



to sample them to-morrow. Please be so good as to tell 
me how you wish the payment to be made. If you can also 
obtain some Schwarzreuter for me, you will indeed give 
me much pleasure. The Jewess Eskeles l has no doubt 
proved a very good and useful tool for breaking up the 
friendship between the Emperor and the Russian court, 
for the day before yesterday she was taken to Berlin in 
order that the King might have the pleasure of her com 
pany. She is indeed a sow of the first order. Moreover, she 
was the whole cause of Giinther's misfortune, if indeed it be 
a misfortune to be imprisoned for two months in a beautiful 
room (with permission to have all his books, his pianoforte 
and so forth) and to lose his former post, but to be ap 
pointed to another at a salary of 1200 gulden; for yester 
day he left for Hermannstadt. Yet an experience of that 
kind always injures an honest man and nothing in the 
world can compensate him for it. I just want you to 
realise that he has not committed a great crime. His 
conduct was due entirely to etourderie, or thoughtlessness, 
and consequently lack of discretion, which in a Privy 
Councillor is certainly a serious fault. Although he never 
divulged anything of importance, yet his enemies, chief 
of whom is the former Stadtholder, Count von Herber- 
stein, managed to play their cards so cleverly that the 
Emperor who formerly had such immense confidence in 
Giinther that he would walk up and down the room arm 
in arm with him for hours, now began to distrust him with 
an equal intensity. To make matters worse, who should 
appear on the scene but that sow Eskeles (a former 
mistress of Giinther's), who accused him in the most 
violent terms. But when the matter was investigated, 
these gentlemen cut a very poor figure. However, the 

1 For a full account of the Giinther-Eskeles cause celebre> which vindicates 
the honour of Eleonore Fliess-Eskeles, see MM, February-May 1921, 
p. 41 ff. 



affair had already caused terrific commotion; and great 
people never like to admit that they have been in the 
wrong. Hence the fate of poor Giinther, whom I pity from 
my heart, as he was a very good friend of mine and, if 
things had remained as they were, might have rendered 
me good service with the Emperor. You can imagine what 
a shock and how unexpected it was to me and how very 
much upset I was; for Stephanie, Adamberger and I had 
supper with him one evening and on the morrow he was 
arrested. Well, I must close, for I may miss the post. My 
dear wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and are ever 
your most obedient children 


My wife is almost ninety-one. 1 

(464) Leopold Mozart to Baroness von Waldstadten, 


\Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 
SALZBURG, September l^th, 1782 


It is impossible for me to describe to your Ladyship 
my heartfelt pleasure on reading your charming and 
flattering letter. It reminded me, as I read it, of Wieland's 
Sympathies. 2 It is undoubtedly true that many people are 
blessed with a higher plane of thought and unconsciously 
dwell together in a secret spiritual union before they have 
ever seen or spoken to one another. Good books and 
music are your Ladyship's occupation and entertainment. 

1 Constanze was nineteen. 

2 Wieland's Sympathien, published in 1756, was one of his earliest prose 



They are also mine. Your Ladyship has withdrawn her 
self from social functions; and for several months I too 
have not appeared at court and only do so when I am 
obliged to. I live quietly with my daughter and have a 
few friends who come to see me. Reading, music and an 
occasional walk are our recreation and in bad weather a 
very humble game of taroc or tresette and occasionally 
a game of chess. Further, your Ladyship feels that 
sorrow has greatly saddened you and refuses when out 
of humour to be a burden to anyone. I for my part have 
had so much to endure from unmerited persecutions and 
have become so closely acquainted with envy, falseness, 
deception, malice and all the many other fine qualities of 
human nature that I purposely avoid large social func 
tions in order not to become completely out of humour 
and to retain that modicum of cheerfulness which I still 
possess. Hence it is naturally my most ardent wish to 
have the privilege of meeting your Ladyship, as I feel 
certain that your Ladyship's outlook entirely agrees with 
mine, and that we should chatter away to our hearts' con 
tent. I regard it indeed as a great compliment that your 
Ladyship should consider me worthy of your invaluable 
friendship and quite undeserved esteem; and as I see no 
means of deserving it of really deserving it, I hope at 
least, without saying anything ridiculous or improper, to 
find suitable words to express the feeling of great regard 
which I cherish towards a lady of such worth. 

Your Ladyship has been so gracious as to offer me a 
lodging, should I come to Vienna. Indeed I am quite 
overcome! It would be most daring of me to avail myself 
of this gracious invitation; but my first outing in Vienna 
will certainly be to kiss your Ladyship's hands. Who 
can tell? Perhaps I may still have the good fortune to 
do so! 

I beg your Ladyship to take care of your health and 



well-being. I was grievously distressed when I read that, 
owing to much sorrow and suffering, your Ladyship had 
lost your health and peace of mind. May God in His 
goodness watch over you! I am profoundly affected! After 
receiving my letter my son to some extent abandoned his 
resolve to leave Vienna; and, as he is coming to visit 
me in Salzburg, I shall make further very necessary and 
weighty representations to him. I am delighted to hear 
that his wife does not take after the Webers. If she did, 
he would indeed be unhappy. Your Ladyship assures me 
that she is a good soul and that is enough for me! 

My daughter kisses your Ladyship's hands and like 
myself is disappointed that we are so far from Vienna. 
Meanwhile I console myself with the thought that although 
mountains and valleys cannot meet, people can do so; 
that your Ladyship will continue to think me worthy of 
your favour and esteem; and that I, through my son, shall 
always continue to have news of the health and happiness 
of so kind a lady. I hope to be able to prove that with the 
greatest esteem, regard and devotion I am your Lady 
ship's most humble and obedient servant 


(465) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum> Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 2$th Sep*, 

I have received your last letter of September 2oth and 
hope that you got my four lines, which only said that we 
were in good health. Now for a really comical event! But 
who can prevent possible coincidences and developments? 
Herr Gabel, who arrived here some days ago, is actually 
with me and is waiting for me to finish this letter in order 
to accompany my sonatas on the violin, which, if he is 



to be believed, he must play well. He has already played 
to me on the horn and could really do nothing on it. 
But what I can do for him I will; it is enough that I 
am your son. He sends his compliments to you both. It 
was news to me to hear that the paintings in the churches 
which serve no useful purpose, the many votive tablets 
and the instrumental music and so forth, which are to be 
done away with in Vienna, have already been abolished 
in Salzburg. No doubt (the Archbishop) hopes by doing 
this to ingratiate himself with (the Emperor;) but I can 
hardly believe that this policy of his will be of much 
service to him. Well, I can't bear to see anyone waiting 
for me; and I dislike to be kept waiting myself. So I must 
reserve for my next letter my description of Baroness von 
Waldstadten and merely ask you to do me a most urgent 
favour. But I beg you, on account of the place where I 
am, not to divulge what I am about to say. The Prussian 
Ambassador, Riedesel, has informed me that he has been 
commissioned by the Berlin court to send my opera "Die 
Entfiihrung aus dem Serail" to Berlin and has asked me 
to have it copied, adding that the remuneration for the 
music will follow in due course. I promised at once to 
have this done. Now, as I have not got the opera myself, 
I should have to borrow it from the copyist, which would 
be very inconvenient, for I could not be sure of keeping 
it for three days in succession, as the Emperor often sends 
for it (he did so only yesterday) and, moreover, the opera 
is very often given. Why, since August i6th it has been 
performed ten times. So my idea is to have it copied in 
Salzburg, where it could be done more secretly and more 
cheaply! I beg you, therefore, to have the score copied 
out at once and as quickly as possible. If, when you send 
me the copy, you will let me know the cost, I shall remit 
the amount at once through Herr Peisser. Now farewell. 
My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times and 



embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and we are 
your most obedient children 

W: A: and M: C: MOZART 

(466) Mozart to Baroness von Waldstadten 

\Autograph in the possession of Frau Floersheim-Koch, Florence} 

DEAREST BARONESS! VIENNA, September 28^, 1782 

When your Ladyship was so gracious yesterday as 
to invite me to lunch with you to-morrow, Sunday, I had 
forgotten that a week ago I had made an engagement to 
lunch on that day in the Augarten. 

Martin, the little angel, who fancies himself under an 
obligation to me in several ways, absolutely insists on 
treating me to a dinee. I thought yesterday that I could 
arrange and accommodate the matter in accordance with 
my wishes; but it has proved impossible, as the little angel 
has already ordered and arranged everything, and conse 
quently would be put to useless expense. Therefore on 
this account your Ladyship will kindly excuse me this 
time, and with your Ladyship's permission we shall both 
have the honour of waiting upon you next Tuesday to 
deliver our congratulations and to give Fraulein von 
Aurnhammer r some purgations ; if she must let us see her 
toilet operations. But now, joking apart, I really do not 
want to let the concerto 2 which I played in the theatre 
go for less than six ducats. On the other hand I should 
undertake to pay for the copying. As for the beautiful 
red coat, which attracts me enormously, please, please let 
me know where it is to be had and how much it costs for 
that I have completely forgotten, as I was so captivated 

1 Since her father's death Fraulein Aurnhammer had been living with the 
Baroness von Waldstadten. 

2 Probably K. 175, which Mozart played at his concert on March 3rd, 
1782. See p. 1183. 



by its splendour that I did not take note of its price. 
I must have a coat like that, for it is one that will 
really do justice to certain buttons which I have long 
been hankering after. I saw them once, when I was 
choosing some for a suit. They were in Brandau's button 
factory in the Kohlmarkt, opposite the Milano. They are 
mother-of-pearl with a few white stones round the edge 
and a fine yellow stone in the centre. I should like all my 
things to be of good quality, genuine and beautiful. Why 
is it, I wonder, that those who cannot afford it, would like 
to spend a fortune on such articles and those who can, do 
not do so? Well, I think it is long past the time for me to 
stop this scribbling, j kiss your hands, and hoping to see 
you in good health the Tuesday j am your most humble 
servant x 


Constanze, my better half, kisses your Ladyship's 
hands a thousand times and gives that Aurnhammer girl 
a kiss. But I am not supposed to know about this, for the 
very thought makes me shudder. 

(467) Mozart to Baroness von Waldstddten 

[Copy in the Preiissische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin] 

VIENNA, October 2nd, 1782 


Herewith I have the honour to send your Ladyship 
the rondo 2 in question, the two volumes of plays and 

1 In the autograph this sentence is in English. 
2 Probably K. 382. See p. 1189, ^3- 



the little book of stories. I committed a terrible blunder 
yesterday! I felt all the time that I had something more 
to say and yet I could cudgel nothing out of my stupid 
skull. But it was to thank your Ladyship for having at 
once taken so much trouble about the beautiful coat, 
and for your goodness in promising to give me one like 
it. But it never occurred to me, which is what usually 
happens with me. It is my constant regret that I did not 
study architecture instead of music, for I have often heard 
it said that he is the best architect to whom nothing ever 
occurs. 1 I can say with truth that I am a very happy and 
a very unhappy man unhappy since the night when I 
saw your Ladyship at the ball with your hair so beauti 
fully dressed for gone is my peace of mind! Nothing 
but sighs and groans! During the rest of the time I spent 
at the ball I did not dance I skipped. Supper was 
already ordered, but I did not eat I gobbled. During 
the night instead of slumbering softly and sweetly I 
slept like a dormouse and snored like a bear and (with 
out undue presumption) I should almost be prepared to 
wager that your Ladyship had the same experience a 
proportionl You smile! you blush! Ah, yes I am indeed 
happy. My fortune is made! But alas! Who taps me on 
the shoulder? Who peeps into, my letter? Alas, alas, alas! 
My wife! Well, well, in the name of Heaven, I have taken 
her and must keep her! What is to be done? I must praise 
her and imagine that what I say is true! How happy I 
am that I need no Fraulein Aurnhammer as a pretext 
for writing to your Ladyship, like Herr von Taisen or 
whatever his name is! (how I wish he had no name!), for 
I myself had something to send to your Ladyship. 
Moreover, apart from this, I should have had occasion to 
write to your Ladyship, though indeed I do not dare to 

1 Mozart is punning on the word "einfallen", which means "to collapse" 
and "to occur". 



mention it. Yet why not? Well then, courage! I should 
like to ask your Ladyship to Faugh, the devil that 
would be too gross! A propos. Does not your Ladyship 
know the little rhyme? 

A woman and a jug of beer, 
How can they rhyme together? 
The woman has a cask of beer 
Of which she sends a jugful here. 
Why, then they rhyme together. 

I brought that in very neatly, didn't I? But now, 
senza burled If your Ladyship could sent me a jugful 
this evening, you would be doing me a great favour. For 
my wife is is is and has longings but only for beer 
prepared in the English way! Well done, little wife! I see 
at last that you are really good for something. My wife, 
who is an- angel of a woman, and I, who am a model 
husband, both kiss your Ladyship's hands a thousand 
times and are ever your 

faithful vassals, 
MOZART magnus, corpore parvus, 

CONSTANTIA, omnium uxorum pulcherrima 

et prudentissima. 
Vienna, October 2nd, 1782. 

Please give my kind regards to that Aurnhammer girl. 
(468) Leopold Mozart to J. G. I. Breitkopf, Leipzig 

[Extract] [Autograph formerly in the possession of Dr. E. Prieger, Bonn\ 

SALZBURG, October qth, 1782 

My son will probably remain in Vienna for good. He 
has written a German opera, "Die Entflihrung aus dem 
Serail". It is in three acts and is a free adaptation of 

1 Joking apart. 


Bretzner's libretto and has been arranged for the Imperial 
National Theatre. That it has won applause I gather 
from the fact that it has already been performed sixteen 

(469) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 

MON TRES CHER PRE! VlENNE, ce $ d* October, 1782 

I can only reply to the chief points of your letter, as 
I have just this moment received it. Unfortunately I have 
had to read the exact reverse of what I expected. I went 
myself to see Baron von Riedesel, who is a charming 
man, and as I was fully confident that my opera was 
already being copied, I promised to let him have it at 
the end of this month or the beginning of November at 
latest. I therefore beg you to make sure that I shall have 
it by that time. But in order to relieve you of all care and 
anxiety on the subject (which, however, I most gratefully 
regard as a proof of your fatherly love), I can say nothing 
more convincing than that I am extremely grateful to the 
Baron for having ordered the copy from me and not from 
the copyist, from whom he could have got it at any time 
by paying cash. Besides, it would mortify me very much, 
if my talent was such that it could be remunerated once 
and for all and with a hundred ducats too! At the 
moment I shall say nothing to anyone, simply because it 
is unnecessary. If my opera is given in Berlin, 1 of which 
there seems no doubt (which is to me the most pleasing 
feature of the affair), people will certainly hear about it. 
And, what is more, my enemies will not mock me, nor 
treat me like a contemptible fellow, but will only be too 
glad to give me an opera to compose if I choose though 

1 The "Entfiihrung aus dem Serail" was not performed in Berlin until 
1788. It was given in Prague, Mannheim, Frankfurt, Bonn and Leipzig in 
1783, Salzburg in 1784, Kassel in 1785, and Breslau and Coblenz in 1787. 



very likely I shall not choose. What I mean is that I am 
willing to write an opera, but not to look on with a hun 
dred ducats in my pocket and see the theatre making four 
times as much in a fortnight. 1 I intend to produce my 
opera at my own expense, I shall clear at least 1200 
gulden by three performances and then the management 
may have it for fifty ducats. If they refuse to take it, I 
shall have made some money and can produce the opera 
anywhere. Well, I hope that hitherto you have not 
detected the least sign of an inclination on my part to 
act shabbily. No man ought to be mean, but neither 
ought he to be such a simpleton as to let other people take 
the profits from his work, which has cost him so much 
study and labour, by renouncing all further claims upon it. 
The Grand Duke arrived yesterday. Well, the dis 
tinguished clavier teacher for the Princess has at last 
been appointed. I need only mention his pay and you 
will easily estimate the competence of this master 400 
gulden. His name is Summer. 2 Even if I were dis 
appointed, I should do my best not to let it be seen. But 
as things are, I need not, thank God, make any pretence, 
for the only thing which would have mortified me would 
have been my appointment, which, of course, I should 
have had to decline always an unpleasant proceeding, 
when one is in the unfortunate position of having to 
refuse a great lord. I must urge you once more to hurry 
up as much as possible the copying, of my opera. And 
while I kiss your hands a thousand times I am ever your 
most obedient son 


1 According to a letter from Schroder to Dalberg of May 22nd, 1784 
(quoted in Abert, vol. i. p. 896, n. 3), Mozart received 50 ducats for his 
opera. The usual sum paid to a composer was 100 ducats. 

2 Georg Summer (1742-1809) was appointed in 1781 instructor on the 
clavier to the Imperial Court. From 1791 until his death he was organist in 
the Vienna Court Chapel. 




From a portrait by an unknown artist 

(Mozart Museum, Salzburg) 


My dear wife kisses your hands and we both embrace our 
dear sister with all our hearts. We saw the cross which my 
sister received from Baroness Waldstadten the day before 
she sent it to her. I despatched by the mail coach to-day 
five quires of ruled paper with twelve staves to a page. 

We do not yet know nor indeed does the Baroness 
herself when she is going into the country. But as soon 
as I hear, I shall write and tell you. Adieu. 

(470) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNA, October I2th, 1782 

If I could have foreseen that the copyists in Salzburg 
would have so much to do, I should have decided 
to have the opera copied here in spite of the extra 
expense. Well, I must go off to the Ambassador and 
explain the real reason to him. But please do your very 
best to have it sent to me soon, and the sooner, the better. 
You think that I should not have got it in a shorter time 
from a Vienna copyist? Why, I could have got it from the 
theatrical copyist here within a week or at most ten days. 
The fact that that ass Gatti asked the Archbishop to 
be allowed to compose a serenade, alone renders him 
worthy of the name and makes me surmise that it is equally 
applicable to his learning in music. 

You say that 400 gulden a year as an assured salary are 
not to be despised. What you say would be true if in 
addition I could work myself into a good position and 
could treat these 400 gulden simply as an extra. But 
unfortunately that is not the case. I should have to con 
sider the 400 gulden as my chief income and everything 
I could earn besides as a windfall, the amount of which 
would be very uncertain and consequently in all proba- 
VOL. in 1233 N 


bility very meagre. For you can easily understand that 
you cannot act as independently towards a pupil who is a 
Princess as towards other ladies. If a Princess does not 
feel inclined to take a lesson, why, you have the honour 
of waiting until she does. She is living with the Salesians 
auf der Wieden, so that if you do not care to walk, you 
have the honour of paying at least a zwanziger * to drive 
there and back. Thus of my pay only 304 gulden would 
remain, I mean, if I were only to give three lessons a week; 
and if I were obliged to wait, I should be neglecting in the 
meantime my other pupils or other work (by which I 
might easily make more than 400 gulden). If I wanted to 
come in to Vienna, I should have to pay double, as I 
should be obliged to drive out again. If I stayed auf der 
Wieden and were giving my lesson in the morning, as 
no doubt I should be doing, I should have to go at lunch, 
time to some inn, take a wretched meal and pay extrava 
gantly for it. Moreover, by neglecting my other pupils, I 
might lose them altogether for everyone considers that 
his money is just as good as that of a Princess. At the same 
time I should be losing the time and inclination to earn 
more money by composition. To serve a great lord (be 
the office what it may) a man should be paid a sufficient 
income to enable him to serve his patron alone, without 
being obliged to seek additional earnings in order to 
avoid penury. A man must provide against want. Please 
do not think that I am so stupid as to tell all this to anyone 
else. But believe me, (the Emperor) himself is well aware 
of his own meanness and has passed me over solely on 
this account. No doubt, if I had applied for the appoint 
ment I should certainly have got it, but with more than 
400 gulden, though probably with a less salary than 
would have been fair and just. I am not looking for pupils, 
for I can have as many as I please; and from two of them, 

1 See p. 1147, n. 2. 


without causing me the slightest hindrance or incon 
venience, I get as much as the Princess gives her master, 
who has thus no better prospect than that of avoiding 
starvation for the rest of his life. You know well how 
services are generally rewarded by great lords. Well, I 
must close, for the post is going. We kiss your hands a 
thousand times and embrace our dear sister with all our 
hearts and are ever your most obedient children 

More the next time. 

(471) Mozart to his Father 

\_Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 19 d'octobre, 1782 

I must again write in a hurry. I do not understand 
how it is, but formerly I always used to get a letter from 
you on Friday after lunch; but now, send as I will, I never 
get it until Saturday evening. I am very sorry that you 
have had so much trouble over my opera. Indeed I have 
heard about England's victories 1 and am greatly delighted 
too, for you know that I am an out-and-out Englishman. 

The Russian Royalties left Vienna to-day. My opera 
was performed for them the other day, and on this occa 
sion I thought it advisable to resume my place at the 
clavier and conduct it. I did so partly in order to rouse 
the orchestra who had gone to sleep a little, partly (since 
I happen to be in Vienna) in order to appear before the 
royal guests as the father of my child. 

My dearest father, I must confess that I have the most 
impatient longing to see you again and to kiss your hands; 
and for this reason I wanted to be in Salzburg on 
November I5th, which is your name-day. But the most 

1 The relief of Gibraltar by Lord Howe and Sir Edward Hughes's crush 
ing defeat of the French navy off Trincomalee. 



profitable season in Vienna is now beginning. The 
nobility are returning from the country and are taking 
lessons. Moreover, concerts are starting again. I should 
have to be back in Vienna by the beginning of December. 
How hard it would be for my wife and myself to be obliged 
to leave you so soon! For we would much rather enjoy for 
a longer period the company of our dear father and our 
dear sister. So it depends on you whether you prefer to 
have me for a longer or shorter time. We are thinking of 
going to you in the spring. If I only mention Salzburg 
to my dear wife, she is already beside herself with joy. 
The barber of Salzburg (not of Seville) called on me and 
delivered kind messages from you, from my sister and 
from KatherL Now farewell. We both kiss your hands a 
thousand times and embrace my dear sister with all our 
hearts and are ever your most obedient children 


(472) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 26 cToctobre, '82 

How gladly would we take the post-chaise and alia 
Wolfgang Mozart fly to Salzburg! But this is quite out 
of the question, because I cannot get away from here 
before November 3rd without ruining someone, as 
Fraulein von Aurnhammer (whom I have placed with 
Baroness von Waldstadten, who gives her board and 
lodging) is giving a concert in the theatre on that day and 
I have promised to play with her. My wife's boundless 
desire and my own to kiss your hands and to embrace 
our dear sister will make us do all in our power to enjoy 
this happiness and pleasure as soon as possible. Enough! 
All I can say as yet is that the month of November is not 
favourable to those natives of Salzburg who may not 



be able to tolerate my presence. I have many things too 
to discuss with you, my dearest father, on the subject of 
music. It is all the same to me whether the opera is 
stitched together or bound; I should have it bound in blue 
paper. You will see by my writing that I am in a desperate 
hurry. It is now seven o'clock and in spite of all my 
enquiries I have only this moment received your letter. 
Well, adieu. My dear wife and I kiss your hands a 
thousand times and embrace our dear sister with all our 
hearts and are ever your most obedient children 


(473) Mozart to his Father 

{Autograph in the Mozarteum^ Salzburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 13 de 9*", 1782 

We are in considerable perplexity. I did not write to 
you last Saturday, because I thought we were certain to 
leave Vienna on Monday. But on Sunday the weather 
became so dreadful that carriages could scarcely make 
their way through the town. I still wished to set off on 
Monday afternoon, but I was told at the post that not 
only would each stage take four or five hours, but we 
should not be able to get much beyond the first and 
should have to turn back. The mail coach with eight 
horses did not even reach the first stage and has returned 
to Vienna. I then intended to leave to-morrow, but my 
wife has such a severe headache to-day that, although she 
insists on setting out, I dare not allow her to run such a 
risk in this odious weather. So I am waiting for another 
letter from you (I trust that in the meantime road con 
ditions will have improved) and then we shall be off. 
For the pleasure of embracing you again, my dearest 
father, outweighs all other considerations. My pupils can 



quite well wait for me for three or four weeks. For 
although the Countesses Zichy and Rumbeck have 
returned from the country and have already sent for me, 
it is not at all likely that they will engage another master 
in the meantime. Well, as I have not been so fortunate as 
to be able to congratulate you in person, I now do so in 
writing and send you the wishes of my wife and your 
future grandson or granddaughter. We wish you a long 
and happy life, health and contentment and whatever you 
wish for yourself. We kiss your hands a thousand times 
and embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and are 
ever your most obedient children 

W: et C: MOZART 

(474) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 
MON TRES CHER PEREJ VlENNE, ce 2O de 9*", 1782 

I see alas! that the pleasure of embracing you must 
be postponed until the spring, for my pupils positively 
refuse to let me go, and indeed the weather is at present 
far too cold for my wife. Everyone implores me not to 
take the risk. In spring then (for I call March, or the 
beginning of April at latest spring, as I reckon it accord 
ing to my circumstances), we can certainly travel to 
Salzburg, for my wife is not expecting her confinement 
before the month of June, So I am unpacking our trunks 
to-day, as I left everything packed until I heard from you. 
For had you desired us to come, we should have been off 
at once without telling a soul, just to show you that we 
were not to blame in the matter. M. and Mme Fischer 
and the old lady (who all send their greetings) can best 
tell you how sorry I am not to be able to make the journey 
at present. Yesterday Princess Elizabeth (as it was her 
name-day) received from the Emperor a present of 



90,000 gulden as well as a gold watch set with brilliants. 
She was also proclaimed an Archduchess of Austria, so 
she now has the title of Royal Highness. The Emperor 
has had another attack of fever. < I fear that he will not 
live long) and only hope that I am mistaken. 

Madame Heisig, nee De Luca, who visited Salzburg 
with her husband and played the psaltery in the theatre, is 
in Vienna and is giving a strumming recital. She sent me 
a written invitation and begged me to speak well of her, 
adding that she attached great value to my friendship. 
Well, I must close. My wife and I kiss your hands a 
thousand times and embrace our dear sister with all our 
hearts and are ever your most obedient children 

W: et C: MOZART 

(475) Mozart to his Father 

[A utograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 21 de decembre, 1782 
Passionate as was my longing to get a letter from 
you again after a silence of three weeks, I was none 
the less amazed at its contents. In short, we have both 
been in the same state of anxiety. You must know 
that I replied to your last letter on December 4th and 
expected an answer from you in eight days. Nothing 
came. Well, I thought that perhaps you had not had time 
to write; and from a rather pleasant hint in your previous 
letter, we almost thought that you would arrive yourself. 
The next post again brought us nothing. All the same I 
intended to write, but was unexpectedly summoned to the 
Countess Thun and consequently was prevented from 
doing so. Then our anxiety began. We consoled ourselves, 
however, with the thought that if anything had been 
wrong, one of you would have written. At last your letter 



came to-day, by which I perceive that you never received 
my last letter. I can scarcely think that it was lost in the 
post, so no doubt the maid must have pocketed the 
money. But, by Heaven! I would far rather have made a 
present of six kreutzers to such a brute than have lost 
my letter so mal apropos] and yet it is not always possible 
to post the letter oneself. We have now got another maid, 
whom I have lectured well on the subject. What annoys 
me most of all is that it has caused you so much anxiety 
and also that I can no longer remember exactly what I 
wrote. I know that I was at a concert at Galitzin's that 
same evening and that I mentioned among other things 
that my poor little wife was obliged to content herself for 
the present with a little silhouette portrait of yourself, which 
she always carries about in her bag and kisses more than 
twenty times a day. I also asked you to send me by the 
first opportunity which presents itself the new symphony 
which I composed for Haffner at your request. 1 I should 
like to have it for certain before Lent, for I should very 
much like to have it performed at my concert. I asked you 
too whether you would like to know to what little silhouette 
portrait I was referring? Ah! Yes! I added that I was 
most anxious to know what very urgent matter you wished 
to discuss with me. And then about our visit in the spring! 
That is all that I can remember. Confound the creature! 
For how can I know whether that letter did not contain 
something which I should be very sorry to see falling into 
other hands? But I do not think that it did and I trust 
that it didn't; and I am only pleased and happy to hear 
that you are both in good health. My wife and I, thank 
God, are very well. 

Is it true that the Archbishop is coming to Vienna after 
the New Year? Countess Liitzow has been here for three 
weeks and I only heard of her arrival yesterday. Prince 

, ' K. 385. 


Galitzin told me of it. I am engaged for all his concerts. 
I am always fetched in his coach and brought to his house 
and treated there most magnificently. On the loth my 
opera was performed again with the greatest applause. It 
was the fourteenth time and the theatre was as full as on 
the first night, or rather it was as packed as it has in 
variably been. Count Rosenberg himself spoke to me at 
Prince Galitzin's and suggested that I should write an 
Italian opera. I have already commissioned someone to 
procure for me from Italy the latest opere buffe texts to 
choose from, but as yet I have not received any, although 
I myself wrote to Ignaz Hagenauer about it. Some 
Italian male and female singers are coming here at 
Easter. Please send me Lugiati's address at Verona, for 
I should like to try this channel too. 

A new opera, or rather a comedy with ariettas by 
Umlauf, entitled "Welche ist die beste Nation?" was 
performed the other day I a wretched piece which I 
could have set to music, but which I refused to undertake, 
adding that whoever should compose music for it without 
altering it completely would run the risk of being hooted 
off the stage; had it not been Umlauf s, it would certainly 
have been hooted; but, being his, it was only hissed. Indeed 
it was no wonder, for even with the finest music no one 
could have tolerated such a piece. But, what is more, the 
music is so bad that I do not know whether the poet or 
the composer will carry off the prize for inanity. To its 
disgrace it was performed a second time; but I think we 
may now say, Punctum satis. 

Well, I must close, or I shall miss the post, My dear 
wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace 
our dear sister with all our hearts and are ever your most 
obedient children 

W. et C. MOZART 

* On December I3th. 


(476) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 28 de decembre, 1782 
I must write in the greatest haste, as it is already 
half past five and I have asked some people to come here 
at six for a little concert. Altogether I have so much to do 
that often I do not know whether I am on my head or my 
heels. I spend the whole forenoon giving lessons until 
two o'clock, when we have lunch. After this meal I must 
give my poor stomach an hour for digestion. The evening 
is therefore the only time I have for composing and of 
that I can never be sure, as I am often asked to perform 
at concerts. There are still two concertos wanting to make 
,up the series of subscription concertos. 1 These concertos 
are a happy medium between what is too easy and too 
difficult; they are very brilliant, pleasing to the ear, and 
natural, without being vapid. There are passages here and 
there from which connoisseurs alone can derive satis 
faction; but these passages are written in such a way that 
the less learned cannot fail to be pleased, though without 
knowing why. I am distributing the tickets at six ducats 
apiece. I am now finishing too the piano arrangement of 
my opera, which is about to be published; and at the same 
time I am engaged in a very difficult task, the music for 
a bard's song by Denis 2 about Gibraltar. But this is a 
secret, for it is a Hungarian lady who wishes to pay this 
compliment to Denis. The ode is sublime, beautiful, any 
thing you, like, but too exaggerated and pompous for my 

1 K. 413-415, composed in 1782. According to Kochel, p. 502, K. 414 was 
composed before K. 413. 

2 An ode entitled "Gibraltar" by J. N. C. Michael Denis (1729-1800), 
Jesuit priest and poet. The poem was written in the style of Klopstock. 
Mozart's setting was never finished. The fragment "0 Calpe!" K. App. 25, 
consists of 58 bars. 



fastidious ears. But what is to be done? The golden mean 
of truth in all things is no longer either known or appre 
ciated. In order to win applause one must write stuff which 
is so inane that a fiacre could sing it, or so unintelligible 
that it pleases precisely because no sensible man can 
understand it. This is not what I have been wanting to 
discuss with you; but I should like to write a book, a short 
introduction to music, illustrated by examples, but, I 
need hardly add, not under my own name. 

I send you an enclosure from Baroness Waldstadten, 
who fears that her second letter may have gone astray. 
You cannot have received her last letter, for you have not 
mentioned it. I asked you about it in the letter which was 
lost. Well, adieu. More next time. My little wife and I 
kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace our dear 
sister with all our hearts and are ever your most obedient 

W. et C. MZT. 

(477) Mozart to his Father 

{Autograph in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 
MON TRES CHER PERE! - VlENNE, ce 4 de Janvier, 1783 

It is impossible for me to write very much, as we have 
just got home from Baroness Waldstadten's and I have to 
change all my clothes, as I am invited to a concert at 
Court Councillor Spielmann's. We both thank you for 
your New Year wishes and confess of our own accord that 
we were absolute owls to have forgotten our duty so 
completely. So, laggards as we are, we are sending you, 
not our New Year wishes, but our general everyday wishes; 
and we must leave it at that. It is quite true about my 
moral obligation and indeed I let, the word flow from my 





pen on purpose. I made the promise in my heart of hearts 
and hope to be able to keep it. When I made it, my wife 
was not yet married; yet, as I was absolutely determined 
to marry her after her recovery, it was easy for me to 
make it but, as you yourself are aware, time and other 
circumstances made our journey impossible. The score 
of half of a mass, 1 which is still lying here waiting to 
be finished, is the best proof that I really made the 

I got a new pupil to-day, the elder Countess Palfy,, the 
daughter of (the Archbishop's sister.) But please keep 
this news to yourself for the present, for I am not quite 
sure whether her family would like it to be known. It is 
all the same to me whether you send me the symphony of 
the last Haffner music 2 which I composed in Vienna, 
in the original score or copied out, for, as it is, I shall 
have to have several copies made for my concert. I 
should like to have the following symphonies as soon as 

1 K. 427, Mozart's mass in C minor, at which he worked during the years 
1782 and 1783 and which he left unfinished. It was performed in the Peters- 
kirche in Salzburg on August 25th, Constanze singing the soprano part. 
Mozart used portions of this mass for his cantata "Davidde penitente", 
written in 1785. 

2 K. 385. 3 K 204, a serenade, composed in 1775. 
4 K. 201, composed in 1774. 



tr bis 

Z. 477 

Then there are a few counterpoint works by Eberlin 
copied out on small paper and bound in blue, 3 and some 





things of Haydn, 4 which I should like to have for Baron 
van Swieten, to whose house I go every Sunday from 
twelve to two. Tell me, are there any really good fugues 
in Haydn's last mass or vesper music, or possibly in both? 
If so, I should be very much obliged to you if you would 
have them both scored for me bit by bit. Well, I must 
close. You will have received my last letter with the 
enclosure from the Baroness. She did not tell me what she 
had written to you; she just said that she had asked you 
about something to do with music. But the next time I go 
to see her, she will certainly tell me all about it, as she 
knows that I am not at all inquisitive. Indeed she is a 
dreadful chatterbox. I have it, however, from a third 
party that she would like to have someone for herself, 
as she is leaving Vienna. Well, I just want to warn you 
that, if this is the case, you should be a little bit on your 
guard, as she is as changeable as the wind. Besides, I 
feel sure that however much she may imagine that she is 

2 K. 183, composed in 1773. 
4 Michael Haydn. 

1 K. 182, composed in 1773. 
3 Cp. p. 469, n. I. 



going to leave Vienna, she will hardly do so; for as long 
as I have had the honour of her acquaintance, she has 
always been on the point of leaving. Well, adieu. We kiss 
your hands a thousand times and embrace our dear sister 
with all our hearts and are ever your obedient children 

W. et C. MOZART 

P.S. Only three concertos 1 are being published and 
the price is four ducats. 

(478) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 8 de Janvier, 1783 

Were it not on account of poor Finck, 2 1 should really 
have to ask you to excuse me to-day and put off writing 
until next post-day, as I have to finish a rondo 3 this 
evening for my sister-in-law Aloysia Lange, which she is 
to sing on Saturday at a big concert in the Mehlgrube. 
Meanwhile you will have received my last letter and 
you will have seen from it that I knew nothing whatever 
about the Baroness's commission, that I guessed what it 
might be and had heard about it privately from another 
quarter, upon which, as I know this lady only too well, I 
warned you to be a little bit on your guard. First of all, I 
must tell you that Finck would not be at all suitable for 
her, as she wants to have someone for herself and not for 
her children. 4 You see, therefore, that what is important 
is that he should play with taste, feeling and brilliancy; 
and that a knowledge of thorough bass and extemporising 
in the style of the organ would be of no use to him what- 

1 K. 413-415. 

* Ignaz Finck, court trumpeter in Salzburg. Evidently he had offered to 
take a letter to Mozart's father. 

3 K. 416. Recitative "Mia speranza adorata"; rondo "Ah, non sai, qual 
pena". Aloysia sang this aria too at Mozart's concert on March 23rd. See 
p. 1257. 4 The Baroness had three sons. 



ever. Further, I should like you to realise that the words 
which I used, "herself "for herself 3 , imply a good deal. 
She has often had someone of the kind in her house, but 
the arrangement has never lasted very long. You may put 
whatever construction you like on this. Suffice it to say 
that the result of these scenes is that people speak very 
lightly about her. She is weak; but I shall say no more 
and the little I have said is only for yourself; for I have 
received a great many kindnesses from her and so it is 
my duty to defend her so far as possible, or at least to say 
nothing. Well, she is talking of going off in a few days to 
Pressburg and of staying there. My opinion is that she 
may do so or that she may not. If I were in your place, 
I should politely decline to have anything to do with the 
whole business. Well, I must close or my aria will never 
be finished. My opera was given again yesterday in a 
crowded theatre and with the greatest applause. Do not 
forget my symphonies. 1 Adieu. My little wife who is 
quite plump (but only about the belly) and I both kiss 
your hands a thousand times and embrace our dear sister 
with all our hearts and are ever your most obedient 

W. et C. MOZART 

(479) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce. 22 de Janvier, 1783 
You need have no fear that the three concertos 2 are 
too dear. I think after all that I deserve a ducat for each 
concerto and besides I should like to know who could 
get them copied for a ducat! They cannot be copied, as I 
shall not let them out of my hands until I have secured a 
certain number of subscribers. They have been advertised 

1 Seep. 1244. * K. 413-415. 



three times in the Wiener Diarium\ I and subscription 
tickets at four ducats each have been on sale since the 
2Oth at my house, where the concertos can be obtained 
during" the month of April. 

I shall send the cadenzas and introductions 2 to my dear 
sister at the first opportunity. I have not yet altered the 
introductions in the rondo, 3 for whenever I play this con 
certo, I always play whatever occurs to me at the moment. 
Please send me the symphonies 4 I asked for as soon as 
possible, for I really need them. And now, one more 
request, for my wife is giving" me no peace on the subject. 
You are doubtless aware that this is carnival time and 
that there is as much dancing here as in Salzburgf and 
Munich. Well, I should very much like to go as Harlequin 
(but not a soul must know about it) because here there 
are so many indeed nothing but silly asses at the 
Redoutes. So I should like you to send me your Harlequin 
costume. But please do so very soon, for we shall not 
attend the Redoutes until I have it, although they are 
now in full swing. We prefer private balls. Last week I 
gave a ball in my own rooms, but of course the chapeaux 
each paid two gulden. We began at six o'clock in the 
evening and kept on until seven. What! Only an hour? 
Of course not. I meant, until seven o'clock next morning. 
You will wonder how I had so much room? Why, that 
reminds me that I have always forgotten to tell you that 
for the last six weeks I have been living in a new lodging 
but still on the Hohe Briicke, and only a few houses off. 
We are now in the small Herberstein house, No. 41 2, on the 
third floor. 5 The house belongs to Herr von Wetzlar a 
rich Jew. Well, I have a room there 1000 feet long and 

1 A Vienna daily paper. 

2 The German expression "Eingange" really means "short ornamental 
cadenzas". Seep. 1252, n. 2. 3 K. 382. Seep. 1189, n. 3. 4 See p. 1244. 

5 Now Wipplingerstrasse no. 17. This was Mozart's fourth move since his 
arrival in Vienna. 



one foot wide T and a bedroom, an anteroom and a fine 
large kitchen. Then there are two other fine big rooms 
adjoining ours, which are still empty and which I used for 
this private ball. Baron Wetzlar and his wife were there, 
Baroness Waldstadten, Herr von Edelbach, that gas 
bag Gilowsky, 2 Stephanie junior et uxor, Adamberger 
and his wife, Lange and his, and so forth. It would be 
impossible to name them all. Well, I must close, as I still 
have a letter to write to Madame Wendling at Mannheim 
about my concertos. Please remind that ever ready 
operatic composer, 3 Gatti, about the opera libretti. 4 I do 
wish I had them already. Well, adieu. We kiss your hands 
a thousand times and embrace our dear sister with all our 
hearts and are ever your most obedient children 

W. et Co: MOZART 

(480) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 

MON TR&S CHER PERE! ViENNE, ce 5 defevrier, 1783 

I have received your last letter and trust that in the 
meantime you have also received my last one with my 
request for the Harlequin costume. I now repeat it, beg 
ging you at the same time to be so very kind as to dis 
patch it with all possible speed. And please send the 
symphonies, 5 especially the last one? as soon as possible, 
for my concert is to take place on the third Sunday in 

1 A favourite joke of the Mozart family. See p. n. 

2 Franz Wenzel Gilowsky de Urazowa (1757-1816), brother of Katherl 
Gilowsky. He was now a young surgeon in Vienna and had been best man 
at Mozart's wedding. 

3 Dr. A. Einstein suggests an allusion to Johann P. Kirnberger's Der 
allezeit fertige Polonaisen- und Menuettenkomponist, Berlin, 1757. 

4 Abbate Luigi Gatti, a native of Mantua, had lived in Italy until 1783, 
when he took up his appointment as Kapellmeister to the Salzburg court 
orchestra. Mozart hoped that through him he might find a suitable Italian 
text for an opera buffa. s See p. 1244. 6 K. 385. 

VOL. Ill 1249 O 


Lent, that is, on March 23rd, and I must have several 
copies made. I think, therefore, that if it is not copied 
already, it would be better to send me back the original 
score just as I sent it to you; and remember to put in 
the minuets. 1 

Is Ceccarelli no longer in Salzburg? Or was he not 
given a part in Gatti's cantata? This I ask, as you do 
not mention him among the squabblers and wranglers. 

My opera was performed yesterday for the seventeenth 
time with the usual applause and to a full house. 

On Friday, the day after to-morrow, a new opera is to 
be given, the music of which, a galimatias, is by a young 
Viennese, a pupil of Wagenseil, who is called gallus 
cantans, in arbore sedens, gigirigi faciens. 2 It will prob 
ably not be a success. Still, it is better stuff than its pre 
decessor, an old opera by Gassmann, "La notte critica", 
in German "Die unruhige Nacht' V which with difficulty 
survived three performances. This in its turn had been 
preceded by that execrable opera of Umlauf, 4 about 
which I wrote to you and which never got so far as a 
third performance. It really seems as if they wished to 
kill off before its time the German opera, which in any 
case is to come to an end after Easter; and Germans 
themselves are doing this shame upon them! 

I asked you in my last letter to keep on reminding 
Gatti about the Italian opera libretti and I again repeat 
my request. Let me now tell you of my plan. I do not 
believe that the Italian opera will keep going for long, 
and besides, I hold with the Germans. I prefer German 

1 See p. 1207, n. 4. 

2 Johann Mederitsch (1755-1835), called Gallus. His opera "Rose, oder 
Pflicht und Liebe im Streit" was performed on February 9th, 1783. He is 
better known as a successful composer of Viennese folk songs. See MM, 
February 1919, p. 21 ff. 

3 Gassmann's opera "La notte critica" was performed on January loth, 
1783. 4 Umlauf s opera "Welche ist die beste Nation?". See p. 1241. 



opera, even though it means more trouble for me. Every 
nation has its own opera and why not Germany? Is not 
German as singable as French and English? Is it not more 
so than Russian? Very well then! I am now writing a 
German opera for myself. I have chosen Goldoni's comedy 
"II servitore di due padroni", and the wholeof thefirst act 
has now been translated. Baron Binder is the translator. 
But we are keeping it a secret until it is quite finished. 1 
Well, what do you think of this scheme? Do you not think 
that I shall make a good thing of it? Now I must close. 
Fischer, the bass singer, is with me and has just asked 
me to write about him to Le Gros in Paris, as he is going 
off there in Lent. The Viennese are making the foolish 
mistake of letting a man go who can never be replaced. 
My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and are ever 
your most obedient children 

W: et C: MOZART 
Gaetano Majorano (Caffarelli) 
Amphion Thebas 
Ego Domum. 2 

1 This plan was never carried out. Saint-Foix, vol. iii. p. 389, n., suggests 
that the arias K. 433, 435, composed for bass and tenor respectively, have 
some connection with this project. See also Kochel, pp. 515, 517. 

2 These words are written on the cover of the letter. 

Gaetano Majorano (1703-1783), a famous castrato, who took the name 
of Caffarelli from his friend and patron, Pasquale Caffaro, the Neapolitan 
composer, studied under Porpora and in 1724 made his first appearance in 
Rome. In 1 738 he sang in London and then returned to Italy. When he was 
65 he had amassed an immense fortune and built a palace near Naples, over 
the door of which was the inscription 'Amphion Thebas, ego domum', refer 
ring to the classical legend of Amphion, who is said to have built the walls 
of Thebes by the magic strains of his lute. 

Caffarelli is not mentioned previously in the letters, but his name appears 
in Leopold Mozart's Reiseaufzeichnungen, p. 53, in the handwriting of 
Mozart himself, who adds the remark: "Musico ricchissimo, va nelle chiese 
per chiappare qualche denaro" (a very rich castrato, who goes and sings in 
churches in order to scrape up a few coins). 

Caffarelli died on February 1st, 1783. 


L. 481 MOZART TO HIS FATHER x ? 8 3 

(481) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRS CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 15 defevrier, 1783 
Most heartfelt thanks for the music you have sent 
me. I am extremely sorry that I shall not be able to use 
the music of "Thames", 1 but this piece, which failed to 
please here, is now among the rejected works which are no 
longer performed. For the sake of the music alone it might 
possibly be given again, but that is not likely. Certainly 
it is a pity! Herewith I send my sister the three cadenzas 
for the concerto in D and the two short cadenzas for 
the one in E^.* Please send me at once the little book 
which contains the oboe concerto 3 I wrote for Ramm, 
or rather for Ferlendis. Prince Esterhazy's oboist is 
giving me three ducats for it and has offered me six, if I 
will compose a new concerto for him. 4 But if you have 
already gone to Munich, well, then, by Heaven, there is 
nothing to be done; for the only person to whom in that 
case we could apply, I mean, Ramm himself, is not there 
either. I should like to have sat in a corner at Strassburg 
but indeed not for I don't think I should have spent 
a peaceful night. 5 My new Haffner symphony 6 has 
positively amazed me, for I had forgotten every single 
note of it. It must surely produce a good effect. I think 
that during the last carnival days we shall collect a com 
pany of masqueraders and perform a small pantomime. 

1 K. 345. Mozart's incidental music to Baron von Gebler's drama "Thamos, 
Konig von Agypten", composed during the years 1773-1779. See Kochel, 
p. 418 f. 

2 Cadenzas for K. 175, composed in 1773, and short cadenzas for K. 271, 
composed in 1777. These are to be found under K. 624. 

3 Probably K. 314. Cp. p. 466, n. i. 

4 Possibly K. 293, a fragment, 61 bars, of an oboe concerto. 

5 Mozart may be referring to a performance at Strassburg of his "Entfiihrung 
aus dem Serail". 6 K, 385. 



But please do not betray us. I have at last been fortunate 
enough to meet the Chevalier Hy polity, who had never 
been able to find me. He is a charming person. He has 
been to see me once and he is to come again soon and 
bring an aria so that I may hear him. I must close, as I 
am off to the theatre. My little wife and I kiss your 
hands a thousand times and embrace our dear sister with 
all our hearts and are ever your most obedient children 


(482) Mozart to Baroness von Waldstadten 

[Autograph sold by Artaria and Co., Vienna^ March und, 1934, No. 636] 

VIENNA, February \^th, 1783 

Here I am in a fine dilemma! Herr von Tranner and 
I discussed the matter the other day and agreed to ask 
for an extension of a fortnight. As every merchant does 
this, unless he is the most disobliging man in the world, 
my mind was quite at ease and I hoped that by that time, if 
I were not in the position to pay the sum myself, I should 
be able to borrow it. Well, Herr von Tranner now in 
forms me that the person in question absolutely refuses 
to wait and that if I do not pay the sum before to-morrow, 
he will bring an action against me. Only think, your 
Ladyship, what an unpleasant business this would be for 
me! At the moment I cannot pay not even half the sum! 
If I could have foreseen that the subscriptions for my 
concertos x would come in so slowly, I should have raised 
the money on a longer time-limit. I entreat your Lady 
ship for Heaven's sake to help me to keep my honour 
and my good name! 

My poor little wife is slightly indisposed, so I cannot 

1 K. 413-415. 


leave her; otherwise I should have come to you myself to 
ask in person for your Ladyship's assistance. We kiss 
your Ladyship's hands a thousand times and are both 
your Ladyship's most obedient children 

W. A. and C. MOZART 

At home, February i5th, 1783. 

(483) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 12 de Mars, 1783 

I hope that you have not been uneasy but have 
guessed the cause of my silence, which was that, as I did 
not know for certain how long you would stay in Munich, 1 
I delayed writing until now, when I am almost sure that 
my letter will find you in Salzburg. My sister-in-law, 
Madame Lange, gave her concert yesterday in the 
theatre and I played a concerto. 2 The theatre was very 
full and I was received again by the Viennese public so 
cordially that I really ought to feel delighted. I had 
already left the platform, but the audience would not 
stop clapping and so I had to repeat the rondo; upon 
which there was a regular torrent of applause. It is a good 
advertisement for my concert which I am giving on 
Sunday, March 23rd. I added my symphony which I 
composed for the Concert Spirituel. 3 My sister-in-law sang 
the aria "Non so d'onde viene". 4 Gluck had a box beside 
the Langes, in which my wife was sitting. He was loud in 
his praises of the symphony and the aria and invited us 

1 Leopold Mozart had been to Munich on one of his frequent visits to the 
family of Theobald Marchand. 
a Probably K. 175 with the rondo K. 382. See p. 1189, n. 3. 

3 K. 297, composed in 1778. 

4 K. 294, written in 1778. 


all four to lunch with him next Sunday. It is possible that 
the German opera may be continued, but no one knows 
what will happen. One thing is certain, and that is, that 
Fischer is off to Paris in a week. I entreat you most 
earnestly to send me the oboe concerto l I gave to Ramm 
and as soon as possible. When doing so, you might put 
in something else, for example, the original scores of my 
masses 2 and of my two vesper compositions. 3 This is 
solely with a view to Baron van Swieten hearing them. 
He sings treble, I sing alto (and play at the same time), 
Starzer sings tenor and young Teiber 4 from Italy sings 
bass. Send me in the meantime the "Tres sunt" by 
Haydn, which will do until you can let me have some 
thing else of his. Indeed I should very much like them 
to hear the "Lauda Sion". The full score of the "Tres 
sunt" copied out in my own handwriting must be some 
where at home. 5 The fugue "In te Domine speravi" has 
won great applause and so have the "Ave Maria" and 
the "Tenebrae" and so forth. I beg you to enliven our 
Sunday music practices 6 with something soon. 

On Carnival Monday our company of masqueraders 
went to the Redoute, where we performed a pantomime 
which exactly filled the half hour when there is a pause in 
the dancing. My sister-in-law was Columbine, I Harle 
quin, my brother-in-law Pierrot, an old dancing master 
(Merk) Pantaloon, and a painter (Grassi) the doctor. Both 
the plot and the music of the pantomime were mine. 7 

1 See p. 1252, n. 3. 

2 Probably K. 275, 317 and 337. 

3 K. 321, composed in 1779, and K. 339, composed in 1780. 

4 Anton Teiber (1754-1822), a brother of the famous singers, Elizabeth 
and Therese Teiber. 

5 See p. 469, n. i. Haydn's "Tres simt" and "Lauda Sion" appear to 
have been lost. 

6 At the house of Baron van Swieten. 

7 K. 446, The autograph, a fragment, has only the first violin part for a 
string quartet. See Kochel, p. 518 f. 



Merk, the dancing master, was so kind as to coach us, 
and I must say that we played it charmingly. I am 
enclosing the programme which was distributed to the 
company by a mask, dressed as a postillion. The verses, 
although only doggerel, might have been done better. I 
had nothing to do with them. Miiller, 1 the actor, dashed 
them off. Well, I must close, for I am going to a concert 
at Count Esterhazy's. Meanwhile farewell. Please do not 
forget about the music. My wife and I kiss your hands a 
thousand times and embrace our dear sister with all our 
hearts and I am ever your most obedient son 

W: A: et C: MOZART 

(484) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRfis CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 29 de mars, 1783 

I need not tell you very much about the success of 
my concert, 2 for no doubt you have already heard of it. 
Suffice it to say that the theatre could not have been 
more crowded and that every box was full. But what 
pleased me most of all was that His Majesty the Emperor 
was present and, goodness! how delighted he was and 
how he applauded me! It is his custom to send the money 
to the box-office before going to the theatre; otherwise I 
should have been fully justified in counting on a larger 
sum, for really his delight was beyond all bounds. He 
sent twenty-five ducats. Our programme was as follows: 

(1) The new Haffner symphony. 3 

(2) Madame Lange sang the aria "Se il padre perdei" 

1 Possibly Johann Heinrich Friedrich Miiller (1734-1815), an actor at 
the National Theatre in Vienna, who was particularly successful in comic 
parts. See Dr. R. Payer von Thurn, Joseph II als Theaterdirektor ; Vienna, 
1920, passim. 2 On March 23rd. 3 K. 385. 



from my Munich opera, accompanied by four 
instruments. 1 

(3) I played the third of my subscription concertos. 2 

(4) Adamberger sang the scena which I composed for 
Countess Baumgarten. 3 

(5) The short concertante symphonic from my last 
Finalmusik. 4 

(6) I played my concerto in D major, which is such a 
favourite here, and of which I sent you the rondo 
with variations. 5 

(7) Mile Teiber sang the scena "Parto, m'affretto" 
out of my last Milan opera. 6 

(8) I played alone a short fugue (because the Emperor 
was present) and then variations on an air from an 
opera called "Die Philosophen", which were en 
cored. So I played variations on the air "Unser 
dummer Pobel meint" from Gluck's "Pilgrimme 
von Mekka". 7 

(9) Madame Lange sang my new rondo. 8 
(10) The last movement of the first symphony. 9 
Mile Teiber I0 is giving a concert to-morrow, at which 

I am going to play. Von Daubrawaick and Gilowsky are 
off to Salzburg next Thursday and will bring you my 
Munich opera, 11 the two copies of my sonatas, 12 some 
variations for my sister and also the money which I owe 
you for having my opera 13 copied. I have received the 

1 Ilia's aria in Act II of "Idomeneo", with flute, oboe, bassoon and horn 
obbligatos. It was written originally for Dorothea Wendling. 

2 K. 415. 3 K. 369. 4 K. 320, composed in 1779. 

5 K. 175, for which Mozart wrote the rondo K. 382. 

6 Aria no. 16 in "Lucio Silla", composed in 1772. 

7 The first set of variations are K. 398, six variations on "Salve tu, Domine" 
from Paisiello's opera "Socrate immaginario", which was performed in 
Vienna in 1781 as "Der eingebildete Philosoph". The second set are K. 455, 
ten variations on "Unser dummer Pobel meint". 8 K. 416. 

9 The "Haffner" symphony, K. 385. I0 Probably Therese Teiber. 

11 "Idomeneo." l2 K. 296 and 376-380. 

13 "Die Entfuhrung aus dem Sereil." 



parcel of music and thank you for it. Please do not forget 
about the "Lauda Sion"; 1 and what we should like to 
have as well, my dearest father, is some of your best 
church music, for we like to amuse ourselves with all 
kinds of masters, ancient and modern. So I beg you to 
send us very soon some of your own compositions. Well, 
I must close. My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and 
are ever your most obedient children 


(485) Mozart to his Father 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 3 cTavril, 1783 

I send you herewith my Munich opera 2 and the two 
copies of my sonatas! 3 The variations 4 I promised will be 
sent to you by the first opportunity, for the copyist could 
not finish them in time. The two portraits 5 will follow 
too. I only hope that you will be pleased with them. I 
think they are both good likenesses and all who have seen 
them are of the same opinion. Well, I am afraid you have 
read a lie at the beginning of my letter I mean, about 
the two copies of my sonatas. But it is not my fault. When 
I went to buy them, I was told that there was not a single 
copy left, but that I could have them to-morrow or the 
day after. It is too late to get them off now, so I shall send 
them along with the variations. I enclose the sum I owe 

1 Michael Haydn's composition. See p. 1255. * "Idomeneo." 

3 K. 296 and 376-380. 4 K. 359, 360, 352. 

5 Probably the oil paintings of Mozart and his wife, which were done by 
his brother-in-law Josef Lange. Mozart's portrait is unfinished. It is at present 
in the Mozart Museum, Salzburg. Constanze's portrait is in the Hunterian 
Museum, University of Glasgow. For a discussion of the latter see Farmer and 
Smith, New Mozartiana, 1935, pp. 29-52. See illustrations nos. 26 and 29. 



for the copying of my opera and I only hope that the 
balance may be of some use to you. I cannot spare any 
more at present, as I foresee many expenses in connection 
with my wife's confinement, which will probably take 
place towards the end of May or the beginning of June. 
Well, I must close, as Von Daubrawaick is leaving very 
early in the morning and I must send him the letter. My 
wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace 
our dear sister with all our hearts and are ever your most 
obedient children 

W: A: et C: MOZART 

(486) Mozart to his Father 

{Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 12 tfavril, 1783 

I received this morning your last letter of the 8th 
and see from it that you have got everything which I 
entrusted to Daubrawaick. I am sorry to say that the 
mail coach does not leave until this day week, so I can 
not send you the two copies of my sonatas J until then. 
But you shall also have the voice part with variations of 
the aria "Non so d'onde viene". 2 The next time you send 
me a parcel, please let the rondo for an alto voice which 
I composed for the castrato who was with the Italian 
company in Salzburg 3 and the one which I composed 
for Ceccarelli in Vienna 4 take the same trip. When the 
weather gets warmer, please make a search in the attic 
under the roof and send us some of your own church 
music. You have no reason whatever to be ashamed of 
it. Baron van Swieten and Starzer know as well as you 

1 K. 296 and 376-380. 2 K. 294. 

3 K. 255, a recitative and aria, "Ombra felice", composed in 1776 for 
Francesco Fortini, a member of a company under Pietro Rosa, who were 
performing comic operas at Salzburg and Innsbruck. 4 K. 374. 



and I that musical taste is continually changing and, 
what is more, that this extends even to church music, 
which ought not to be the case. Hence it is that true 
church music is to be found only in attics and in a worm- 
eaten condition. When I come to Salzburg with my wife 
in July, as I hope to do, we shall discuss this point at 
greater length. When Daubrawaick went off, I really 
could scarcely hold back my wife, who insisted absolu- 
ment on our following him to Salzburg. She thought that 
we might even get there first. And had it not been for the 
very short time we could have stayed what am I saying 
why, she might have had to be confined in Salzburg 
which made this plan impossible, our most ardent wish to 
embrace you, most beloved father, and my dearest sister 
would by this time have been fulfilled; for, as far as my 
wife is concerned, I should have had no fears about this 
short journey. She is in such excellent health and has be 
come so robust that all women should thank God if they 
are so fortunate in their pregnancy. As soon as my wife 
has sufficiently recovered from her confinement, we shall 
certainly go off to Salzburg at once. You will have seen 
from my last letter that I was to play at another concert, 
that is, at Mile Teiber's. The Emperor was there too. I 
played my first concerto which I played at my concert. 1 
I was asked to repeat the rondo. So I sat down again; 
but instead of repeating it I had the conductor's stand 
removed and played alone. You should have heard how 
delighted the public were with this little surprise. They 
not only clapped but shouted "bravo" and "bravissimo". 
The Emperor too stayed to hear me to the end and as 
soon as I left the piano he left his box; evidently he had 
only remained to listen to me. Please send me, if possible, 
the reports about my concert. I rejoice with my whole 
heart that the small sum which I was able to send has 

1 K. 175 with the rondo, K. 382. See p. 1252. 

1783 MOZART TO J. G. SIEBER Z. 487 

been so useful to you. I have a great deal more to write 
about, but I am afraid that the post may ride off without 
this letter, as it is a quarter to eight. So goodbye for the 
present. My dear little wife and I kiss your hands a 
thousand times and embrace our dear sister with all our 
hearts and are ever your most obedient children 

W: et C: MOZART 

Our compliments to the whole of Salzburg. Adieu. 

(487) Mozart to J. G. Sieber, Paris 

[From the "Bulletin de la Societl franfaise de musicologie" , July 1921] 

MONSIEUR! VIENNA, April 26th, 1783 

I have now been in Vienna for two years. You have 
probably heard about my pianoforte sonatas with accom 
paniment for one violin T which I have had engraved here 
by Artaria and Co. I am not very well pleased, however, 
with the way in which works are engraved in Vienna and, 
even if I were, I should like some of my compositions 
once more to find their way into the hands of my fellow- 
countrymen in Paris. Well, this letter is to inform you 
that I have three piano concertos 2 ready, which can be 
performed with full orchestra, or with oboes and horns, 
or merely a quattro. Artaria wants to engrave them. But 
I give you, my friend, the first refusal. And in order to 
avoid delay, I shall quote my lowest terms to you. If you 
give me thirty louis d'or for them, the matter is settled. 
Since I wrote those piano concertos, I have been com 
posing six quartets for two violins, viola and cello. 3 If you 

1 K. 296 and 376-380, published by Artaria and Co. in November 1781. 

2 K. 413-415. They were published by Artaria and Co. in March 1785. 

3 K. 387, 421, 458, 428, 464, 465, the six quartets which Mozart dedicated 
in September 1785 to Joseph Haydn. K. 387 was composed in 1782, K. 421 
and 428 in 1783. They were published by Artaria and Co. in October 1785. 



would like to engrave these too, I will gladly let you have 
them. But I cannot allow these to go so cheaply, I mean 
that I cannot let you have these six quartets under fifty 
louis d'or. If you can and will make a deal with me on 
these conditions, I shall send you an address in Paris 
where you will be handed my compositions in exchange 
for the sums I have quoted. Meanwhile, I remain your 
most obedient servant 


(488) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Bibliotheque de Nantes} 

VlENNE, in the Prater, ce 3 de may, 1 783 

I simply cannot make up my mind to drive back into 
town so early. The weather is far too lovely and it is far 
too delightful in the Prater to-day. We have taken our 
lunch out of doors and shall stay on until eight or nine in 
the evening. My whole company consists of my little wife 
who is pregnant, and hers consists of her little husband, 
who is not pregnant, but fat and flourishing. I went 
straight to Herr Peisser, got from him the address of the 
banker Scheffler and then went off to the said banker. 
But he knew nothing whatever about a merchant's son 
called Rosa, who might have an introduction to him. For 
safety's sake I left my address with him. I shall now wait 
and see what happens. I must ask you to wait patiently 
for a longer letter and the aria with variations T for, of 
course, I cannot finish them in the Prater; and for the 
sake of my dear little wife I cannot miss this fine weather. 
Exercise is good for her. So to-day I am only sending you 
a short letter to say that, thank God, we are both well and 

1 K. 294. 


have received your last letter. Now farewell. We kiss your 
hands a thousand times and embrace our dear sister with 
all our hearts and are ever your obedient children 

W. A. and C. MOZART 

(489) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

Another short letter! I intended to postpone writing 
until next Saturday, as I have to go to a concert to-day; 
but as I have something to say which is of considerable 
importance to myself, I must steal time in order to write 
at least a few lines. I have not yet received the music I 
wanted, nor do I know what has happened. Well, the 
Italian opera bufifa has started again here and is very- 
popular. The buffo is particularly good his name is 
Benucci. 1 I have looked through at least a hundred 
libretti and more, but I have hardly found a single one 
with which I am satisfied; that is to say, so many alterations 
would have to be made here and there, that even if a poet 
would undertake to make them, it would be easier for 
him to write a completely new text which indeed it is 
always best to do. Our poet here is now a certain Abbate 
Da Ponte. 2 He has an enormous amount to do in 

1 Francesco Benucci, a basso buffo, who was the original Figaro in Mozart's 
opera, which had its first performance on May ist, 1786. Benucci first sang 
in Venice, 1778-1779, and after the re-establishment of Italian opera by the 
Emperor Joseph II, was summoned to Vienna in 1781. In 1788 he sang in 
London, but with little success. 

2 Lorenzo Da Ponte (1749-1838), the famous librettist of Mozart's 
"Figaro", "Don Giovanni", "Cosi fan tutte", and probably of his unfinished 
"Lo sposo deluso". After an adventurous youth Da Ponte was appointed poet 
to the Imperial Theatre in Vienna, but left in 1 79 1 on the death of Joseph II. He 
then lived for a time in London, where he tried to sell Italian books. Owing to 
money difficulties he was forced to leave England, and fled in 1805 to New 
York where he settled for the rest of his life, and where he wrote his well-known 


Z. 489 MOZART TO HIS FATHER i 7 8 3 

revising pieces for the theatre and he has to write per 
obbligo an entirely new libretto for Salieri, 1 which will 
take him two months. He has promised after that to write 
a new libretto for me. But who knows whether he will be 
able to keep his word or will want to? For, as you are 
aware, these Italian gentlemen are very civil to your face. 
Enough, we know them! If he is in league with Salieri, 
I shall never get anything out of him. But indeed I 
should dearly love to show what I can do in an Italian 
opera! So I have been thinking that unless Varesco is 
still very much annoyed with us about the Munich opera, 2 
he might write me a new libretto for seven characters. 
Basta! You will know best if this can be arranged. In the 
meantime he could jot down a few ideas, and when I come 
to Salzburg we could then work them out together. The 
most essential thing is that on the whole the story should 
be really comic, and, if possible, he ought to introduce two 
equally good female parts, one of these to be seria, the other 
mezzo carattere, but both parts equal in importance and 
excellence. The third female character, however, may be 
entirely buffa, and so may all the male ones, if necessary. 
If you think that something can be got out of Varesco, 
please discuss it with him soon. But you must not tell him 
that I am coming to Salzburg in July, or he will do no 
work; for I should very much like to have some of it 
while I am still in Vienna. Tell him too that his share will 
certainly amount to 400 or 500 gulden, for the custom here 
is that the poet gets the takings of the third performance. 
Well, I must close, for I am not yet fully dressed. Mean 
while, farewell. My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand 

memoirs which began to appear in 1823. For the best accounts of Da Ponte's 
life see E. J. Dent, Mozarfs Operas (London, 1913), p. 146 ff, J. L. Russo, 
Lorenzo Da Ponte (New York, 1922), and the introduction to L. A. Sheppard's 
Memoirs of Lorenzo Da Ponte (London, 1929). 

1 Salieri's "II ricco d'un giorno", performed on December 6th, 1784. 

* "Idomeneo", for which Abbate Varesco had written the libretto. 



From an engraving by J. Axmann after a portrait by P. Fendi 
(Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna) 


times and embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and 
are ever your most obedient children 

Vienna, May 7th, 1783. 

(490) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

MON TRS CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 21 de may, 1783 

I made enquiries the other day from the banker 
Scheffler about a person of the name of Rosa as well as 
Rossi. Meanwhile he himself has been to see me, so that 
at last I have received the music. I have also received 
Ceccarelli's rondo x from Gilowsky, for which I thank you* 
I am now sending you the voice part with variations of 
"Non so d'onde viene" 2 and only hope that you may be 
able to read it. I am heartily sorry to hear about poor dear 
Frau von Robinig. 3 My wife and I almost lost an honest 
friend, Baron Raimund Wetzlar, in whose house we used 
to live. That reminds me, we have been living in another 
house for some time and have not yet told you. Baron 
Wetzlar has taken a lady into his home; so, to oblige him, 
we moved before the time to a wretched lodging in the 
Kohlmarkt, 4 in return for which he refused to take any 
rent for the three months we had lived in his house, 
and also paid the expenses of our removal. Meanwhile we 
looked round for decent quarters and at last found them 
in the Judenplatz, where we are now living. Wetzlar paid 
for us too when we were in the Kohlmarkt. Our new 
address is: "Auf dem Judenplatz, im Burgischen Hause, 

1 K. 374. 

2 K. 294. See p. 861, n. 2. No doubt Leopold Mozart was proposing to 
teach these coloratura passages to his pupil, Margarete Marchand. 

3 Frau von Robinig died on April 24th, 1783. 

4 Nothing is known about these quarters, where the Mozarts spent three 
months. * 

VOL. Ill 1265 p 


No. 244. First floor". 1 Now our sole desire is to have the 
happiness of embracing you both soon. But do you think 
that this will be in (Salzburg?) I (hardly) think so, unfortu 
nately! An idea has been worrying me for a long time, 
but as it never seemed to occur to you, my dearest father, 
I banished it from my mind. Herr von Edelbach and 
Baron Wetzlar, however, have confirmed <my suspicion, 
which is that when I come to Salzburg, the Archbishop 
may have me arrested) or at least Basta! What chiefly 
makes me (dread) this, is the fact that I have not yet 
received my formal (dismissal.) Perhaps he has (purposely 
held it back, in order to catch me later,) Well, you are the 
best judge; and, if your opinion is to the contrary, then 
(we shall certainly come;) but if you agree with me, then 
we must choose a third (place) for our meeting perhaps 
(Munich. For a priest) is capable of anything. A propos, 
have you heard about the famous quarrel between the 
(Archbishop and Count Daun) and that (the Archbishop 
received an infamous letter from the chapter of Passau?) 
Please keep on reminding Varesco about the matter you 
know of. The chief thing must be the comic element, for 
I know the taste of the Viennese. Meanwhile farewell. 
My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and are ever 
your most obedient children 

W. et C. MOZART 

(491) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin] 

MON TRS CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 7 Juin, 1783 

Praise and thanks be to God, I am quite well again! 

But my illness has left me a cold as a remembrance, which 

1 Now no. 3. The Mozarts' first child was born here. 


was very charming of it! I have received my dear sister's 
letter. My wife's name-day is neither in March nor in 
May, but on February i6th; and is not to be found in any 
calendar. She thanks you both, however, most cordially 
for your kind good wishes, which are always acceptable, 
even though it is not her name-day. She wanted to write 
to my sister herself, but in her present condition she must 
be excused if she is a little bit commode or, as we say, 
indolent. According to the midwife's examination she 
ought to have had her confinement on the 4th, but I do 
not think that the event will take place before the I5th or 
1 6th. She is longing for it to happen as soon as possible, 
particularly that she may have the happiness of embracing 
you and my dear sister in Salzburg. As I did not think 
that this would happen so soon, I kept on postponing 
going down on my knees, folding my hands and entreating 
you most submissively, my dearest father, to be godfather! 
As there is still time, I am doing so now. Meanwhile, (in 
the confident hope that you will not refuse) I have already 
arranged (I mean, since the midwife took stock of the 
visum repertum) that someone shall present the child in 
your name, whether it is generis masculini or feminini! 
So we are going to call it Leopold or Leopoldine. 

Well, I have a few words to say to my sister about 
dementi's sonatas. Everyone who either hears them or 
plays them must feel that as compositions they are worth- 
less.They contain no remarkable or striking passages except 
those in sixths and octaves. And I implore my sister not to 
practise these passages too much, so that she may not spoil 
her quiet, even touch and that her hand may not lose its 
natural lightness, flexibility and smooth rapidity. For after 
all what is to be gained by it? Supposing that you do play 
sixths and octaves with the utmost velocity (which no one 
can accomplish, not even dementi) you only produce 
an atrocious chopping effect and nothing else whatever. 



Clement! is a ciarlatano, like all Italians. He writes 
Presto over a sonata or even Prestissimo and Alia breve, 
and plays it himself A llegro in f time. I know this is the 
case, for I have heard him do so. What he really does well 
are his passages in thirds; but he sweated over them 
day and night in London. Apart from this, he can do 
nothing, absolutely nothing, for he has not the slightest 
expression or taste, still less, feeling. 

Now for Herr von Amann. Herr von Fichtl told me that 
Court Councillor Amann has been locked up, as he is 
supposed to be quite mad. I was not at all surprised to 
hear this, for he always went about with a morose 
expression. I always used to say that study was not the 
cause of it; upon which Herr von Fichtl used to laugh 
heartily. But I am very sorry for Basilius Amann. And 
indeed I should never have thought it of him. I would 
sooner have thought that he would become saner. Well, 
perhaps he will take me into his service when I come to 
Salzburg? I shall certainly go and see him. If you can get 
hold of some German song which he has written, be so 
kind as to send it to me, so that I may have something to 
make me laugh. I shall set it to music. No, no! I know a 
fool here who will do the job. 

Have you heard anything yet from Varesco? Please do 
not forget what I asked you. When I am in Salzburg we 
should have such an admirable opportunity of working 
together, if in the meantime we had thought out a plan. 

Now farewell. My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and 
are ever your most obedient children 

W: et C: MOZART 

P.S. I trust that you received the voice part with 
variations of the aria "Non so d'onde viene"? * 

1 K. 294. 


(492) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the possession of Geheimrat Henri Hinrichsen, Leipzig] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 1 8 de Juin, 1783 

Congratulations, you are a grandpapa! Yesterday, 
the 1 7th, at half past six in the morning my dear wife was 
safely delivered of a fine sturdy boy, 1 as round as a ball. 
Her pains began at half past one in the morning, so that 
night we both lost our rest and sleep. At four o'clock I 
sent for my mother-in-law and then for the midwife. At 
six o'clock the child began to appear and at half past six 
the trouble was all over. My mother-in-law by her great 
kindness to her daughter has made full amends for all the 
harm she did her before her marriage. She spends the 
whole day with her. 

My dear wife, who kisses your hands and embraces my 
dear sister most affectionately, is as well as she can be in 
the circumstances. I trust with God's help that, as she is 
taking good care of herself, she will make a complete 
recovery from her confinement. From the condition of her 
breasts I am rather afraid of milk-fever. And now the 
child has been given to a foster-nurse against my will, 
or rather, at my wish! For I was quite determined that 
whether she should be able to do so or not, my wife was 
never to feed her child. Yet I was equally determined 
that my child was never to take the milk of a stranger! I 
wanted the child to be brought up on water, like my sister 
and myself. However, the midwife, my mother-in-law and 
most people here have begged and implored me not to 
allow it, if only for the reason that most children here who 
are brought up on water do not survive, as the people 

1 Raimund Leopold, who died on August I9th during his parents* visit 
to Salzburg, For a full account of Mozart's six children see Blumml, 
pp. 1-9. 


L. 4gs MOZART TO HIS FATHER i 7 8 3 

here don't know how to do it properly. That induced me 
to give in, for I should not like to have anything to 
reproach myself with. 

Now for the godfather question. Let me tell you what 
has happened. After my wife's safe delivery I immediately 
sent a message to Baron Wetzlar, who is a good and true 
friend of mine. He came to see us at once and offered to 
stand godfather. I could not refuse him and thought to 
myself: "After all, my boy can still be called Leopold". 
But while I was turning this round in my mind, the 
Baron said very cheerfully: "Ah, now you have a little 
Raimund" and kissed the child. What was I to do? 
Well, I have had the child christened Raimund Leopold. 
I must frankly confess that if you had not sent me in a 
letter your opinion on the matter, I should have been very 
much embarrassed, and I am not at all sure that I should 
not have refused his offer! But your letter has comforted 
me with the assurance that you will not disapprove of my 
action! After all, Leopold is one of his names. Well, I 
must close. My newly confined wife and I kiss your hands 
a thousand times and embrace our dear sister a thousand 
times and are ever your most obedient children 

W. and C. MOZART 

(493) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Library of Congress, Washington} 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 21 de Juin, 1783 

This will have to be a very short letter. I must only 
tell you what is absolutely necessary, as I have far too 
much to do. For a new Italian opera is being produced, 1 
in which for the first time two German singers are 

1 Anfossi's "II curioso indiscrete". It was performed on June 3Oth, 1783. 



appearing, Madame Lange, my sister-in-law, and Adam- 
berger, and I have to compose two arias for her l and a 
rondo for him. 2 I hope you received my last letter of 
rejoicing. Thank God, my wife has now survived the two 
critical days, yesterday and the day before, and in the 
circumstances is very welL We now hope that all will go 
well. The child too is quite strong and healthy and has a 
tremendous number of things to do, I mean, drinking, 
sleeping, yelling, pissing, shitting, dribbling and so forth. 
He kisses the hands of his grandpapa and of his aunt. 
Now for Varesco. I like his plan quite well. 3 But I must 
speak to Count Rosenberg at once, so as to make sure 
that the poet will get his reward. Why, I consider it a 
great insult to myself that Herr Varesco is doubtful about 
the success of the opera. Of one thing he may be sure and 
that is, that his libretto will certainly not go down if the 
music is no good. For in the opera the chief thing is the 
music. If then the opera is to be a success and Varesco 
hopes to be rewarded, he must alter and recast the libretto 
as much and as often as I wish and he must not follow his 
own inclinations, as he has not the slightest knowledge or 
experience of the theatre. You may even give him to 
understand that it doesn't much matter whether he writes 
the opera or not. I know the story now; and therefore 
anyone can write it as well as he can. Besides, I am 
expecting to-day four of the latest and best libretti from 
[PFenice], 4 among which there will surely be one which 
will be some good. So there is plenty of time. Well, I must 
close. My newly confined wife and I kiss your hands, most 

1 K. 418, "Vorrei spiegarvi, oh Dio" and K. 419, "No, no, che non sei 

* K. 420, "Per pieta, non ricercate". 

3 Varesco's plan for the opera "L'oca del Cairo". 

4 If the reading "Fenice" is correct, possibly the Teatro La Fenice in 
Venice. This theatre and the Teatro San Benedetto (now Teatro Rossini) 
were the two leading opera houses in Venice. 



beloved father, and embrace our dear sister with all our 
hearts and are ever your most obedient children 

W. et C. MOZART 

Herr von Gilowsky sends his greetings to both of you 
and thanks to his father and to others for never writing to 
him although they must know that he is laid up with a 

(494) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Stadtarchiv, Pressburg] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 2 de juillet, 1783 

My head was so full last post-day that I completely 
forgot to write. Madame Lange was at our house to try 
over her two arias and we were discussing how we could 
be cleverer than our enemies for I have plenty of them 
and Madame Lange too has enough to do with this new 
singer, Mile Storace. 1 Only when I was alone did I 
remember that it was post-day and then of course it was 
too late. Anfossi's opera "II curioso indiscrete", in which 
Madame Lange and Adamberger appeared for the first 
time, was performed the day before yesterday, Monday, 
for the first time. It failed completely with the exception 
of my two arias, 2 the second of which, a bravura, had to 
be repeated. Well, I should like you to know that my 
friends were malicious enough to spread the report be 
forehand that "Mozart wanted to improve on Anfossi's 
opera". I heard of this and sent a message to Count 

1 Anna (Nancy) Storace (1766-1817), a famous English soprano. She was 
born in London, her mother being English and her father Italian. She studied 
under Rauzzini in Italy, where she made her first appearance in Venice in 
1780. She came to Vienna in 1783, and was the original Susanna in Mozart's 
"Figaro". In March 1787 she returned to England and continued to sing in 
public until 1808. When in Vienna she married the English violinist John 
Abraham Fisher (1744-1806). * K. 418 and 419. 



Rosenberg that I would not hand over my arias unless 
the following statement were printed in the copies of the 
libretto, both in German and in Italian. 


Le due arie a carta 36 e a carta 102 sono state 
messe in musica dal Signor Maestro Mozart, per 
compiacere alia Signora Lange, non essendo 
quelle state scritte dal Signor Maestro Anfossi 
secondo la di lei abilita, ma per altro soggetto. 
Questo si vuole far noto perche ne vada Ponore a 
chi conviene, senza che rimanga in alcuna parte 
pregiudicata la riputazione e la fama del piu 
molto cognito Napolitano. 1 

Well, the statement was inserted and I handed out my 
arias, which did inexpressible honour both to my sister-in- 
law and to myself. So my enemies were quite confounded! 
And now for a trick of Salieri's, which has injured poor 
Adamberger more than me. I think I told you that I had 
composed a rondo for Adamberger. 2 During a short 
rehearsal, before the rondo had been copied, Salieri took 
Adamberger aside and told him that Count Rosenberg 
would not be pleased if he put in an aria and that he 
advised him as his good friend not to do so. Adamberger, 
provoked by Rosenberg's objection and not knowing how 
to retaliate, was stupid enough to say, with ill-timed pride, 
"All right. But to prove that Adamberger has already 
made his reputation in Vienna and does not need to make 

1 The two arias on p. 36 and p. 102 have been set to music by Signor 
Maestro Mozart to suit Signora Lange, as the arias of Signor Maestro Anfossi 
were not written for her voice, but for another singer. It is necessary that 
this should be pointed out so that honour may be given to whom it is due 
and so that the reputation and the name of the most famous Neapolitan may 
not suffer in any way whatsoever. * K. 420. 



a name for himself by singing music expressly written for 
him, he will only sing what is in the opera and will never 
again, as long as he lives, introduce any aria" What was 
the result? Why, that he was a complete failure, as was 
only to be expected! Now he is sorry, but it is too late. 
For if he were to ask me this very day to give him the 
rondo, I should refuse. I can easily find a place for it in 
one of my own operas. But the most annoying part of the 
whole affair is that his wife's prophecy and mine have come 
true, that is, that Count Rosenberg and the management 
know nothing whatever about it, so that it was only a ruse 
on the part of Salieri. Thank God, my wife is quite well 
again, save for a slight cold. We and our little Raimund, 
aged a fortnight, kiss your hands and embrace our dear 
sister with all our hearts and are ever your most obedient 


(495) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the possession of Frau Floersheim-Koch^ Florence]* 
MON TRES CHER PERE, VlENNE, ce $ de Juliet, 1783 

We both thank you for the prayer you made to God 
for the safe delivery of my wife. Little Raimund is so like 
me that everyone immediately remarks it. It is just a$ if 
my face had been copied. My dear little wife is absolutely 
delighted, as this is what she had always desired* He will 
be three weeks old next Tuesday and he has grown in 
an astonishing manner. As for the opera 2 you have given 
me a piece of advice which I had already given myself. 
But as I prefer to work slowly and with deliberation, I 
thought that I could not begin too soon. An Italian poet 

1 This letter was first published by the editor in Music and Letter s, April 
1937, PP- 128-133. 3 "L'oca del Cairo." 



here has now brought me a libretto 1 which I shall perhaps 
adopt, if he agrees to trim and adjust it in accordance 
with my wishes. I feel sure that we shall be able to set out 
in September; and indeed you can well imagine that our 
most ardent longing is to embrace you both. Yet I cannot 
conceal from you, but must confess quite frankly that 
many people here are alarming me to such an extent that 
I cannot describe it. You already know what it is all 
about.' 1 However much I protest I am told: "Well, you 
will see, you will (never get away again.} You have no 
idea of what (that wicked malevolent Prince is capable of/} 
And you {cannot} conceive what (low tricks) are resorted 
to in affairs of this kind. Take my advice and {meet your 
father} in some third place!' This, you see, is what has 
been worrying my wife and me up to the present and what 
is still perturbing us. I often say to myself: " Nonsense, 
it's quite impossible! " But the next moment it occurs to 
me that after all it might be possible and that it would 
not be the (first injustice) which he has (committed.) 
Basta! In this matter no one can comfort me but you, 
my most beloved father! And so far as I am concerned, 
whatever happened would not worry me very much, for I 
can now adapt myself to any circumstances. But when I 
think of my wife and my little Raimund, then my in 
difference ceases. Think it over. If you can give me an 
assurance that I shall be (running no risk,) we shall both 
be overjoyed. If not, then we must hit on some plan; and 
there is one which I should prefer above all others! As 
soon as I receive your reply, I shall tell you about it. 
I am convinced that if one is to enjoy a great pleasure, 
one must forgo something. Why! In the greatest happi- 

1 Undoubtedly the Italian poet is Da Ponte and the libretto that of "Lo 
sposo deluso", Mozart's unfinished opera buffa. For a discussion of the 
evidence for this theory see Music and Letters, April 1937, p. 131 f. 

2 See p. 1266. 



ness there is always something lacking. Meanwhile, fare- 
welL Take care of your health. We both kiss your hands 
and embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and are 
ever your most obedient children 


P.S. This does not mean that you are to give up 
prodding Varesco. Who knows whether I shall like the 
opera of the Italian poet? 


(496) Mozart to his Father 

[A utograph in the possession of K. Geigy-Hagenbach, Basle} 

I have received your letter of the 8th and am delighted 
to hear that, thank God, you are both well. If you insist 
on calling what are real obstacles mere humbug, I cannot 
prevent you from doing so. Anyone may call a thing by a 
wrong name if he pleases ; but whether it is right to do so, 
is a very different matter. Have I ever given you the 
impression that I had no desire or longing to see you? 
Most certainly never! But assuredly you will have ob 
served that I have no desire whatever to see Salzburg or 
the Archbishop. So, if we were to meet in a third place, 
who would then be humbugged? Why, the Archbishop, 
and not you. I suppose I need not repeat that I care very 
little for Salzburg and not at all for the Archbishop, that 
I shit on both of them and that it would never enter my 
head voluntarily to make a journey thither, were it not 
that you and my sister lived there. So the whole business 
was due solely to the well-meant caution of my good 
friends, who surely are not devoid of sound common 
sense. And I did not think that I was acting unreasonably 



if I made some enquiries from you on the subject and then 
followed your advice. My friends' anxiety amounted to 
this, that, as I have never been discharged, the Arch 
bishop might have me arrested. But you have now set my 
mind completely at rest and we shall come in August, or 
certainly in September at the latest. Herr von Babbius 
met me in the street and walked home with me; he went 
off to-day and if he had not had another engagement he 
would have lunched with us yesterday. 

Dear father! You must not suppose that because it is 
summer I have nothing to do. Everyone has not gone 
into the country and I still have a few pupils to look after. 
Just now I have one for composition, who will make a 
nice face when I tell him of my journey. Well, I must 
close, as I have a good deal to write. Meanwhile, arrange 
the bowling-green in the garden, for my wife is a great 
lover of the game. She is always a little bit nervous lest 
you should not like her, because she is not pretty. But I 
console her as well as I can by telling her that my dearest 
father thinks more of inward than of outward beauty. 
Now farewell. My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and 
are ever your most obedient children 

W. and C. MOZART 

(497) Constance Mozart to Nannerl Mozart 

[Autograph in the Bibliothek der Geselhchaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna] 

VIENNA, July igth> 1783 


My dear husband has received your letter and both 
he and I are delighted that you are looking forward so 



much to seeing us. But he was a little annoyed by your 
suspicion that we were not so very anxious to see you; 
and indeed I myself felt rather hurt. To prove, however, 
that everything is all right again, let me tell you that we 
always intended to go to you in August; and so we 
wanted to give you a little surprise, which will no longer 
be one for you, but will be so at any rate for our dear, 
beloved father that is, if you can keep it quiet, which 
we beg you to do; for only on this condition are we telling 
you the truth. Well, you have dragged our secret out of 
us by your naughty letter; and we shall be quite content 
if only we give this unexpected pleasure to our dear 
father. So please do not mention our plan. Well, about 
August ist I shall have the joy and happiness of embracing 
you. Until then I remain with the deepest respect, my 
dearest sister-in-law, yours sincerely, 


(497 a ) Constance Mozart to Margarete Marchand 

[A utograph in the Bibliothek der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna} 

VIENNA, July igth, 1783 

I am delighted that you still remember me and have 
taken the trouble to write to me. Believe me, I am just as 
much longing to see Salzburg and to have the joy and 
happiness of meeting personally my dear papa-in-law and 
my dear sister-in-law and showing them my devotion as 
you can possibly be longing for an opportunity of seeing 
your own beloved parents again. And then the pleasure 
of embracing my dear Mademoiselle Marguerite, whom 
I knew in Mannheim and Munich as a very clever young 
woman and who in the meantime has had plenty of 



opportunity of perfecting her gifts! How delighted I shall 
be to see her again, kiss her and admire her talents. God 
willing, I shall be able to do so on August ist. Meanwhile 
I urge you to observe the strictest silence and I remain 
your most devoted servant and friend 


(497)3) Mozart to Margarete Marchand and his Sister 

[A utograph in the Bibliothek der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna} 

VIENNA, July igth, 1783 J 


Neither of you should believe a word of what my 
wife has scrawled up above. How can we be in Salzburg 
on August ist if we must be here on the 26th? But if it 
is not necessary for me to be here on the 26th, we shall 
certainly be with you on August ist. I shall congratulate 
you then in person on your name-day, 2 my sister! and I 
shall be able to congratulate you also on the octave. 3 
Meanwhile farewell, dear sister, and you too, dear Mile 
Marchand. I hope soon to hear you sing and play on the 
clavier. We must celebrate my sister's name-day with a 
concert. Farewell to both of you. Dearest sister, I kiss 
you most cordially and am ever your sincere brother 


1 A postscript to his wife's letters. 

a July 26th, 

3 i.e. a week later. 



(498) Mozart to his Sister 

{From Otto Jahn, W. A. Mozart, 2nd edition, vol. ii. p. $$gf.] 

SALZBURG, /#/y 31^, 1783 
Here's to you 
In a fine punch- brew! 
To-day I went out shopping, and why, you'd never 


But now that I must tell you, the reason was no less 
Than with some trifling gift my sister to delight, 
For her to please Pd strive with all my main and 


Alas! Pm not quite sure if punch you like to drink? 
Ah! Please do not say no, or else the seal will stink. 
But to myself I thought, she loves the English faces. 
For if she favoured Paris, I'd give her pretty laces, 
A bouquet of fine flowers or perhaps some perfume rare. 
But you, my dearest sister, are no coquette, I swear. 
So from your brother take this punch (it's very strong 

and choice) 

And may repeated draughts of it your heart and soul 

Poet-laureate of the marksmen 
Salzburg, July 3ist, 


(499) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna} 

LlNZ, October 31^, 1783 r 

We arrived here safely yesterday morning at nine 
o'clock. We spent the first night in Vocklabruck and 

1 Owing to the visit of Mozart and his wife to Salzburg during the months 
of August and September there is a gap in his letters to his father. 



From an engraving by Conde after a portrait by De Wilde 

(British Museum) 


reached Lambach next morning, where I arrived just in 
time to accompany the "Agnus Dei" on the organ. The 
abbot x was absolutely delighted to see me again and told 
me the anecdote about you and himself in Salzburg. We 
spent the whole day there and I played both on the organ 
and on a clavichord. I heard that an opera was to be 
given next day at Ebelsberg at the house of the Prefect 
Steurer (whose wife is a sister of Frau von Barisani) and 
that almost all Linz was to be assembled. I resolved there 
fore to be present and we drove there. Young Count Thun 
(brother of the Thun in Vienna) called on me immediately 
and said that his father had been expecting me for a fort 
night and would I please drive to his house at once for I was 
to stay with him. I told him that I could easily put up at 
an inn. But when we reached the gates of Linz on the 
following day, we found a servant waiting there to drive 
us to old Count Thun's, at whose house we are now stay 
ing. I really cannot tell you what kindnesses the family 
are showering on us. On Tuesday, November 4th, I am 
giving a concert in the theatre here and, as I have not a 
single symphony with me, I am writing a new one 2 at 
break-neck speed, which must be finished by that time. 
Well, I must close, because I really must set to work. My 
wife and I kiss your hands, ask you to forgive us for 
inconveniencing you for so long and thank you once 
more very much for all the kindnesses we have received. 
So farewell. We send cordial greetings to little Greta, 3 to 
Heinrich 4 (about whom I have already said a great deal 
here) and Hanni. 5 Please give a special message to little 

1 Amandus Schickmayr, whom Mozart had met in 1767. 

2 K. 425, the "Linz" symphony in C major. 

3 Margarete Marchand. 4 Heinrich Marchand. 

5 Maria Johanna Brochard, the eight-year-old cousin of Heinrich and 
Margarete Marchand, had also become a pupil of Leopold Mozart, in whose 
house she was living. In 1790 she joined the Munich court theatre and 
subsequently married the dancer Franz Renner. 

VOL. Ill I28l Q 


Greta, and tell her that when she sings she must not 
be so arch and coy; for cajolings and kissings are not 
always palatable in fact only silly asses are taken in by 
such devices. I for one would rather have a country lout, 
who does not hesitate to shit and piss in my presence, than 
let myself be humbugged by such false toadyings, which 
after all are so exaggerated that anyone can easily see 
through them. Well, adieu. We kiss our dear sister most 
cordially. I am ever your most grateful son 


(500) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNA, December 6th y 1783 

As I had no idea that you. would write to me at 
Vienna until I had informed you of my arrival, I only 
went to Peisser to-day to ask for letters and found your 
letter of November aist, which had been lying there for 
twelve days. I trust that you have received my letter 
from Vienna. And now I have a request to make. No 
doubt you remember that when you came to Munich 
while I was composing my grand opera, 1 you reproached 
me with the debt of twelve louis d'or which I had drawn 
from Herr Scherz in Strassburg, adding these words: 
"What annoys me is your lack of confidence in me. Well, 
at all events / now have the honour of paying twelve louis 
d? or for you!' I went off to Vienna and you returned to 
Salzburg. From what you said I assumed that I need not 
give the matter another thought. Moreover, I presumed 
that if you had not paid my debt, you would have written 
to me or told me of it when we were together lately. So 
imagine my embarrassment and my surprise when the 

1 "Idomeneo." 


day before yesterday a clerk of the banker Herr Ochser 
brought me a letter from Herr Haffner in Salzburg, which 
contained an enclosure from Herr Scherz. As the trans 
action took place five years ago, he is demanding interest 
on the sum. On hearing this I said quite frankly that any 
such payment was out of the question and added that 
legally I was not bound to pay a farthing, as the bill was 
payable six weeks from the date and consequently had 
expired. Still in consideration of Herr Scherz's friendship 
I should pay the original sum, but, no interest being 
named, I was not liable for anything more. All that I 
ask of you, dearest father, is to be good enough to go 
security for me with Haffner, or rather Triendl, just for a 
month. As a man of experience you can easily imagine 
that just now it would be very ^ inconvenient for me 
to be left short of money. Herr Ochser's clerk had to 
admit that I was right, but contented himself with saying 
that he would tell Herr Haffner. What annoys me most 
about the whole business is that Herr Scherz will not have 
a very good opinion of me a proof that chance, coin 
cidence, circumstances, a misunderstanding and Heaven 
knows what may rob an innocent man of his good name! 
Why did Herr Scherz never mention the transaction all 
this long while? Surely my name is not so obscure! My 
opera l which was performed at Strassburg must at least 
have given him some idea that I was in Vienna! And 
then his connection with Haffner in Salzburg. If he had 
reminded me during the first year, I should have paid 
him on the spot with pleasure. I mean to pay it still, but 
at the moment I am not in a position to do so. Perhaps 
he thought that he had to do with some simpleton, who 
would pay what he does not owe? Well, then, let him keep 
the title for himself. f 

Now let us talk of something else. I have only three 

1 "Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail." See p. 1252, n. 5. 



more arias to compose and then the first act of my opera l 
will be finished. I can really say that I am quite satisfied 
with the aria buffa, the quartet and the finale and am 
looking forward to their performance. I should therefore 
be sorry to have written this music to no purpose, I mean, 
if we do not secure what is absolutely necessary. Neither 
you nor Abbate Varesco nor I have noticed that it will 
have a very bad effect and even cause the entire failure 
of the opera if neither of the two principal female singers 
appear on the stage until the very last moment, but keep 
on walking about on the bastions or on the ramparts of 
the fortress. The patience of the audience might hold out 
for one act, but certainly not for a second one that is 
quite out of the question. This first occurred to me at 
Linz, and it seems to me that the only solution is to con 
trive that some of the scenes in the second act shall take 
place in the fortress camera della fortezza. The scene 
could be so arranged that when Don Pippo gives orders 
for the goose to be brought into the fortress, the stage 
should represent a room where Celidora and Lavina are. 
Pantea comes in with the goose and Biondello slips out. 
They hear Don Pippo coming and Biondello again be 
comes a goose. At this point a good quintet would be very 
suitable, which would be the more comic as the goose 
would be singing along with the others. I must tell you, 
however, that my only reason for not objecting to this 
goose story altogether was because two people of greater 
insight and judgment than myself have not disapproved 
of it, I mean yourself and Varesco* But there is still time 
to think of other arrangements. Biondello has vowed to 
make his way into the tower; how he manages to do so, 
whether in the form of a goose or by some other ruse, does 
not really matter. I should have thought that effects far 
more natural and amusing might be produced, if he were 

1 "L'oca del Cairo." 


to remain in human form. For example, the news that in 
despair at not being able to make his way into the 
fortress he has thrown himself into the sea, could be 
brought in at the very beginning of Act II. He might 
then disguise himself as a Turk or anyone he chose 
and bring Pantea with him as a slave (a Moorish girl, 
of course). Don Pippo is willing to purchase the slave 
for his bride. Therefore the slave-dealer and the Moorish 
girl must enter the fortress in order to be inspected. 
In this way Pantea has an opportunity of bullying 
her husband and addressing all sorts of impertinent 
remarks to him, which would greatly improve her 
part, for the more comic an Italian opera is the better. 
Well, I entreat you to expound my views very clearly to 
Abbate Varesco and to tell him that I implore him to go 
ahead. I have worked hard enough in this short time. 
Why, I should have finished the whole of Act I, if I did 
not require some alterations in the words of some of the 
arias. But say nothing of this to him at present. My 
German opera "Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail" has 
been performed both in Prague and Leipzig excellently 
and with the greatest applause. I have heard both these 
facts from people who saw the performances. I shall make 
a point of looking up Herr von Deckelmann and shall 
give him the cadenzas, the concerto and the four ducats. 
Please send me as soon as possible my "Idomeneo", the 
two violin duets x and Sebastian Baches fugues. I require 
"Idomeneo" because during Lent I am going to give as 
well as my concert in the theatre six subscription concerts, 
at which I should like to produce this opera. Further, will 
you please ask Tomaselli to let us have the prescription 
for that eczema ointment, which has done us excellent 

1 K. 423 and 424, duets for violin and viola, which Mozart composed 
during the summer at Salzburg for Michael Haydn, who owing to an in 
disposition could not carry out a commission from the Archbishop. 



service. One never knows when one may need it again 
either for oneself or to hand on to someone else. A bird 
in the hand is always worth two in the bush. Well, adieu. 
My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and are ever 
your most obedient children 

W: et C: MOZART 

P.S. Please give Varesco a good talking to and hurry 
him up. Do send the music soon. We kiss Greta, Heinrich 
and Hanni; I shall write to Greta one of these days. Tell 
Heinrich from me that both here and in Linz I have 
already said many things in his favour. Tell him too that 
he ought to concentrate hard on staccato-playing, for it 
is just in this particular that the Viennese cannot forget 
Lamotte. 1 Adieu. 

(501) Mozart to his Father 

[Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin} 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce io Decembre, 1783 

I am writing in the greatest haste to tell you that I 
have already bought the opera "Der Rauchfangkehrer" 2 
for six ducats and have it at home. If the mail coach 
leaves for Salzburg next Sunday, I shall send it along 
with the two concertos; if not, well then it shall go by 
letter post. As for the money, just please deduct the four 
ducats which you were good enough to advance me. 
There is no German translation of the opera "Fra due 
litiganti" 3 ; and judging by your letter you seem to think 

1 Franz Lamotte, an excellent violinist, had been^since 1772 in the service 
of the Viennese court. He died in 1781. 

2 The libretto of "Der Rauchfangkehrer", which was performed in 1781, 
was by Dr. Auenbrugger, the music by Salieri. 

3 "Frai due litiganti", by Giuseppe Sarti (1729-1802), a famous operatic 
composer of the eighteenth century. 



that "Der Rauchfangkehrer" is an Italian opera! Not at 
all. It is a German and, what is more, a wretched work, 
the author of which is Doctor Auernszucker l in Vienna. 
You will remember that I told you about it and of how 
Herr Fischer publicly damned it in the theatre. Herr 
Kiihne has probably got the charming little libretto. 
Please give many compliments from us both to him and 
to his wife. As for Herr Lange and his wife, the truth is 
that he has obtained permission from His Majesty to 
travel for a few months and that before their departure 
they are going to perform an opera for their own benefit 
and that this opera will be my "Entfuhrung aus dem 
Serail". There is not a word of truth in the story about 
Herr Schroder. 

Meanwhile you will have received my last letter. Do 
your very best to make my libretto a success. I wish that 
in Act I some arrangement could be made to let the two 
women come down from the bastion when they have to 
sing their arias; in this case I should gladly consent to 
their singing the whole finale up above. We are both very 
sad about our poor, bonny, fat, darling little boy. 2 Well, 
I must close. Dearest, most beloved father! We both kiss 
your hands and embrace our dear sister with all our 
hearts and are ever your most obedient children 

W. et C. MOZART 

1000,000,000 kisses to Greta, Heinrich and little Hanni. 

P.S. We both send Nannerl 

(1) a couple of boxes on the ear 

(2) a couple of slaps on the face 

(3) a couple of raps on the cheek 

(4) a couple of whacks on the jaw 

1 Cp. p. 1286, n. 2. . , 2 See p. 1269, n. I. 


L. 502 MOZART TO HIS FATHER i 7 8 3 

(5) a couple of smacks on the jowl 

(6) a couple of cuffs on the mug. 

P.S. Please do not forget about Tomaselli. That 
reminds me, will you please send us, when you have 
time, a couple of images of the infant Jesus of Loreto. 
By the way, I must not forget about little Lisa, Theresa's 
cousin, who often came to your house. If she wants to 
come to Vienna, we shall take her at once. 1 Well, adieu, 
really adieu this time. 

(502) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna] 
MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 24 de Xber, 1783 

I have received your last letter of the iQth enclosing 
a portion of the opera. Well, let me deal with this, which 
is the most urgent matter. Abbate Varesco has written in 
the margin beside Lavina's cavatina: "a cui servira la 
musica della cavatina antecedente", 2 that is, Celidora's 
cavatina. But that is out of the question, for in Celidora's 
cavatina the words are very disconsolate and despairing, 
whereas in Lavina's they are most comforting and hope 
ful. Besides, for one singer to echo the song of another is 
a practice which is quite out of date and is hardly ever 
made use of. It can only be tolerated in the case of a 
soubrette and her amant, that is, in the ultime parti. 3 My 
opinion is that the scene should start with a fine duet, 
which might very well begin with the same words and 
with a short aggiunta for the coda. After the duet the 

1 Mozart and his wife employed her as their maid, a kindness which later 
they had cause to regret. 

2 For which the music of the preceding cavatina will do. 

3 i.e. secondary characters. Mozart himself did this in"Lafintagiardiniera", 
composed in 1775, that is to say, in nos. Qa and 90 of Act I. 



conversation can be resumed. E quando s'ode il cam- 
panello delta custode? Mile Lavina, not Celidora, will be 
so good as to remove herself, so that the latter, as a prima 
donna, may have an opportunity of singing a fine bravura 
aria. Some arrangement of this kind would suit much 
better the composer, the singer, the spectators and the 
audience, and the whole scene would undoubtedly become 
far more interesting. Further, the audience would hardly 
be able to tolerate the same aria from the second singer, 
after having heard it sung by the first. In the next place, 
I do not know what you are both driving at by the follow 
ing arrangement. At the end of the newly inserted scene 
between the two women in Act I, the Abbate writes: 
Segue la scena VIII che prima era la VI I e cosi cangiansi 
di mano in mano i numeri. 2 From this description I am to 
suppose that, contrary to my wish, the scene after the 
quartet in which both women sing their little tunes in turn 
at the window, is to remain; but that is impossible. For 
not only would the act be very much lengthened, and to 
no purpose, but it would become very tedious. It always 
seemed to me very ridiculous to read: 

CELIDORA: Tu qui m'attendi, arnica. Alia custode farmi 

veder vogl'io; ci andrai tu poi. 
LAVINA: Si, dolce arnica, addio. (Celidora parte.) 3 

Lavina sings her aria. Celidora comes in again and says: 
Eccomi, or vanne, etc. 4 Now it is Lavina' s turn to go and 
Celidora sings her aria. They relieve each other like 
soldiers on guard. Moreover, as in the quartet they all 

1 And when the duenna's bell is heard. 

2 Scene VIII, formerly Scene VII, then follows, and thus the numbers 
are correspondingly altered. 

3 Celidora: Wait for me here, my friend. I wish to show myself to the 
duenna. You may go later. 

Lavina: Yes, sweet friend, good-bye. (Exit Celidora.) 

4 Here I am, now you may go, etc. 



agree to carry out their proposed scheme, it is far more 
natural that the men should go off and beat up the people 
required for this purpose and that the two women should 
betake themselves quietly to their apartments. The most 
they could still be allowed is a few lines of recitative. 
Indeed, I have not the smallest doubt that it was never 
intended that the scene should be retained, and that 
Varesco simply forgot to indicate . that it was to be 
omitted. I am very curious to see how you carry out your 
capital idea of bringing Biondello into the tower. Pro 
vided it is diverting, I shall raise no objection, even if it 
is a little unnatural. I am not at all alarmed at the notion 
of a few fireworks, for the arrangements of the Viennese 
fire brigade are so excellent that there is no cause for un 
easiness about having fireworks on the stage. Thus 
"Medea" is often performed here, at the end of which 
one half of the palace collapses, while the other half goes 
up in flames. To-morrow I shall look round for copies of 
the libretto of the "Rauchfangkehrer". 1 I have not yet 
been able to find the "Contessina" (or the "Countess"). 2 
If it is not to be had, would any of the following be suit 
able, "Das Irrlicht" by Umlauf, "Die schone Schu- 
sterin" by the same, 3 or "Die Pilgrimme von Mekka" ? 4 
The two latter operas especially would be very easy to 
perform. Kuhne probably has them already. Please deliver 
greetings from both of us to him and to his wife. I trust 
that you received my last short letter. Let me remind you 
once more to send me the two duets, Bach's fugues and, 
above #//, "Idomeneo" you will know the reason. I am 
particularly anxious to go through this, opera on the 

1 See p. 1286, n. 2. Evidently Leopold Mozart was looking for operas 
suitable for performance at Salzburg. 

2 By Florian Leopold Gassmann (1729-1774). 

3 "Das Irrlicht" was produced in 1782, "Die schone Schusterin" in 1779, 
both at the Burgtheater in Vienna. 

4 Gluck's opera "Die Pilgrimme von Mekka" was produced in 1764. 



clavier with Count Sickingen. If you could have Emanuel 
Bach's fugues (there are six of them, I think) copied and 
sent to me some time, you would be doing me a great 
kindness. I forgot to ask you to do this when I was at 
Salzburg. Meanwhile, farewell. The day before yester 
day, Monday, we had another grand concert of the 
society, 1 when I played a concerto and Adamberger sang 
a rondo of my composition. 2 The concert was repeated 
yesterday, but a violinist played a concerto in my place. 
The day before yesterday the theatre was full. Yesterday 
it was empty. I should add that it was the violinist's first 
performance. Well, adieu, I kiss your hands a thousand 
times and we are both your most obedient children 

W: et C: MOZART 

A thousand smacks to my sister and to all. Adieu. 
(503) Mozart to his Father 

{Autograph in the possession of Artaria and Co., Vienna^ 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce io de Feb: 1784 

How very stupid of Artaria! He thought that they 
would not take the parcel at the Post Office and instead 
of returning it to me at once, he kept it back- until it was 
time for the mail coach to leave, without telling me a 
word about the arrangement! This time I have had no 
letter from you. I really do not understand Peisser. These 
people are about three yards away from our house (I have 
measured the distance). Sometimes I myself ask whether 
any letters have arrived, but usually my maid does so. 
They bawl out "No" in the most impertinent manner, and 
when the asses (I mean, the gentlemen) have a look, why, 
they suddenly find one after all. Again, if a letter happens 

1 The Wiener Tonkunstlersozietat. 
2 Probably K. 431, composed in 1783. 



to come at some odd time, they prefer to leave it lying for 
a fortnight rather than send it to me by the shopboy, 
which I have often asked them to do. So I beg you to 
write direct to my address. I have already received three 
letters from different countries. Just address it "Im 
Trattnerischen Hause, Zweite Stiege, im Dritten Stock". 1 
Besides, I think that Herr Peisser makes a small profit on 
my letters. 

In my last letter I wrote to you about Varesco and my 
opera. 2 At present I haven't the slightest intention of 
producing it. I have works to compose 3 which at the 
moment are bringing in money, but will not do so later. 
The opera will always bring in some; and besides, the 
more time I take, the better it will be. As it is, the im 
pression I have gained from Varesco's text is that he has 
hurried too much, and I hope that in time he will realise 
this himself. That is why I should like to see the opera as 
a whole (he need only jot, it down in rough and ready 
fashion). Then we can make drastic alterations. For by 
Heaven there is no need to hurry. If you were to hear 
what I have composed, then you would wish, as I do, 
that my work should not be spoilt! And that is so easily 
done and so often. What I have composed has been put 
away safely. I guarantee that in all the operas which will 
be performed until mine is finished, not a single idea will 
resemble one of mine. Well, I must close, for I must really 
compose. I spend the whole morning giving lessons, so I 
have only the evening for my beloved task composition. 
I have just one more question to ask, and that is, whether 
you are now having in Salzburg such unbearably cold 

1 The Mozarts had moved into new lodgings in a house belonging to 
J. T. von Trattner, am Graben no. 591 (now no. 29). 

2 "L'oca del Cairo", which Mozart never finished. 

3 Probably his clavier concertos, six of which (K. 449, 450, 451, 453, 456, 
459) were composed in 1784. From 1784 to 1786 Mozart was the most popular 
and successful clavier-player in Vienna. See p. 1296 f. 



weather as we are having here? Herr Freyhold l of Mainz 
wanted to call on me and sent up a servant with the letter, 
he himself remaining below probably in the coach. But 
as I had to go out immediately I took the letter and asked 
him to come some afternoon, when I am always at home. 
I have been wanting to go along one of these days (for 
he has not turned up), but have not had the time. Well, 
adieu. My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times 
and embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and are 

ever your most obedient children 

W. and C MOZART 

(504) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the possession of Rudolf Nydahl, Stockholm} 
MON TRES CHER P^RE! VlENNE, ce 2O de fevrier, 1784 

I have received your last letter. Yesterday I was 
fortunate enough to hear Herr Freyhold 2 play a concerto 
of his own wretched composition. 3 I found very little to 
admire in his performance and missed a great deal. His 
whole tour de force consists in double-tonguing. Other 
wise there is nothing whatever to listen to. I was delighted 
that the Adagio, which by the way -he played at your 
house, was very short. For at first the players who 
accompanied him could not get the hang of it, as, 
although the movement was written in common time, he 
played it Alia Breve. And, when I thereupon noted down 
Alia Breve with my own hand, he admitted that my Papa 
in Salzburg had also made a fuss. The rondo ought to be 
jolly, but it was the silliest stuff in the world. As soon as I 
heard the first Allegro, I realised that if Herr Freyhold 

* Little is known about Freyhold, who was a flautist in the service of the 
Margrave of Baden-Durlach. He gave concerts in 1776 and 1779 at Frankfurt- 
am-Main. * See n. I. . _, . 

3 The autograph has "scomposition", one of Mozart's favourite devices 
for expressing contempt. 



would only learn composition properly, he would not be 
a bad composer. I am very sorry that Herr Hafeneder 
has died so prematurely, and particularly because you will 
now be saddled with that seccatura* Yet I must admit that 
the Prince is right. In his place I should have made the 
arrangement long before Hafeneder's death. But I should 
have accompanied my command with an increase of 
salary, and arranged that the boys should go to your 
house or that you should have free quarters in the 
Kapellhaus. Well, two gentlemen, a vice-controleur and a 
cook, are going off to Salzburg in a few days, and I shall 
probably ask them to take with them a sonata, 1 a sym 
phony 2 and a new concerto. 3 The symphony is in the 
original score, which you might arrange to have copied 
some time. You can then send it back to me or even give 
it away or have it performed anywhere you like. The 
concerto is also in the original score and this too you may 
have copied; but have it done as quickly as possible and 
return it to me. Remember, do not show it to a single soul, 
for I composed it for Fraulein Ployer, 4 who paid me 
handsomely. But the sonata you may keep for good. 
Well, I must ask you something about which I know 
nothing whatever. If I have some work printed or 
engraved at my own expense, how can I protect my 
self from being cheated by the engraver? For surely he 
can print off as many copies as he likes and therefore 

1 Possibly K. 448, sonata for two claviers, composed in 1781. 

2 K. 425, the "Linz" symphony, composed in 1783. 

3 K. 449, composed for Barbara Ployer. This is the first entry in Mozart's 
Thematisches Verzeichnis, the list which he kept of his compositions from 
February 9th, 1784, until his death. A facsimile edition of this list, with an 
introduction by O. E. Deutsch, has been published by Herbert Reichner, 
Vienna, 1938. 

4 Barbara, daughter of Court Councillor Gottfried Ignaz von Ployer, 
since 1780 agent of the Salzburg Court in Vienna. She was Mozart's pupil 
on the clavier and in composition, and for her he composed his clavier 
concertos K. 449 and K. 453. 



swindle me? The only way to prevent this would be to 
keep a sharp eye on him. Yet that was impossible in your 
own case, when you had your book printed, for you were 
at Salzburg and the printer was at Augsburg. 1 Why, I 
almost feel inclined not to sell any more of my composi 
tions to any engraver, but to have them printed or engraved 
by subscription at my own expense, as most people do 
and in this way make good profits. I am not nervous 
about getting subscribers. For I have already had sub 
scription offers from Paris and Warsaw. So please let me 
know what you think about this. Now I have another 
request to make. Would it be possible to let me have a copy 
of my certificate of baptism? They all swear here that the 
first time I came to Vienna I must have been at least ten 
years old. 2 The Emperor himself contradicted me to my 
face last year in the Augarten. Herr von Strack now 
believes my statement. If I showed them my certificate of 
baptism I could shut them all up at one go. Now farewell. 
My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and are ever 
your most obedient children 

W: et C: MOZART 

(505) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the possession of Paul Gottschalk, Berlin} 

MON TRfes CHER PERE! VIENNE, ce 3 mars, 17843 

I have received your letter of February 24th. It is 
much better for you to send your letters always through 
the post. I received on Monday your letter which, if you 
had sent it through Peisser, I should not have had until 

1 Mozart is referring to his father's Violinschule, which was published in 
1756 by J. J. Lotter, Augsburg. 

2 Mozart's first visit to Vienna was in 1762, when he was six. 

* Nissen, pp. 479-480, throws together this letter and the following one of 
March 2Oth, thereby producing a strange confusion in dates. 



Tuesday or Wednesday. I have not yet received the 
concertos, but I shall ask Artaria about them at once. 1 
You must forgive me if I don't write very much, but it 
is impossible to find time to do so, as I am giving three 
subscription concerts in Trattner's room on the last three 
Wednesdays of Lent, beginning on March i7th. I have 
a hundred subscribers already and shall easily get another 
thirty. The price for the three concerts is six gulden. I 
shall probably give two concerts in the theatre this year. 
Well, as you may imagine, I must play some new works 
and therefore I must compose. The whole morning is 
taken up with pupils and almost every evening I have 
to play. Below you will find a list of all the concerts at 
which I am playing. But I must tell you quickly how it 
has come about that all of a sudden I am giving private 
concerts. Richter, 2 the clavier virtuoso, is giving six 
Saturday concerts in the said room. The nobility sub 
scribed, but remarked that they really did not care much 
about going unless I played. So Richter asked me to do 
so. I promised to play three times and then arranged 
three concerts for myself, to which they all subscribed. 

Thursday, February 26th, at Galitzin's 
Monday, March ist, at Johann Esterhazy's 
Thursday, March 4th, at Galitzin's 
Friday March 5th, at Esterhazy's 
Monday 8th, at Esterhazy's 
Thursday nth, at Galitzin's 
Friday i2th, at Esterhazy's 
Monday I5th, at Esterhazy's 
Wednesday iyth, my first private concert 
Thursday i8th, at Galitzin's 
Friday igth, at Esterhazy's 
Saturday 2oth, at Richter's 

1 K. 413-415, which were published early in 1785 by Artaria and Co. 
2 Georg Friedrich Richter, a popular clavier-player and teacher. 



Sunday 2ist, my first concert in the theatre 

Monday 22nd, at Esterhazy's 

Wednesday 24th, my second private concert 

Thursday 25th, at Galitzin's 

Friday 26th, at Esterhazy's 

Saturday 2/th, at Richter's 

Monday 29th, at Esterhazy's 

Wednesday 3ist, my third private concert 

Thursday April ist, my second concert in the theatre 

Saturday 3rd, at Richter's 

Well, haven't I enough to do? I don't think that in 
this way I can possibly get out of practice. Adieu. We 
both kiss your hands and embrace our dear sister with 
all our hearts and are ever your most obedient children 


(506) Mozart to his Father 

{Autograph in the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna^ 

VIENNA, March w>th % 1784 
Princesse d'Auersperg Madame de Hess nee de 

Prince Charles L'evecque d'Herberstein 


Comte Nadasty General Comte de Rottenhan 
L'Ambassadeur d'Espagne Comte Jos: d'Herberstein 
Comte Joseph Seilern Jacomini 

Comte de Soldyk Madame de Stokel 

Madame de Trattner Comte Gundacker Stern- 

De Grezmiiller maj. Baron Togelman 

1 The first page of the autograph is a torn sheet. The beginning of the 
letter has been lost. The names of Mozart's subscribers have been left in 
their original spelling. 

VOL. Ill 1297 R 



de Hess nee Mr. de Kas 
de Kanne- Raab 



Comte de Wiirm 
Madame de Margelique 
Baron Gondar 

Mr. de Lamezan 
Comtesse Kevenhiiller 
Baron van Swieten 

Comtesse Sauer 

De Sonnenfels 


Comte Charles d'Auers- 


C. Aug. Seilern 
Comte d'Herberstein 
De Fichtl Agent 
Princesse Palm 
Prince Palm 
Comte de Nimptsch 
Conseiller Greiner 
Ployer Agent 
de Grezmiiller Jim. 
Comtesse Staremberg nee 

Comtesse Althan nee 


Comtesse Passowitz 
Comte Nep d'Herberstein 
Comte Joseph Podstatzky 
Comte Paar 

Mr. de Jahn 


Comtesse Schafgotsch nee 

Comte de Sauer 
D' Hairing 
Comte Wilhelm d'Auers- 


Prince Joseph Lobkowitz 
E. Wiirm 
Comte de Banffi 
Prince Adam d'Auersperg 

P. J. Schwab 


de Rosty 

Baronin de Waldstadten 




de Honickstein 


Le Comte Fries 

de Schleinitz 

de Puthon 

de Madruce 
de Jacobi 
de Lutz 

Comtesse Thun nee d' Ulfeld 




Joseph Palfy 
Comte Koller 
Bar: Wetzlar Pere 
Comtesse Nimptsch 
de Braun 
de Luerewald 
de Hentchl 
Bar: de Ditmar 
Bar: de Gebsattel 
Comtesse Esterhazy 
Comte Jean Esterhazy 
Joseph Dietrichstein 
Bar: de Brandau 
Bar: de Stockmeyer 
Bar: de Hochstatter 

Comtesse Sauer 
Prince Louis Lichtenstein 
de Meyenberg* 
Comte Sallabourg 
Bar: de Mandelsloh 
Louis Wiirben 
Ernest Harrach 
Le Comte Keplowitz 
Dominic Kaunitz 
Comte d'Otting 
Comte de Kuffstein 
Bar: Winkler 
Reichshof: von Wolkern 
Bar: de Braun 
Prince de Paar 
Comte d'Oeynhausen 
Le Comte de Dzierza- 

Jos: de Weinbremes 

de Switmer 


Bar: de Martini 

de Born 

Prince Gallitzin 

Bar: Vockel 

Comte Ladislaus d'Erdody 

Comte Hugart 

Comte Kollnitsch 

Leopold Hoyos 

Comte Czernin 

Comte Neiperg 

Comte Antoine Batiany 

Prince de Wiirtemberg 

Grenieri Envoye de 

Comte Kluschofsky 
Joh: Adam Bienenfeld 
Bar: Wetzlar Raimund 
de Drostik 

Madame Tiirkheim 
Madame de Poncet 
Mylord Morton 
Madame de Puffendorf 
Chevalier Hall 
Madame de Neuhold 
Comte Adam Sternberg 
Comte Etienne Zitchi 
Lord Stopford 
Princess Lignowsky 
de Sonnenfeld 




de Knecht 

Comte Sternberg 

Comte Waldstein 

Comte George Waldstein 

Le Comte Harrach Taine 

Bar: Zois 

von Ott 

Le Comte de Nostiz 

De Nostiz general 

Bar: Jungwirth 

Hofrat Botti 

Madame d'Engelsbourg 

Comte Marchall 

H of rath Miiller 

Bar: Brandau 

Comte Wolscheck 
Comtesse Waldstein nee 

Madame de Burkart 
Prince de Schwarzenberg 
Madame d'Eichelbourg 
Comte Zinzendorf 
de Hartenstein 
Bar: Burkardt 
Comte Bergen 
Bar: de Dalberg 
Madame Betty 
Bar: de Gleichen 
Mr. de Techenbach 
Bqr: Findak 
Comtesse Apumoni 
Comte Charles Zitchi 
Comte Francois d' Ester 


Bar: d'Engelstrom 
Prince de Meklenbourg 

Comtesse de Hazfeld 
Comte Montecuculi 

I am sending you the list of all my subscribers. I by my 
self have thirty more than Richter 1 and Fischer 2 together. 
The first concert on March iyth went off very well. The 
hall was full to overflowing; and the new concerto 3 I 
played won extraordinary applause. Everywhere I go 
I hear praises of that concert. 

My first concert in the theatre was to have been 
to-morrow. But Prince Louis Liechtenstein is producing 
an opera in his own house, and has not only run off with 

1 See p. 1296, n. 2. 

3 Probably John Abraham Fisher (1744-1806), the English violinist and 
composer. He met in 1784 in Vienna Nancy Storace, who became his second 
wife. 3 Probably K. 449. See Kochel, p. 568. 



the cream of the nobility, but has bribed and seduced the 
best players in the orchestra. So I have postponed my 
concert until April ist and have had a notice printed to 
this effect. Well, I must close, as I must go off to Count 
Zichy's concert. You must have patience with me until 
Lent is over. We both kiss your hands and embrace our 
dear sister with all our hearts and are ever your most 
obedient children 

Vienna, March 2Oth, 1784. 

(507) Leopold Mozart to Sebastian Winter, 
Donaueschingen 1 

[Autograph in the Furstlich Fiirstenbergische Hofbibliothek, 



I write in haste just to send you the four concertos 2 
which, as I informed you, are the latest and cost four 
ducats each. I still have six sonatas 3 for the clavier only, 
which no one knows about, as my son composed them for 
us alone. If His Highness, to whom we send our most 
' respectful greetings, would care to have these too, he has 
only to let me know. Farewell. I must close, as four 
people have just turned up from Munich to fetch young 
Marchand, 4 now fifteen years old, whom I have been 
teaching for three years and who is now returning as an 
excellent violinist and performer on the clavier and also 
a proficient composer. At the same time he has not 

1 Sebastian Winter, formerly the Mozarts' friseur, had been since 1764 
valet and friseur to the Prince von Fiirstenberg at Donaueschingen. 

2 Leopold Mozart means the series of three clavier concertos, K. 413-415. 
See p. 1304. 

3 Possibly K. 310-311 and 330-333, which, with the exception of K. 311, 
composed in 1777, were all composed in 1778. 

4 Heinrich Marchand, Leopold Mozart's pupil. 



neglected his Latin, although as his chief side-line he 
has been learning Italian and French, in which he has 
made good progress. Addio! 

I ever remain your honest old friend 


(508) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the Conservatoire de Paris] 

Please don't be vexed that I haven't written to you 
for so long. Surely you realise how much I have had to do 
in the meantime! I have done myself great credit with my 
three subscription concerts, and the concert I gave in the 
theatre was most successful. I composed two grand con 
certos I and then a quintet, 2 which called forth the very 
greatest applause: I myself consider it to be the best work 
I have ever composed. It is written for one oboe, one 
clarinet, one horn, one bassoon and the pianoforte. How 
I wish you could have heard it! And how beautifully it 
was performed! Well, to tell the truth I was really worn 
out in the end after playing so much and it is greatly 
to my credit that my listeners never got tired. 

I now have a commission for you. Old Baron Seine 
du Pain, 3 who has all kinds of music, good and bad, would 
like to have the following compositions: Gatti's rondo and 
duet. Recitative. Ah! Non sdegnarti, o cara. Rondo. Nel 
lasciarti in questo istante. Duet. Nei giorni tuoi felici. 4 So 
I should be very much obliged if you could procure these 
two works for me as soon as possible. I shall send you 
the money for having them copied in due course through 
Herr Peisser. I have finished to-day another new concerto 

1 K. 450, finished on March I5th, and K. 451, finished on March 22nd. 

2 K. 452, finished on March 3Oth. 

3 Possibly Baron Dupin. See pp. 295 and 298. 4 On a text by Metastasio. 



for Fraulein Ployer. 1 At the moment I am almost dressed 
to go to Prince Kaimitz. Yesterday I played at Leopold 
Palfy's. To-morrow I am playing at the concert which 
Mile Ployer is giving. One thing more. As Hafeneder 
has died, Herr von Ployer has been commissioned to 
find a violinist. I recommended to him a certain Menzel, 2 
a handsome and clever young fellow. But I asked him not 
to say anything about me, as otherwise it might not work. 
He is now awaiting the decision. I think he has asked for 
and is to get four hundred gulden and a suit of clothes. 
I have already scolded him about the suit of clothes for 
it is a beggarly request. If anything comes of this, I shall 
give him a letter for you and the music too. You will think 
him a charming violinist, and he is also a very good 
sight-reader. So far no one in Vienna has played my 
quartets 3 so well at sight as he has. Moreover he is the 
kindest fellow in the world, and he will be delighted to 
play at your house whenever you want him to. I had him 
in the orchestra at my concert. Well, I must close. My 
wife and I kiss your hands two thousand times and em 
brace our dear sister with all our hearts and are ever your 
obedient children 


(509) Leopold Mozart to Sebastian Winter, 

[Autograph in the Furstlich Furstenbergische Hoflibliothek, 



Your letter of the i/th has made things rather 

difficult for me, as on the afternoon of April 3rd I packed 

1 K. 453, finished on April I2th. 

2 Zeno Franz Menzel (1756-1823), who in 1787 became violinist in the 
Vienna court orchestra. 3 Probably K. 387, 421, 428. 



the three concertos 1 in waterproof cloth and handed the 
parcel to the mail coach, which left here on the qth at eight 
o'clock inthe morning. You wrote to me exactly a fortnight 
later, when the concertos must long since have arrived 
at Donaueschingen. I addressed the parcel: To Herr 
Sebastian Winter, valet to His Highness, etc. If it has not 
reached you, please ask the postmaster to make urgent 
enquiries and investigations and I shall do the same both 
here and in Munich. Meanwhile I trust that I shall soon 
hear from you and be relieved of all anxiety. I write in 
great haste. We send our compliments to His Highness 
and I am ever your most devoted 


(510) Mozart to his Father 

\From Nissen, p. 481] 

VIENNA, April 24^, 1784 

We now have here the famous Strinasacchi 2 from 
Mantua, a very good violinist. She has a great deal of 
taste and feeling in her playing. I am this moment com 
posing a sonata 3 which we are going to play together on 
Thursday at her concert in the theatre. 4 I must tell you 
that some quartets have just appeared, composed by a 
certain Pleyel, 5 a pupil of Joseph Haydn. If you do not 
know them, do try and get hold of them; you will find 

' K. 413-415- 

2 Regina Strinasacchi (1764-1823), a distinguished violinist and guitar 
player. She was trained in Venice and Paris, toured Italy 1780-1783, and in 
1784 came to Vienna. She married later Johann Conrad Schlick (1759-1825), 
an excellent violoncellist in the orchestra of the Duke of Gotha. 

3 K. 454. 4 April 29th. 

5 Ignaz Joseph Pleyel (1757-1831), a most prolific instrumental composer. 
He was trained in Vienna by Wanhall. His patron was Count Erdody, who 
had Pleyel taught by Haydn, and who then appointed him his Kapellmeister. 
In 1783 he became deputy Kapellmeister and in 1789 Kapellmeister to the 
Strassburg Cathedral. In 1791 he was invited to London to take charge of the 
Professional Concerts. Ten years later he settled as a music-dealer in Paris, 
where he founded in 1807 the Pleyel pianoforte factory and where he re 
mained until his death. 



them worth the trouble. They are very well written and 
most pleasing to listen to. You will also see at once who 
was his master. Well, it will be a lucky day for music, if 
later on Pleyel should be able to replace Haydn. 

(511) Mozart to his Father 

[From Ludwig Nohl> Mozarts Brief e^ ind edition, p. 406] 

VIENNA, April z%tk, 1784 

I must write in a hurry. Herr Richter, the clavier- 
player, is making a tour on his way back to Holland, his 
native country. I have given him a letter to Countess 
Thun * at Linz. As he would like to visit Salzburg too, I 
have given him just four lines for you, dearest father. So 
I am now writing to say that he will turn up soon after 
you receive this letter. He plays well so far as execution 
goes, but, as you will discover when you hear him, he is 
too rough and laboured and entirely devoid of taste and 
feeling. Otherwise he is the best fellow in the world and is 
not the slightest bit conceited. When I played to him he 
stared all the time at my fingers and kept on saying: 
"Good God! How hard I work and sweat and yet win no 
applause and to you, my friend, it is all child's play." 
"Yes/' I replied, "I too had to work hard, so as not to 
have to work hard any longer/' Enfin, he is a fellow who 
may be included among our good clavier-players and I 
trust that the Archbishop will be more inclined to hear 
him, because he is a clavierist en depit de moi and I 
shall be very glad to incur that spite. It is all settled about 
Menzel the violinist, and he will probably clear out on 
Sunday. You will have some music from me too which he 
is taking. Now, farewell. 

1 Elizabeth, the fourth wife of Count Johann Josef Anton Thun (1711- 
1788), father of Countess Wilhelmine Thun's husband. 



(512) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the possession of W. Westley Manning, London} 
MON TRES CHER P^RE! VIENNA, May %th, 1784 

Menzel went off at a moment's notice and didn't find 
me at home, so I could not give him a letter for you. But 
I hope that he has already been to see you. I purposely 
did not give him the music I promised you, because I did 
not like to entrust it to him, being far too particular about 
it. I prefer to send it by the mail coach. Perhaps my good 
friend Richter is now at your house. If so, please give 
him our greetings. Well, I must go down to the first floor 
to a concert at Frau von Trattner's. She has commissioned 
me to make the necessary arrangements. So I cannot 
write any more, beyond saying that we are both well and 
trust that you two are in good health also. Paisiello is 
in Vienna at the moment on his way back from Russia. 
He is going to write an opera 1 here. Sard is expected here 
any day on his way through to Russia. I am looking 
forward to the shoe buckles. Farewell. We both kiss your 
hands and embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and 
are ever your obedient children 


(513) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph formerly in the Musikhistorisches Museum 

von W. Heyer, Cologne} 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VlENNE, ce 1 5 May, 1784 

I gave to-day to the mail coach the symphony 2 
which I composed in Linz for old Count Thun and also 
four concertos. 3 I am not particular about the symphony, 

1 "II Re Teodoro in Venezia", performed on August 23rd, 1784, 
2 K. 425- 3 K. 449-451 and 453. 



but I do ask you to have the four concertos copied at home, 
for the Salzburg copyists are as little to be trusted as the 
Viennese. I know for a positive fact that Hofstetter made 
two copies of Haydn 's music. 1 For example, I reaJfypossess 
the last three symphonies he wrote. And as no one but 
myself possesses these new concertos in B^ and D, 2 and no 
one but myself and Fraulein von Ployer (for whom I com 
posed them) those in E 1 * and G, 3 the only way in which 
they could fall into other hands is by that kind of cheating. 
I myself have everything copied in my room and in my 
presence. After careful consideration I decided not to 
entrust the music to Menzel. Further, I formed the opinion, 
which I still hold, that the music would not be of much 
use to you, as except for the E^ concerto, which can be 
performed a quattro without wind-instruments, the other 
three concertos have all wind-instrument accompaniment; 
and you very rarely have wind-instrument players at your 
house. Well, I don't know what it was that you were 
thinking about and did not want to mention in your 
letter; and therefore to avoid all misunderstanding, I am 
sending you herewith all my new compositions. I have no 
news to give you save that the Emperor intended to leave 
for Budapest to-day but was prevented from doing so by 
a stye in his eye. Praise and thanks be to God, we are 
both well and trust that you are all in good health. We 
kiss your hands a thousand times and embrace our dear 
sister with all our hearts and are ever your obedient 

W. et C. MOZART 

Please give my kind regards to MenzeL He knows all 
four concertos very well. 

1 Compositions of Michael Haydn. 
2 K. 450 and 451. 3 K. 449 and 453- 



(514) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph formerly in the Musikhistorisches Museum 

von W. Heyer, Cologne] 

MON TRES CHER P^RE! VlENNE, ce 2,6 May, 1784 

Your last letter tells me that you have received my 
letter and the music. I thank my sister for her letter and, 
so soon as time permits, I shall certainly write to her. 
Meanwhile please tell her that either Herr Richter is 
mistaken about the key of the concerto or else I have 
misread a letter in her writing. The concerto Herr Richter 
praised to her so warmly is the one in Bb, 1 the first one I 
composed and which he praised so highly to me at the 
time. I really cannot choose between the two of them, but 
I regard them both as concertos which are bound to make 
the performer perspire. From the point of view of diffi 
culty the Bi> concerto beats the one in D. 2 Well, I am very 
curious to hear which of the three in Bb, D and G 3 you 
and my sister prefer. The one in Ei> 4 does not belong at 
all to the same category. It is one of a quite peculiar kind, 
composed rather for a small orchestra than for a large 
one. So it is really only a question of the three grand 
concertos. I am longing to hear whether your judgment 
will coincide with the general opinion in Vienna and with 
my own view. Of course it is necessary to hear all three 
well performed and with all the parts. I am quite willing to 
wait patiently until I get them back, so long as no one else 
is allowed to get hold of them. Only to-day I could have 
got twenty-four ducats for one of them, but I think that it 
will be more profitable to me to keep them by me for a few 
years more and then have them engraved and published. 
Well, I have something to tell you about Liserl 
Schwemmer. 5 She wrote a letter to her mother and as 

* K. 450. 2 K. 451- 3 K. 453. 4 K. 449. s See p. 1288, n. i. 



the address was so quaint that the Post Office would 
hardly have accepted the letter, for it was as follows: 

Dieser Brief zueku- 
men meiner vilgeliebtisten 
Frau Mutter in Salzburg 
barbari schbemerin 
abzugeben in der 
Judengasen in Kauf 
man eberl haus 
in dritten Stock 

I told her that I would write another address for hen 
Out of curiosity and with a view to reading some more of 
this amazing composition rather than with that of prying 
into her secrets, I broke the seal of the letter. She pom- 
plains that she gets to bed too late and has to get up too 
ear ly though I should have thought that one would get 
enough sleep between eleven and six, which is after all 
seven hours! We ourselves do not go to bed until midnight 
and we get up at half past five or even five, as we go to 
the Augarten almost every morning. Then she complains 
about the food and that too in the most impertinent 
fashion. She says she has to starve and that the four of 
us, that is, my wife, myself, the cook and she do not get 
as much to eat as she and her mother used to have be 
tween the two of them. You know that I took this girl at 
the time purely out of pity and to help her when she was 
a stranger in Vienna. We promised her twelve gulden a 
year, and she was quite satisfied, though in her letter she 
complains about it. And what has she to do? To clear the 
table, hand round the dishes and take them away and 
help my wife to dress and undress. Moreover, apart from 
her sewing she is the clumsiest and stupidest creature in 
the world. She cannot even light a fire, let alone make 
coffee, things which a girl who pretends to be a parlour- 



maid should be able to do. We gave her a gulden and the 
very next day she was asking for more money. I insisted on 
her giving me an account of how she had spent her money 
and I found that most of it had gone on beer. A certain 
Herr Johannes who travelled with her to Vienna had better 
not put his nose inside my door again. Twice when we were 
out, he came to our quarters, ordered in wine) and the girl, 
who is not accustomed to drinking it, swilled so heavily, 
that she couldn't walk without support and the second 
time she was sick all over her bed. I should like to know 
who would keep a creature who carries on in this way? 

I would have contented myself with the lecture I gave 
her when it happened and would have said nothing to 
you, but her impertinent letter to her mother has driven 
me to it. So will you please send for her mother and tell 
her that I shall put up with her daughter for a little while 
longer, but that she must look about for another place. 
Were it not that I hate to make people unhappy I should get 
rid of her on the spot. She says something too, in her letter, 
about a certain Herr Antoni a future husband, perhaps! 

Well, I must close. My wife thanks you both for your 
congratulations on her pregnancy and coming confine 
ment, which will probably take place during the first days 
of October. 1 We both kiss your hands and embrace our 
dear sister with all our hearts and are ever your most 
obedient children 

W. et C. MOZART 

P.S. We have not yet been able to do anything about 
the fichu in lawn or muslin, because my wife doesn't 
know whether my sister would prefer it untrimmed. Un- 
trimmed fichus cost about a ducat each, but are not worn 
very much. Those with a little pretty trimming cost at 

1 Karl Thomas (1784-1858), the Mozarts' second child, was born on 
September 2ist. 



least seven ducats apiece in Vienna currency. So we are 
waiting for the next letter and as soon as we know, my 
sister shall have what she requires. Addio. 

P.S. Please send me the buckles by the next mail 
coach. I am simply longing to see them. 

(515) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph in the possession of Landgerichts director A. Zahn, Landau} 

MON TRS CHER PERE! VIENNA, June gtfi-i2th, 1784 

No doubt you have received my last letter. I have 
received the buckles and also your letter of June ist. The 
buckles are very handsome, but far too large. However, I 
shall try to dispose of them. 

Next Friday the court goes to Laxenburg for two or 
perhaps three months. I went to Baden last week with 
His Excellency Count Thun to visit his father, who had 
come over from Linz to do the cure. On our way home 
we drove through Laxenburg, where we visited Lee- 
mann, who is now the governor of the castle. His daughter 
was not at home, but he and his wife were absolutely 
delighted to see me again. They both send greetings to 
both of you. 

June iztk. As visitors came in, I was prevented from 
finishing this letter. In the meantime I have received your 
letter of the 8th. My wife sends her love to my sister and 
will despatch a smart fichu by the next mail coach. But 
she is going to make it herself, as it will thus be somewhat 
cheaper and much prettier. Please tell my sister that there 
is no adagio in any of these concertos r only andantes. 
She is quite right in saying that there is something 
missing in the solo passage in C in the Andante of the 
concerto in D. 2 I shall supply the deficiency as soon as 

* K. 449-451 and K. 453. 2 K. 451. 

L. 515 MOZART TO HIS FATHER i 7 8 4 

possible and send it with the cadenzas. 1 To-morrow Herr 
Ployer, the agent, is giving a concert in the country at 
Dobling, where Fraulein Babette is playing her new con 
certo in G, 2 and I am performing the quintet; 3 we are then 
playing together the grand sonata for two claviers. 4 1 am 
fetching Paisiello in my carriage, as I want him to hear 
both my pupil and my compositions. If Maestro- Sarti 
had not had to leave Vienna to-day, he too would have 
come with me. Sarti is a good honest fellow! I have 
played a great deal to him and have composed variations 
on an air of his, 5 which pleased him exceedingly. Menzel 
is, and always will be an ass. The whole affair is as 
follows: Herr von Ployer asked me whether I knew of a 
violinist. I spoke to Menzel, who was much gratified. You 
can imagine that I as an honest man advised him not to 
accept anything but a permanent post. But he never came 
to see me until the last moment and Herr von Ployer told 
me that he was going off to Salzburg on trial for 400 
gulden and, mark you, a suit of clothes. But Menzel 
declared to me and to everyone here that he had actually 
been appointed. Further, it now seems that he is married, 
of which no one here knew anything. His wife has been 
three or four times at von Ployer's. I have now given 
Artaria, to engrave, the three sonatas for clavier only> 
which I once sent to my sister, the first in C, the second 
in A, and the third in F. 6 I have given three others to 
Torricella, the last of which is the one in D, which I com 
posed for Diirnitz in Munich. 7 Further, I am giving three 
of my six symphonies to be engraved, and these I shall 

1 Mozart sent her these cadenzas, K. 624 (21 a and 2ib). 

2 K. 453- 3 K. 452. K. 448. 

5 K. 460, eight variations on "Come tin' agnello" from Sarti's opera "Fra i 
due litiganti". 

6 K. 33-3 3 2 - See p. 875, n. I. For particulars of this first edition, which was 
advertised in the "Wiener Zeitung" on August 25th, 1784, see Kochel, p. 388. 

7 K. 284. For particulars of this first edition, which included the sonatas 
K. 333 and K. 454, see Kochel, p. 285. 



From an engraving by P. N. Guerin 

(Paul Hirsch, Esq., Cambridge) 


dedicate to Prince von Fiirstenberg. 1 Well, I must close. 
My wife and I kiss your hands a thousand times and 
embrace our dear sister with all our hearts and are ever 
your obedient children 

W. et C. MOZART 

(516) Mozart to his Sister 

[Autograph in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek y Berlin\ 

DEAREST SISTER! VIENNA, July 2 u/, 1784 

My wife and I wish you much happiness on your 
name-day. 2 She would have written to you herself, but 
she finds it difficult to remain seated for long, as our 
future son and heir gives her no peace. She therefore 
joins me in wishing you all possible joy and happiness 
and we ask you to keep us ever in your sisterly affection. 
Old Hampel 3 and his son from Munich have been here 
for a week and are leaving for Russia the day after to 
morrow. They are lunching with us to-morrow and in the 
evening we are going to have a little concert. I hope that 
in the meantime you will have received everything by the 
mail coach. I would gladly have sent you the cadenzas 
for the other concertos, but you have no idea how much I 
have to do! As soon as I have a little time to myself, I 
shall certainly devote it to you. When you have tried over 
the three grand concertos, 4 I shall be most anxious to hear 
which of them you like best. I beg Papa not to forget to 
send me by the next mail coach what I asked him for. I 
should be delighted if he could send me my old oratorio 
"La Betulia liberata" 5 too. I have to compose the same 

1 Josef Wenzeslaus, Prince von Fiirstenberg, Donaueschingen. Mozart did 
not carry out this plan. 2 July 26th. 

3 Thaddaus Hampel, clarinet-player in the Munich court orchestra. 

* K. 450, 451, 453- 

5 K. 1 1 8, "La Betulia liberata", an oratorio on a text by Metastasio, 
composed in 1771. 

VOL. Ill 1313 S 

Z. 517 MOZART TO HIS SISTER i ? 8 4 

oratorio for the Society l in Vienna and possibly I might 
use bits of it here and there. Please give my greetings to 
Gretl 2 and tell her that perhaps I shall reply myself, but I 
cannot promise to do so, for I fear that I may not be able 
to keep my promise, as I am far too busy. As for the aria 3 
she must exercise a little patience. But what I do advise 
her to do, if she wants to have the aria soon and without 
fail, is to choose a text which suits her and send it to me, 
as it is impossible for me to find time to wade through all 
sorts of operas. Well, I must close, as I have to go off at 
once to give a lesson. My wife and I kiss you a thousand 
times and ask you to kiss Papa's hands for us. We are ever 
your sincere 


(517) Mozart to his Sister 

[Autograph in the possession of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania} 
MA TRES CHERE ScEUR! VIENNA, August l%tk, 1784 

Potz Sapperment! It is high time I wrote to you if 
I want my letter to find you still a vestal virgin! A few 
days more and it is gone! My wife and I wish you all 
joy and happiness in your change of state and are only 
heartily sorry that we cannot have the pleasure of being 
present at your wedding. But we hope to embrace you as 
Frau von Sonnenburg 4 and your husband also next spring 
both at Salzburg and at St. Gilgen. Our only regrets are 
for our dear father, who will now be left so utterly alone! 
True, you will not be far away from him and he can often 

1 The Wiener Tonkiinstlersozietat. 

2 Margarete Marchand. 3 There is no trace of this composition. 
4 Nannerl Mozart was married on August 23rd, 1784, to Johann Baptist 

von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg, magistrate at St. Gilgen, her mother's birth 
place, and about six hours' drive from Salzburg. Her husband was a widower 
with five children. He died in 1801, and Nannerl returned to Salzburg with 
her son and stepchildren. For short studies of Nannerl Mozart see MMB, 
November 1896, p. 98 ff., and Abert, vol. ii. p. 916 ff. 


drive out and see you but he is tied to that accursed 
Kapellhaus again! If I were in his place, I should do as 
follows: Seeing that I have served the Archbishop for 
so many years I should ask him to allow me to retire, and 
then, on receiving my pension, I should go to my daughter 
at St. Gilgen and live there in peace and quiet. If the 
Archbishop refused my request, I should apply for my 
discharge and join my son in Vienna. And what I chiefly 
want to ask you is to do your best to persuade him to 
do this. I have suggested the same thing in my letter to 
him to-day. And now I send you a thousand good wishes 
from Vienna to Salzburg, and hope particularly that you 
two will live together as harmoniously as we two! So take 
a little piece of advice from my poetical brainbox! Listen: 

Wedlock will show you many things 
Which still a mystery remain; 
Experience soon will teach to you 
What Eve herself once had to do 
Before she could give birth to Cain. 
But all these duties are so light 
You will perform them with delight. 
Yet no state is an unmixed joy 
And marriage has its own alloy, 
Lest us its bliss perchance should cloy. 
So when your husband shows reserve 
Or wrath which you do not deserve 
And perhaps a nasty temper too, 
Think, sister, 'tis a man's queer way. 
Say: "Lord, thy will be done by day, 
But mine at night you'll do". 1 
Your sincere brother 


1 Mr. C. B. Oldman has kindly pointed out the connection between the 
concluding lines of Mozart's poem and a verse in Playford's Wit and Mirth; 
or, Pills to Purge Melancholy, 3rd edition, 1707, vol. i. p. 150. 



(518) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter l 

[Extract] [Autograph in the Mozart eum, Salzburg] 

SALZBURG, September iqth, 1784 

My son has been very ill in Vienna. At a performance 
of Paisiello's new opera 2 he perspired so profusely that 
his clothes were drenched and in the cold night air he 
had to try to find his servant who had his overcoat, as 
in the meantime an order had been given that no servant 
was to be allowed into the theatre by the ordinary en 
trance. So not only my son, but a number of other people 
caught rheumatic fever, which became septic when not 
taken in hand at once. My son writes as follows: "Four 
days running at the very same hour I had a fearful attack 
of colic, which ended each time in violent vomiting. I 
have therefore to be extremely careful. My doctor is 
Sigmund Barisani, who since his arrival in Vienna has 
been almost daily at my rooms. People here praise him 
very highly. He is very clever too and you will find that 
in a short time he will make his way. When you write to 
St. Gilgen, please send millions of kisses to our brother- 
in-law and to my sister, etc." 

1 After NannerFs marriage to Berchtold zu Sonnenburg at St. Gilgen, 
Leopold Mozart wrote long letters to her about once a week, giving her a full 
account of everything that was happening in Salzburg. Nearly all these letters, 
which cover the years 1784-1787, that is, from NannerFs departure until Leo 
pold Mozart's death, have been preserved and they have recently been edited 
by Otto Erich Deutsch und Bernhard Paumgartner, Leopold Mozarts Brief e 
an seine Tochter, Salzburg- Leipzig, 1936. 

2 "II Re Teodoro in Venezia", which was performed on August 23rd, 



(519) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract} [Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

SALZBURG, September ijtk, 1784 

On the following day 1 we had a big concert at Bari- 
sani's, where your brother's new and excellent symphony 2 
was performed under my direction. There too the leading 
actor, who knows Joseph Barisani, was introduced to me. 
When he heard my name, he was beside himself with 
delight. He is called Schmidt and is the Schmidt who 
took the part of Pedrillo at the performance in Vienna of 
the "Entfiihrung aus dem Serail". 3 He therefore knows 
your brother very well. There is thus every hope that 
these people will give an excellent performance of your 
brother's opera, as Schmidt himself took a part in Vienna 
and later produced the opera in Prague 4 more than a 
dozen times. Moreover, Herr Brandl, 5 that excellent 
actor and singer, is in the company. 

(520) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract] [Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

SALZBURG, November igtk, 1784 

My son gave a small musical party on his name-day, 6 
at which his pupils performed and, what is more, Baron 
Bagge from Paris amused the company by playing a 
violin concerto. "We simply howled with laughter", my 

1 September I5th. * K. 425, the "Linz" symphony. 

3 Ludwig Schmidt, originally an operatic singer, was manager of a 
theatrical company. He had taken the place of Dauer, the original Pedrillo 
in the Vienna production of the "Entfiihrung aus dem Serail". 

4 The "Entfiihrung aus dem Serail" was performed in Prague in 1783. 

5 He was leading bass singer in the Salzburg company. 

6 October 3ist. 



son writes, adding "I have received my sister's letter and 
hope that in the meantime she has received mine". He 
probably means the letter to me. 

"Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail" was performed fairly 
well on the i/th with the greatest applause and three 
numbers had to be repeated. At five o'clock there was no 
more room in the lower part of the theatre and at a quarter 
past five it was quite full up above. It is being performed 
again on Sunday, the aist. After that it will probably be 
dropped for five weeks. The whole town is delighted with 
it. Even the Archbishop was gracious enough to say 
"Really it wasn't at all bad". I hear that they took 
191 gulden. The aria with the solo instruments 1 was 
performed by Stadler 2 (violin, the part being an easy 
one), Feiner (oboe), Reiner (flute) and Fiala ('cello) and 
they played very well together. Herr Kassel, who had 
been asked to play the flute, came to the first rehearsal. 
But the following day he told Stadler that he would not 
turn up any more, that they should get hold of someone 
else, as he found rehearsing too boring. Everyone is very 
much annoyed with him, even the nobles. On the other 
hand Herr Fiala not only played, but even refused to 
take a fee, saying that he was doing it to please Herr 
Schmidt and particularly Herr Mozart. 

(521) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract] \Co$y in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin] 

SALZBURG, November [?2$th], 1784 

The "Entfiihrung aus dem Serail" was performed here 
again on Sunday with the greatest applause. Indeed the 
opera is becoming such a favourite that the whole town 

1 Constanze's aria "Martern aller Arten". 
2 Matthias Stadler, a violinist in the Salzburg court orchestra. 



praises it and calls it a very fine work. Michael Haydn 
sat in the orchestra behind the clavier. Of course every 
one asked him for his opinion and he said that all that 
this opera needed was an orchestra of sixty to seventy 
players and the necessary intermediate instruments, that 
is, clarinets and a cor anglais, whose parts have to be 
taken here by violas. Only then, he declared, could one 
really hear what an excellent piece of work it was. He 
was delighted beyond measure. Well, the opera is now to 
have a rest until Christmas, when it will be performed 
again twice. Blonde's duet with her Pedrillo and her aria 
"Welche Wonne, welche Lust" were again repeated. The 
drinking song in the second act "Vivat Bacchus! Bacchus 
lebe!" had even to be sung three times. All who have 
seen the opera in Vienna are unanimous in declaring that 
the acting here is far better, more lively and more natural, 
and the whole production more thorough than in Vienna. 
This is the opinion too of the two Barons von Fechen- 
bach, who saw the opera performed in Berlin, Mainz and 

(522) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract] [Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 

SALZBURG, January 22nd, 1785 

I have this moment received ten lines from your 
brother, who says that his first subscription concert will 
take place on Friday, February nth, 1 and that he is to 
give the remaining concerts on successive Fridays. He 
adds that during the first week in Lent he will certainly 

1 In a letter written from Munich, dated February 2nd, 1785, Leopold 
Mozart adds: " Heinrich (Marchand) and I will probably leave for Vienna on 
Carnival Sunday in Herr Marchand's carriage in order to be present at your 
brother's concert on Friday, February nth, as I have had a letter from him 
suggesting this. Herr Le Brun and his wife will follow us to Vienna on the 5th." 



have a box for this concert in the theatre for Heinrich 
and that I ought to come soon. He adds that last 
Saturday he performed his six quartets 1 for his dear 
friend Haydn and other good friends, and that he has 
sold them to Artaria for a hundred ducats. 2 At the end 
of his letter he says: "Now I must get on with the 
composition of the concerto 3 which I have just begun. 

(523) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[From Ludwig No hi, Neue Z^itschrift fur Musik, 1870, no. 40] 

VIENNA, February 142^-16^, 1785 

We arrived at the Schulerstrasse No. 846, first floor, 4 
at one o'clock on Friday. That your brother has very 
fine quarters with all the necessary furniture you may 
gather from the fact that his rent is 460 gulden* On the 
same evening we drove to his first subscription concert, 
at which a great many members of the aristocracy were 
present. Each person pays a souverain d'or or three 
ducats for these Lent concerts. Your brother is giving 
them at the Mehlgrube and only pays half a souverain 
d'or each time for the hall. The concert was magnificent 
and the orchestra played splendidly. In addition to the 
symphonies a female singer of the Italian theatre sang 
two arias. Then we had a new and very fine concerto 5 
by Wolfgang, which the copyist was still copying when 
we arrived, and the rondo of which your brother did not 
even have time to play through, as he had to supervise 

1 The six string quartets K. 387, 421, 458, 428, 464 and 465, which Mozart 
dedicated to Joseph Haydn, were published by Artaria and Co. in October 
1785. See p. 1261, n. 3. 

2 Joseph Haydn. 3 K. 466, clavier concerto in D minor. 

4 The Mozarts had moved early in October 1784 to these rooms, now 
chulerstrasse no. 8. 

5 K. 466, clavier concerto in D minor. 



the copying. You can well imagine that I met many ac 
quaintances there who all came up to speak to me. I was 
also introduced to several other people. 

On Saturday evening Herr Joseph Haydn 1 and the 
two Barons Tinti 2 came to see us and the new quartets 
were performed, or rather, the three new ones 3 which 
Wolfgang has added to the other three which we have 
already. The new ones are somewhat easier, but at the 
same time excellent compositions. Haydn said to me: 
" Before God and as an honest man I tell you that your 
son is the greatest composer known to me either in 
person or by name. He has taste and, what is more, the 
most profound knowledge of composition/' 

On Sunday evening the Italian singer, Madame 
Laschi, 4 who is leaving for Italy, gave a concert in the 
theatre, at which she sang two arias. A 'cello concerto 
was performed, a tenor and a bass sang an aria each 
and your brother played a glorious concerto, 5 which he 
composed for Mile Paradis 6 for Paris. I was sitting only 
two boxes away from the very beautiful Princess of 
Wurtemberg 7 and had the great pleasure of hearing so 
clearly all the interplay of the instruments that for sheer 
delight tears came into my eyes. When your brother left 

1 On the previous day Haydn had joined the Freemasons' Lodge, "Zur 
wahren Eintracht". Mozart had been a member of the Lodge "Zur Wohl- 
tatigkeit" since December 1784, and his father joined both lodges on the 
occasion of his visit to Vienna. See Otto Erich Deutsch, Mozart und die 
Wiener Logen, Vienna, 1932. 

2 They were members of the Masonic Lodge "Zur wahren Eintracht". 

3 K. 458, 464 and 465. 

4 Luisa Laschi made her first appearance in Vienna in 1784, and was the 
original Countess in "Le Nozze di Figaro". In 1787 she married the tenor 
Domenico Francesco Mombelli (i755~^3^)- 

5 K. 456, in B&, finished on September 3Oth, 1784. 

6 Maria Theresia von Paradis (1759-1824), a blind pianist of Vienna. In 
1784 she had undertaken a grand tour of the European capitals* 

7 Elizabeth (1767-1790), the eighth child of Duke Karl Eugen of Wurtem 
berg. She was married in 1788 to the Archduke Francis of Austria. 



the platform the Emperor waved his hat and called out 
"Bravo, Mozart!" And when he came on to play, there 
was a great deal of clapping. 

We were not at the theatre yesterday, for every day 
there is a concert. This evening there is another one in 
the theatre, at which your brother is again playing a 
concerto. I shall bring back several of his new com 
positions. Little Karl 1 is the picture of him. He seems 
very healthy, but now and then, of course, children have 
trouble with their teeth. On the whole the child is charm 
ing, for he is extremely friendly and laughs when spoken 
to. I have only seen him cry once and the next moment 
he started to laugh. 

Yesterday, the I5th, there was again a recital in the 
theatre given by a girl 2 who sings charmingly. Your 
brother played his new grand concerto in D minor 3 most 
magnificently. To-day we are going to a concert given at 
the house of the Salzburg agent, Herr von Ployer. 

Your brother, your sister-in-law, Marchand and I kiss 
you millions of times and I am your faithful father 


(524) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

{Extract} \Autograph in the Stadtarchiv, Augsburg] 

VIENNA, Monday ', February 2ist22nd, 1785 

You will have received my first letter, I thought that I 

had completely shaken off the cold I caught on my journey. 

But yesterday evening I had pains in my left thigh and 

1 Mozart's second child, Karl Thomas (1784-1858), who was born on 
September 2ist, 1784. 

2 Elizabeth Distler (1769-1789), operatic singer, who belonged to a large 
family of Viennese musicians. She sang in the two performances of Mozart's 
"Davidde penitente" on March I3th and I7th, 1785, given for the benefit 
of the Tonkiinstlersozietat. 3 K. 466. 



before going to bed I discovered that I really had rheuma 
tism. So I drank some burr root tea in bed this morning 
and did not get up until half past one, just in time for 
lunch, at which I had the company of your sister-in-law's 
youngest sister Sophie. 1 She is still with me now at eight 
o'clock in the evening, as your brother, his wife and 
Heinrich lunched to-day with Herr von Trattner, an 
invitation which unfortunately I had to refuse; and this 
evening your brother is performing at a big concert at 
Count Zichy's, at which Herr Le Brun and his wife are 
appearing for the first time. But your sister-in-law and 
Marchand have gone to the concert at Herr von Ployer's, 
our agent. As usual, it will probably be one o'clock before 
we get to bed. We lunched on Thursday, the I7th, with 
your brother's mother-in-law, Frau Weber. There were 
just the four of us, Frau Weber and her daughter Sophie, 
as the eldest daughter 2 is in Graz. I must tell you that 
the meal, which was neither too lavish nor too stingy, 
was cooked to perfection. The roast was a fine plump 
pheasant; and everything was excellently well prepared. 
We lunched on Friday, the i8th, with Stephanie junior, 
just the four of us and Herr Le Brun, his wife, Karl 
Cannabich and a priest. Let me tell you at once that there 
was no thought of a fast-day. We were only offered meat 
dishes. A pheasant as an additional dish was served in 
cabbage and the rest was fit for a prince. Finally we had 
oysters, most delicious glace fruits and (I must not forget 
to mention this) several bottles of champagne. I need 
hardly add that everywhere coffee is served. From 
Stephanie's we drove to your brother's second concert at 
the Mehlgrube at seven o'clock. This concert too was a 

1 Sophie Weber (1767-1846) became in 1781 an actress at the Burgtheater 
in Vienna. She married in 1806 the musician and composer Jakob Haibel 
(1761-1826), and some time after his death went to live in Salzburg with her 
elder sister Constanze Nissen, who was also a widow. 

2 Josef a Weber. 



splendid success. Heinrich played a violin concerto. 
Stephanie asked for you the moment he saw us and we 
went on talking about the old days. Up to the present I 
have never been offered any fast dishes. Yesterday, the 
2oth, we were at a lunch given to twenty-one people by 
Herr M tiller, the actor. It was a splendid affair, but not 
exaggeratedly lavish. He must have a very large apart 
ment, as he has eight children and pays a yearly rent of 
seven hundred gulden. Herr Stephanie has a small 
apartment, which costs him, however, five hundred gulden, 
as it is in the Michaelerplatz close to the theatre. The two 
concerts which Herr Le Brun and his wife are giving in 
the theatre are on Wednesday, the 23rd, and Monday, the 
28th. All the boxes for the first concert were sold out on 
the 1 8th. These people are going to make an enormous 
amount of money. 

(525) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract] [Autograph in the Bibliothek der Gesellschaft der 

Micsikfreunde, Vienna} 

VIENNA, March izth, 1785 

Your brother made 559 gulden at his concert, which we 
never expected, as he is giving six subscription concerts 
at the Mehlgrube to over 150 people, each of whom pays 
a souverain d'or for the six. Besides, as a favour he has 
been playing frequently at other concerts in the theatre. As 
for the clavier arrangement of the "Entfuhrung aus dem 
Serail", all that I can tell you is that a certain Torricella 1 

1 Christoph Torricella, a music publisher in Vienna and a member of the 
Masonic Lodge "Zur Bestandigkeit". In May 1784 he had opened in Cramer's 
"Magazin der Musik" a subscription list for Mozart's clavier arrangement of 
the "Entfiihrung aus dem Serail". The first act was engraved and Mozart 
was at work on the second act, when another clavier arrangement of the whole 
opera was published. See p. 1334. 



is engraving it. Your brother is arranging it, but it isn't 
quite finished yet. He may have only completed Act I. 
I shall find out. Torricella has also engraved three sona 
tas, only one of which has a violin accompaniment. 1 
Well, I shall buy everything that has been published. 

We never get to bed before one o'clock and I never get 
up before nine. We lunch at two or half past. The weather 
is horrible. Every day there are concerts; and the whole 
time is given up to teaching, music, composing and so 
forth. I feel rather out of it all. If only the concerts were 
over! It is impossible for me to describe the rush and 
bustle. Since my arrival your brother's fortepiano has 
been taken at least a dozen times to the theatre or to some 
other house. He has had a large fortepiano pedal made, 
which is under the instrument and is about two feet longer 
and extremely heavy. It is taken to the Mehlgrube every 
Friday and has also been taken to Count Zichy's and to 
Prince Kaunitz's. 2 

(526) Mozart to Professor Anton Klein,, Mannheim 3 

[Autografk in the possession of Stefan Zweig} 

VIENNA, March 2ist, 1785 


It was very wrong of me, I must confess, not to have 
informed you at once of the safe arrival of your letter and 

1 K. 333, 284 and 454. See p. 1312, n. 7. 

* Another letter from Leopold Mozart to his daughter sent from Vienna 
and dated March iQth, 1785, contains this interesting statement: "If my son 
has no debts to pay, I think that he can now lodge two thousand gulden in 
the bank. Certainly the money is there, and so far as eating and drinking is 
concerned, the housekeeping is extremely economical." 

3 Professor Anton Klein (1748-1810), an ex-Jesuit, was a lecturer on 
philosophy and aesthetics and a popular dramatist. He wrote the text of 
Holzbauer's successful opera "Gunther von Schwarzburg" and in 1780 a 
drama "Kaiser Rudolf von Habsburg", which he sent to Mozart with the 
suggestion that the latter should set it to music. 



the parcel which you sent along with it. You presume that 
in the meantime I have received two more letters from 
you; but this is not the case. The first would have 
instantly aroused me from my slumber and I should have 
replied, as I am now doing. No, I received last post-day 
your two letters together. Well, I have already acknow 
ledged my guilt in not replying immediately. But as for 
the opera, I should have been able to say as little then as 
I can now. Dear Privy Councillor! My hands are so full 
that I scarcely ever find a minute I can call my own. A 
man of such great insight and experience as yourself will 
know even better than I that a libretto of this kind has to 
be read through with all possible attention and delibera 
tion, and not once only, but several times. So far I have not 
had time to read it through even once without interruption. 
All that I can say at the moment is that I should not like 
to part with it yet. So I beg you to leave the play with me 
for a little longer. If I should feel inclined to set it to 
music, I should like to know beforehand whether its 
production has actually been arranged for at a particular 
place; for a work of this kind, from the point of view both 
of the poetry and of the music, deserves a better fate than 
to be composed to no purpose. I trust that you will clear 
up this point. 

At the moment I cannot send you any news about 
the coming German operatic stage, as at present, 
apart from the building operations at the Karntherthor 
theatre, which has been set apart for this purpose, things 
are progressing very slowly. They say that it is to be 
opened early in October. I for my part have no great 
hopes of its success. To judge by the preparations which 
have been made up to the present, it looks as if they were 
trying altogether to ruin German opera, which is probably 
only suffering a temporary eclipse, rather than to help 
to put it on its legs again and keep it going. My sister-in- 



law Madame Lange is the only singer who is to join the 
German opera. Madame Cavalieri, Adamberger, Mile 
Teiber, all Germans of whom Germany may well be 
proud, have to stay at the Italian opera and compete 
against their own countrymen! At present it is easy to 
count up the German singers, male and female; and even 
if there really are as good singers as the ones I have 
mentioned, or even better ones, which I very much doubt, 
yet I am inclined to think that the directors of our theatre 
are too parsimonious and too little patriotically-minded 
to offer large sums of money to strangers, when they have 
on the spot better singers, or at least equally good ones, 
whom they can rope in for nothing. For the Italian 
company does not need them so far as numbers go. The 
company can fill all the parts themselves. The idea at 
present is to carry on the German opera with actors and 
actresses, who only sing when they must. Most unfortu 
nately the directors of the theatre and those of the orchestra 
have all been retained, and it is they who owing to their 
ignorance and slackness are chiefly responsible for the 
failure of their own enterprise. Were there but one good 
patriot in charge things would take a different turn. But 
then, perhaps, the German national theatre which is 
sprouting so vigorously would actually begin to flower; 
and of course that would be an everlasting blot on 
Germany, if we Germans were seriously to begin to think 
as Germans, to act as Germans, to speak German and, 
Heaven help us, to sing in German!! 

Dear Privy Councillor, do not take it amiss if in my 
zeal I have perhaps gone too far! Completely convinced 
as I am that I am talking to a true German^ I have given 
rein to my tongue, a thing which unfortunately is so 
seldom possible in these days that after such an out 
pouring of my heart I might boldly drink myself tipsy 
without running the risk of endangering my health. 



I remain, with the deepest respect, most esteemed 
Privy Councillor, your most obedient servant 

Vienna, March 2ist, 1785. 

(527) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract} [Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 

VIENNA, March 2$tk-26tk, 1785 

Well, I have twice heard Madame Lange sing five or 
six arias at the clavier in her own house and this she did 
most readily. That she sings with the greatest expression 
cannot be denied. I had often questioned people about 
her and I now understand why some said that she had a 
very weak voice and others that she had a very power 
ful one. Both statements are true. Her held notes and 
those she emphasises are astonishingly loud, her tender 
phrases, passages and grace notes and high notes are very 
delicate, so that in my opinion there is too much dis 
crepancy between the two renderings. In a room her loud 
notes offend the ear and in a theatre her delicate passages 
demand great silence and attention on the part of the 
audience. I shall tell you more about this when we meet. 
Madame Lange's husband is a fine painter. He did a 
sketch of me yesterday evening on a sheet of red paper. 1 

(528) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract} [Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

VIENNA, April i6th y 1785 

Baroness von Waldstadten is sending us her horses on 
Tuesday and we are to drive out to see her at Kloster- 

1 This sketch of Leopold Mozart has unfortunately been lost. 


From an engraving by Daniel Berger after a drawing by Josef Lange 
(Mozart Museum, Salzburg) 


neuburg, her present headquarters, lunch with her and 
return in the evening. I am very anxious to meet this 
woman of my heart, since I, invisus, have been the man of 
her heart. 1 

(529) Mozart to Joseph Haydn^ Eisenstadt 

[Autograph in the possession of Frau Iselin-Merian, Basle\ 
VIENNA, September 1st, 1785 

To my dear friend Haydn. 

A father who had decided to send out his sons into the 
great world, thought it his duty to entrust them to the pro 
tection and guidance of a man who was very celebrated 
at the time and who, moreover, happened to be his best 

In like manner I send my six sons to you, most 
celebrated and very dear friend. They are, indeed, the 
fruit of a long and laborious study; but the hope which 
many friends have given me that this toil will be in some 
degree rewarded, encourages me and flatters me with the 
thought that these children may one day prove a source 
of consolation to me. 

During your last stay in this capital you yourself, my 
very dear friend, expressed to me your approval of these 
compositions. Your good opinion encourages me to offer 
them to you and leads me to hope that you will not 
consider them wholly unworthy of your favour. Please 
then receive them kindly and be to them a father, guide 
and friend! From this moment I surrender to you all my 
rights over them. I entreat you, however, to be indulgent 
to those faults which may have escaped a father's partial 
eye, and, in spite of them, to continue your generous 

1 See p. 1223 f. 

VOL. in 1329 T 


friendship towards one who so highly appreciates it. 
Meanwhile I remain with all my heart, dearest friend, 
your most sincere friend 


Vienna, September ist, 1785. 

(530) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

\Extr acf\ \Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg\ 

SALZBURG, September i6tA-ijt& t 1785 
It will be four weeks to-morrow since I had a letter 
from your brother. He is probably in the country. I do 
hope that I shall have a letter to-morrow, as I have 
written to him twice. Or perhaps he is going to come 

I have this moment received a letter from your brother. 
He says that he had already written, telling me the story 
about Lang, 2 which was made known to the public in the 
Wiener C our ant. He adds that the Emperor said to your 
sister-in-law: "What a difference it makes to have a good 
husband!" Your brother has dedicated his quartets to 
Herr Joseph Haydn with an Italian dedication. 3 I am to 
have them by the next mail coach. Your brother kisses 
you and your husband most cordially. He says that I 
ought to send Fiala to Vienna and that he will take him 
at once to Count von Kufstein, 4 so that he may obtain an 
appointment without delay. 

1 This dedication is in Italian. The six compositions are the string quartets 
K. 387, 421, 458, 428, 464, 465, composed during the years 1782-1785 and 
published with this dedication by Artaria and Co. 

2 Possibly Josef Lange, the husband of Aloysia Weber, who was known to 
be exceedingly jealous. 3 See p. 1329. 

4 Johann Ferdinand, Count von Kufstein (1752-1818), was Court Coun 
cillor in Vienna and an amateur violinist and composer. He was one of 
Mozart's patrons, and in 1784 subscribed to his concerts. 


(531) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract] {Atttograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

SALZBURG, November yd$tk) 1785 

I haven't had a single line from your brother. His last 
letter was dated September i4th and the quartets were 
to have come by the next mail coach. 1 If he were ill, Herr 
Artaria would have informed me in his letter of September 
28th. The journalist 2 met me a few days ago and said: "It 
is really astonishing to see what a number of compositions 
your son is publishing. 3 In all the announcements of 
musical works I see nothing but Mozart. The Berlin 
announcements, when quoting the quartets, only add the 
following words: 'It is quite unnecessary to recommend 
these quartets to the public. Suffice it to say that they are 
the work of Herr Mozart/ " I had nothing to say as I 
knew nothing, for it was more than six weeks since I had 
had a letter from your brother. My informant said some 
thing too about a new opera, 4 Basta! I daresay we shall 
hear about it. 

(532) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract] [Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

SALZBURG, November nth, 1785 

At last I have received a letter of twelve lines from your 
brother, dated November 2nd. He begs to be forgiven, 
as he is up to the eyes in work at his opera "Le Nozze di 

1 See p. 1330. 

2 Professor Lorenz Hiibner of Munich, who since the previous year had 
been editor of the Salzburger Zeifung, later Oberdeutsche Staatszeitung. 

3 Artaria and Co. had published in 1785 the symphonies K. 385 and 319, 
the six quartets dedicated to Haydn, the three clavier concertos K. 413-415, 
the fantasia and sonata for clavier K. 475 and 457, while Torricella and 
Hoffmeister had printed a few minor works. 4 "Le Nozze di Figaro." 



Figaro". He thanks me and both of you for our good 
wishes and asks me particularly to make his excuses to 
you and to tell you with his love that he hasn't time to 
answer your letter at once. He adds that in order to keep 
the morning free for composing, he is now taking all his 
pupils in the afternoon, etc. I know the piece; it is a very 
tiresome play and the translation from the French will 
certainly have to be altered very freely, if it is to be 
effective as an opera. 1 God grant that the text may be a 
success. I have no doubt about the music. But there will 
be a lot of running about and discussions, before he gets 
the libretto so adjusted as to suit his purpose exactly. 
And no doubt according to his charming habit he has 
kept on postponing matters and has let the time slip by. 
So now he must set to work seriously, as Count Rosenberg 
is prodding him. 

(533) Mozart to Fran^ Anton Hoffmeister 2 

[Autograph in the Bibliothek der Gese Use haft der Musikfreunde, Vienna} 

MY DEAR HOFFMEISTER! VIENNA, November 2ot&, 1785 
I turn to you in my distress and beg you to help me 
out with some money, which I need very badly at the 
moment. Further, I entreat you to endeavour to procure 
for me as soon as possible the thing you know about. 
Forgive me for constantly worrying you, but as you 
know me and are aware how anxious I am that your 
business should succeed, I am convinced that you will not 

1 Beaumarchais' comedy "Le manage de Figaro, oil La folle journee" was 
first produced in Paris on April 27th, 1784, and was repeated sixty-eight 
times.^Two German translations by Johann Rautenstrauch and Johann 
Friedrich Unger were printed immediately, although the play itself was 
forbidden in Vienna. Da Ponte used Beaumarchais' comedy as the basis for 
his libretto. 

2 Franz Anton Hoffmeister (1754-1812), composer and music publisher. 
No doubt this request refers to his publication of Mozart's piano quartet 
K. 478. Hoffmeister noted on the envelope, "two ducats". 



misconstrue my importunity and that you will help me as 
readily as I shall help you. 

November 2oth, 1785. 

(534) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

\_Extr acf\ {Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

SALZBURG, December 2nd $rd, 1785 

At last the messenger brought me yesterday from the 
mail coach a carefully packed parcel containing the six 
quartets r and three scores, that is, a quartet for piano, 
violin, viola and 'cello obbligato 2 and the two grand new 
piano concertos. 3 The piano quartet was only finished 
on October i6th and your brother has sent me printed 
copies of the violin and viola parts, which have already 
been engraved. I was feeling horribly bored. Fortunately 
young Preymann 4 turned up at five o'clock and, although 
my eyes were rather tired as I had been writing during the 
morning and the afternoon an exceptionally long letter to 
Marchand which I had just taken to the post, yet it was re 
freshing to work carefully through three of the new quartets 
with Preymann as I did until eight o'clock. We can now 
perform them some time, as I shall coach two people in the 

1 The quartets dedicated to Haydn. See p. 1330, n. i. 

2 K. 478, piano quartet in G minor, composed in 1785 and published by 
Franz Anton Hoffmeister. 

3 K. 466 in D minor and K. 467 in C major, both composed in 1785, In a 
letter of January I4th, 1786, Leopold Mozart makes the following interesting 
remarks about the concerto in C major: "Indeed the new concerto is astonish 
ingly difficult. But I very much doubt whether there are any mistakes, as the 
copyist has checked it. Several passages simply do not harmonise unless one 
hears all the instruments playing together. But of course it is quite possible 
that the copyist may have read a $ for a b in the score or something of the 
kind, for indeed it is not quite right. I shall get to the bottom of it all when 
I see the original score." 

4 Anton Preymann (1762-1 841), a violinist in the Salzburg court orchestra, 
who subsequently joined Prince Liechtenstein's orchestra in Vienna and 
frequently performed at the Burgtheater, 



second violin and 'cello parts and play the viola myself. 
The copyist at the moment has enough to copy and it will 
be slow work. I am letting him do the clavier parts first of 
all, for the concertos will require a great deal of practice. 

(535) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

{Extract] [Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

SALZBURG, December i6th, 1785 

Well, what I told my son long ago has now happened, 
and a clavier arrangement of the "Entfuhrung" has been 
published by the Augsburg bookseller Stage at the price 
of seven gulden and I forget how many kreutzer. Canon 
Stark has arranged it for the clavier. It has been engraved 
at Mainz and has been trumpeted forth in the Augsburg 
papers with many laudatory remarks about the famous 
Herr von Mozart. 1 If Torricella has already engraved a 
large portion of your brother's own arrangement, he will 
lose considerably. 2 And your brother will have wasted his 
time arranging two acts, which, I think, he had already 

(536) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract] \Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

SALZBURG, January i^th, 1786 

I received a command from the Archbishop to write to 
your brother about Andre, who is living with him. So is 
Fiala. If Andre will undertake to serve the Archbishop 
for fifteen gulden a month, he will be appointed. Another 
nice commission for me! I wrote at once. Meanwhile to 
two letters of mine I have had only one reply from your 
brother, dated December 28th, in which he said that he 

1 This unauthorised clavier arrangement of Mozart's opera by the Mainz 
choirmaster Stark was published there by Schott. Evidently the Augsburg- 
bookseller Stage was selling copies. 

2 Torricella had already engraved the first act of Mozart's arrangement. 



gave without much preparation three subscription concerts 
to 1 20 subscribers, that he composed for this purpose a new 
piano concerto in E^, 1 in which (a rather unusual occur 
rence!) he had to repeat the Andante, and that he had taken 
Fiala in at once. He did not mention Andre, but Norman 2 
wrote about this to BrunettL Your brother added that he 
had already made three separate attempts to find some 
means by which Fiala might earn a living and that he 
would send me by the mail coach a new clavier sonata. 3 

(537) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract} [Autograph in. the British Museum} 

MUNICH, February [?i6/A], 1786 

I really think that Heinrich must have practised 
extremely hard, for you will be surprised when you hear 
him play your brother's Fantasia and Sonata, 4 which I 
sent you and which he too possesses, and also dementi's 
sonatas. He played them on Herr von Hofstetter's 5 
fortepiano so excellently that I was thrilled* 

(538) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract} \Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

SALZBURG, March 23^-24^, 1786 

We had our concert yesterday. Marchand 6 performed 
the concerto in D minor, 7 which I sent to you the other 

1 K. 482. 

2 Norman is mentioned in a letter from Leopold Mozart to his daughter 
of August 3Oth, 1784 (see Deutsch-Paumgartner, Leopold Mozarts Brief e 
an seine Tochter, 1936, p. 7), as the new fiddler who had performed before 
the Archbishop. Evidently Norman had moved on to Vienna. 

3 K. 457, sonata in C minor, and the fantasia in the same key, K. 475, 
which Mozart composed for his pupil Frau von Trattner, and which were 
published in December 1785 by Artaria and Co. 

4 K. 475 and 457. 5 An amateur musician and copyist of Salzburg. 
6 Heinrich Marchand, Leopold Mozart's pupil, who was not only a good 

violinist but also an excellent clavierist. 7 K. 466. 



day. As you have the clavier part, he played it from the 
score and Haydn 1 turned over the pages for him and at 
the same time had the pleasure of seeing with what art it 
is composed, how delightfully the parts are interwoven 
and what a difficult concerto it is. I chose this one, as you 
have the clavier parts of all the others and I still possessed 
the score of this one. We rehearsed it in the morning and 
had to practise the rondo three times before the orchestra 
could manage it, as Marchand took it rather quickly. This 
time too there was a great crowd and all the Ecclesiastical 
Councillors and University Professors were present. 
Madame Schlauka 2 made a good deal of money, for 
during the interval the members of the orchestra have a 
rest and come down into the hall, where the majority 
hasten to take some refreshments, which are very daintily 
and liberally served. In short, the Emperor might have 
been there. The Archbishop remained until nine o'clock. 

(539) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract} [From Otto Jahn, W. A. Mozart, voL iv. f. 189] 

SALZBURG, April \}z$tk}, 1786 

"Le Nozze di Figaro" is being performed on the 28th 
for the first time. 3 It will be surprising if it is a success, 
for I know that very powerful cabals have ranged them 
selves against your brother. Salieri and all his supporters 
will again try to move heaven and earth to down his 
opera. Duschek told me recently that it is on account of 
the very great reputation which your brother's exceptional 
talent and ability have won for him that so many people 
are plotting against him. 

1 Michael Haydn. 2 The wife of one of the Archbishop's valets. 

3 The first performance of "Le Nozze di Figaro" took place on May ist 



(540) Mozart to Sebastian Winter , Donaueschingen 

[Autograph in the Furstlich Furstenbergische Hofbibliotkek, 


VIENNA, August %th, 1786 

I was particularly delighted to receive your letter and 
nothing but business which could not be postponed has 
prevented me from replying sooner. I am very glad that 
you have applied to me in person. I should long ago have 
sent some specimens of my poor work to your highly 
respected Prince 1 (to whom I beg you to convey my 
homage and my thanks for the present he has sent me), 
if I had known whether or not my father had already sent 
him something and, if so, what he had sent. I am therefore 
jotting down at the end of my letter a list of my latest 
compositions from which His Highness has only to 
choose, so that I may hasten to serve him. If His High 
ness should so desire, I shall send him in future all the 
new works which I compose. Further, I venture to make 
a little musical offer to His Highness which I beg you, 
my friend, to put before him. As His Highness possesses 
an orchestra, he might like to have works composed by 
me for performance solely at his court, a thing which in 
my humble opinion would be very gratifying. If His 
Highness would be so gracious as to order from me every 
year a certain number of symphonies, quartets, concertos 
for different instruments, or any other compositions which 
he fancies, and to promise me a fixed yearly salary, then 
His Highness would be served more quickly and more 
satisfactorily, and I, being sure of that commission, should 
work with greater peace of mind. I do trust that His 
Highness will not take my proposal amiss, if it does not 

1 Josef Wenzeslaus, Prince von Fiirstenberg, who in 1764 had taken into 
his household Sebastian Winter, the Mozarts* valet and friseur. 



suit him, for it is prompted indeed by an impulse of 
genuine anxiety to serve His Highness diligently, which 
in such a situation as mine is only possible if one can be 
sure of at least some support and can afford to give up 
less important tasks. 

Awaiting an early reply with the order from your most 
worthy Prince, I ever remain your true friend and servant 

Vienna, August 8th, 1786. 








1 K - 425 (1783), K. 385 (1782), K. 319 (1779), K. 338 (1780). 
2 K. 453 (1784), K. 456(1784), K. 451 (1784), K. 459 (1784), K. 488 (1786). 



L. 540 




Ma j^iii / ^lir ifff irri* 


1 K. 481 (1785). 2 K. 496 (1786). 

3 K. 478 (1785). The incipits of all these works are given exactly as they 
appear in the autograph of the letter. In some cases they differ from the 
generally accepted versions. 



(541) Mozart to Sebastian Winter^ Donaueschingen 

[Autograph in the Furstliche Fiirstenbergische Hofbibliothek, 


DEAREST FRIEND! VIENNA, September $otk y 1786 

The music you asked for is being sent off to-morrow 
by the mail coach, 1 You will find at the end of this letter 
the amount due to me for the copies. It is quite natural 
that some of my compositions should be sent abroad, but 
those which I do send are deliberately chosen. I only sent 
you the themes, because it is quite possible that these 
works have not reached you. But the compositions which 
I keep for myself or for a small circle of music-lovers and 
connoisseurs (who promise not to let them out of their 
hands) cannot possibly be known elsewhere, as they are 
not even known in Vienna. And this is the case with the 
three concertos which I have the honour of sending to 
His Highness. But here I have been obliged to add to the 
cost of copying a small additional fee of six ducats for each 
concerto; and I must ask His Highness not to let them out 
of his hands. There are two clarinets in the A major 
concerto. 2 Should His Highness not have any clarinets at 
his court, a competent copyist might transpose the parts 
into the suitable keys, in which case the first part should 
be played by a violin and the second by a viola. As for 
the offer which I took the liberty of making to your 
worthy Prince, I should have to be exactly informed, first 
of all, as to what kinds of composition His Highness might 
require or prefer and, secondly, as to how many of each 
kind he would like to have every year, in order to be able 
to make my calculations. I wish to offer my homage to 
His Highness, and I request you to make known to him 
my desire. And now, dearest friend! Companion of my 

1 The Prince had ordered three symphonies, K. 425, 319, 338, and three 
clavier concertos, K. 451, 459 and 488. 2 K. 488. 



youth! As I have often been in Rickan 1 during these 
many years and yet have never had the pleasure of 
meeting you, my dearest wish indeed would be that you 
should visit me in Vienna or that I should visit you at 
Donaueschingen. The latter I should almost prefer, for in 
addition to the pleasure of embracing you I should have 
the privilege of paying my respects to your most gracious 
Prince, and I should be more forcibly reminded of the 
many favours which in my younger years I enjoyed at 
his court, favours which I shall never forget as long as 
I live. Awaiting an early reply and in the flattering hope 
of meeting you once more in this world, I am ever your 
most devoted friend and servant 


Vienna, September 3Oth, 1786. 

Account Gulden Kreutzer 

Three concertos without the piano parts 

109 sheets @ 8 kreutzer 14 32 

Three piano parts 

33! sheets @ 10 kreutzer 5 35 

Fee for the three concertos 

1 8 ducats @ 4 gulden, 30 kreutzer 81 
Three symphonies 

n6f sheets @ 8 kreutzer 15 32 

Customs fee and postage 3 

TOTAL 119 392 

1 This is the word in the autograph. It mayJiave some connection with 
an anecdote which Mozart's sister sent in November 1799 to Breitkopf and 
Hartel (see Nottebohm, p. 137, n. ij, describing how during their early 
travels her brother imagined a Kingdom called Riicken, of which he was to 
be King and for which their servant, Sebastian Winter, had to sketch a map. 

2 The autograph has a note by Sebastian Winter, stating that the letter 
was received on October nth, the music on October I4th, and that the sum 
of 143^ gulden was sent to Mozart on November 8th, 



(542) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

{Extract] \Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

SALZBURG, November ijtk-i^tk, 1786 
I had to reply to-day to a letter from your brother, and 
this took me a considerable time. So I cannot write very 
much to you. Moreover it is late and I want to go to the 
play to-day, as I have a free pass and have finished that 
letter to Vienna. You can easily imagine that I had to 
express myself very emphatically, as your brother actu 
ally suggested that I should take charge of his two 
children, 1 because he was proposing to undertake a 
journey through Germany to England in the middle of 
next carnival. I wrote therefore very fully and added 
that I would send him the continuation of my letter by 
the next post. Herr M filler, that good and honest maker 
of silhouettes, 2 had said a lot of nice things about little 
Leopold 3 to your brother, who heard in this way that 
the child is living with me. I had never told your brother. 
So that is how the brilliant idea occurred to him or per 
haps to his wife. Not at all a bad arrangement! They 
could go off and travel they might even die or remain 
in England and I should have to run off after them with 
the children. As for the payment which he offers me for the 
children and for maids to look after them, well Basta! 
If he cares to do so, he will find my excuse very clear 
and instructive. 

1 Karl Thomas, born on September 2ist, 1784, and Johann Thomas 
Leopold, born on October i8th, 1786. The latter died on November isth 
1786. ' 

2 Possibly Franz XaverMuller (1756-1837), a well-known copper-engraver 
in Vienna. 

3 Leopold Mozart had taken entire charge of Nannerl's son Leopold, who 
was born at Salzburg in June 1785. 


(543) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract} [Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

SALZBURG, January I2th> 1787 

Your brother and his wife must be in Prague by this 
time, for he wrote to say that he was leaving Vienna 
last Monday. 1 His opera "Le Nozze di Figaro" was 
performed there with such success that the orchestra and 
a company of distinguished connoisseurs and lovers of 
music sent him letters inviting him to Prague and also a 
poem which was composed in his honour. 2 I heard this 
from your brother, and Count Starhemberg heard about 
it from Prague. I shall send you the poem by the next 
courier. Madame Duschek is off to Berlin. I am still 
receiving from Vienna, Prague and Munich reports 
which confirm the rumour that your brother is going to 

(544) Mozart to Baron Gottfried von Jacquin* 

[Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliotkek, Berlin^ 

DEAREST FRIEND! PRAGUE, January i^th, 1787 

At last I have found a moment to write to you. I 
resolved immediately after my arrival to write four letters 
to Vienna, but in vain! I was only able to manage one 
(to my mother-in-law) and then only half of it. My wife 

1 Mozart and his wife arrived in Prague on January nth, 1787. 

3 "Le Nozze di Figaro" had been frequently performed in Prague since 
December 1786 by Pasquale Bondings theatrical company with Johann 
Josef Strobach as conductor. The poem composed in honour of Mozart by 
A. D. Breicha is quoted in R. Prochizka, Mozart in Prag t 1892, p. 28. 

3 Gottfried von Jacquin (1763-1792) was the second son of the famous 
botanist, Professor Nicolaus Josef, Baron von Jacquin (1727-1817). He and 
his sister Franziska (1769-1853) were pupils of Mozart. 



and Hofer 1 had to finish it. Immediately after our 
arrival at noon on Thursday, the nth, we had a dreadful 
rush to get ready for lunch at one o'clock. After the meal 
old Count Thun 2 entertained us with some music, per 
formed by his own people, which lasted about an hour 
and a half. This kind of real entertainment I could enjoy 
every day. At six o'clock I drove with Count Canal 3 to 
the so-called Bretfeld 4 ball, where the cream of the 
beauties of Prague are wont to gather. Why you ought 
to have been there, my friend! I fancy I see you running, 
or rather, limping after all those pretty women, married 
and unmarried! I neither danced nor flirted with any of 
them, the former, because I was too tired, and the latter 
owing to my natural bashfulness. I looked on, however, with 
the greatest pleasure while all these people flew about in 
sheer delight to the music of my "Figaro", arranged for 
quadrilles and waltzes. For here they talk about nothing 
but "Figaro". Nothing is played, sung or whistled but 
"Figaro". No opera is drawing like "Figaro". Nothing, 
nothing but "Figaro". Certainly a great honour for me! 
Well, to return to my order of the day. As I got home 
very late from the ball and moreover was tired and sleepy 
after my journey, nothing in the world could be more 
natural than that I should sleep it out next morning; 
which was just what I did. So the whole of the next 
morning was spent sine linea. After lunch the Count's 
music must always be listened to, and as on that very day 
an excellent pianoforte had been put in my room, you 
may readily suppose that I did not leave it unused and 

1 Franz de Paula Hofer (1755-1796), court violinist in Vienna. He married, 
in July 1788, Frau Weber's eldest daughter Josefa. 

z As Madame Duschek was in Berlin, the Mozarts stayed with Count Thun. 

3 Josef Emanuel, Count Canal von Malabaila (1745-1826), botanist and 
lover of music, lived in Prague and had a private orchestra. 

4 Baron Bretfeld, a wealthy member of the Bohemian aristocracy, gave 
famous balls. 



From an engraving by Loschenkohl 

(Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna J 


untouched for the whole evening; so as a matter of course 
we performed amongst ourselves a little Quatuor in 
caritatis camera 1 ("und das schone Bandl hamrnera") 2 
and in this way the whole evening was again spent sine 
linea\ and so it actually was. Well, you must scold not me 
but Morpheus, for that deity is very attentive to us in 
Prague. What the cause may have been I know not; at 
any rate we slept it out. Still, we managed to be at Father 
Unger's at eleven o'clock and made a thorough inspec 
tion of the Imperial Library and the General Theo 
logical Seminary. When we had almost stared our eyes 
out, we thought that we heard a little stomach-aria in 
our insides and that it would be just as well to drive to 
Count Canal's for lunch. The evening surprised us sooner 
than you might perhaps believe. Well, it was soon time 
to go to the opera. We heard "Le gare generose". 3 In 
regard to the performance of this opera I can give no 
definite opinion because I talked a lot; but that quite 
contrary to my usual custom I chattered so much may 
have been due to ... Well, never mind! that evening 
too was frittered away al solito. To-day I have at last 
been so fortunate as to find a moment to enquire after 
the health of your dear parents and the whole Jacquin 
family. I hope and trust with all my heart that you are 
all as well as we are. I must frankly admit that, although 
I meet with all possible courtesies and honours here and 

1 We performed a little quartet for ourselves. 

3 K. 441 , called the Bandl-Terzett, a humorous three-part song for soprano, 
tenor and bass, which Mozart composed in 1783, and dedicated to Gottfried 
von Jacquin. Mozart and his wife and Jacquin were out walking one day 
when Constanze happened to lose a ribbon which her husband had given her 
and exclaimed, using the Viennese dialect: "Liebes Mandl, wo is's Bandl?" 
Jacquin, a tall fellow, picked up the ribbon and refused to let her have it until 
she or her little husband should catch it. Upon which Mozart wrote the poem 
which he afterwards set to music. "Und das schone Bandl hammera" means 
"und das schone Bandchen haben wir auch". See Jahn, vol. ii. p. 58. 

3 Giovanni Paisiello's "Le gare generose" was first produced at Naples 
in 1786. 

VOL. Ill I34S U 


although Prague is indeed a very beautiful and pleasant 
place, I long most ardently to be back in Vienna; and 
believe me, the chief cause of this homesickness is cer 
tainly your family. When I remember that after my return 
I shall enjoy only for a short while the pleasure of your 
valued society and shall then have to forgo this happi 
ness for such a long time, perhaps for ever, then indeed 
I realise the extent of the friendship and regard which I 
cherish for your whole family. 1 Now farewell, dearest 
friend, dearest Hikkiti Horky! That is your name, as you 
must know. We all invented names for ourselves on the 
journey. Here they are. I am Punkitititi. My wife is 
Schabla Pumfa. Hofer is Rozka Pumpa. Stadler 2 is 
Notschibikitschibi. My servant Joseph is Sagadarata. 
My dog Goukerl is Schomanntzky. Madame Quallen- 
berg is Runzifunzi. Mile Crux 3 is Ramlo Schurimuri. 
Freistadtler 4 is Gaulimauli. Be so kind as to tell him 
his name. Well, adieu. My concert is to take place in 
the theatre on Friday, the igth, and I shall probably 
have to give a second one, which unfortunately will 
prolong my stay here. Please give my kind regards to 
your worthy parents and embrace your brother (who 
by the way could be christened Blatterrizzi) a thousand 
times for me; and I kiss your sister's hands (her name is 
Signora Dini Mini Niri) a hundred thousand times and 
urge her to practise hard on her new pianoforte. 5 But this 

1 Mozart was planning to go to England. See p. 1342. 

2 Anton Stadler. See p. 409, n. 2. 

3 Marianne, daughter of Peter Crux, master of the ballet at the Vienna 
opera. She was a singer and also a successful performer on the violin and 

4 Franz Jakob Freistadtler (1768-1841), a pupil of Mozart, who composed 
for him K. 232, a canon for four voices on the words "Lieber Freistadtler, 
lieber Gaulimauli". Dr. A. Einstein has kindly supplied the interesting 
information that Freistadtler composed songs, a collection of which he 
dedicated to Josephine Aurnhammer. 

5 Gottfried von Jacquin's sister Franziska was one of Mozart's pupils. 


admonition is really unnecessary, for I must confess that 
I have never yet had a pupil who was so diligent and who 
showed so much zeal and indeed I am looking forward 
to giving her lessons again according to my small ability. 
A propos. If she wants to come to-morrow, I shall cer 
tainly be at home at eleven o'clock. But surely it is high 
time to close, is it not? You will have been thinking so 
for a long time. Farewell, beloved friend! Keep me in 
your precious friendship. Write to me soon very very 
soon and if perchance you are too lazy to do so, send 
for Satmann and dictate a letter to him, though indeed 
no letter comes as much from the heart as it does when 
one writes oneself. Well, I shall see whether you are as 
truly my friend as I am entirely yours and ever shall be. 


P.S. Address the letter which you will possibly write 
to me "At Count Thun's palace". 

My wife sends her love to the whole Jacquin family, 
and so does Hofer. 

P.S. On Wednesday I am to see and hear " Figaro' 7 
in Prague, if I have not become deaf and blind before 
then. Possibly I may not become so until after the 
opera. 1 

(545) Leopold Mozart to his Daughter 

[Extract] [Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

SALZBURG, March ist-2nd, 1787 

At half past six o'clock on Monday evening I received 
from Madame Storace, the Vienna opera singer, a note 
saying that she had arrived at the Trinkstube. I found 
her mother with her, who is an Englishwoman (the 

1 For an excellent account of Mozart's four visits to Prague in 1787, 1789 
and 1791, see R. Prochazka, Mozart in Prag, 1892. 



daughter was born in England), the Vienna opera tenor 
O'Kelly, 1 who is an Englishman by birth, another 
Englishman whom I did not know but who is probably 
cicisbeo to the mother and daughter, her brother, Maestro 
Storace, 2 and a little Englishman called Attwood, 3 who 
was sent to Vienna two years ago for the sole purpose of 
taking lessons from your brother. As Madame Storace 
had a letter of introduction from Countess Guntacker 
Colloredo, the Archbishop was obliged to hear her sing 
and to give her a handsome present. After a year's stay 
in London she is returning to the Vienna opera. 4 I 
galloped round the town with them on Tuesday from 
ten to two in order to show them a few sights. We lunched 
at two o'clock, In the evening she sang three arias and 
they left for Munich at midnight. They had two carriages, 
each with four post-horses. A servant rode in advance as 
courier to arrange for the changing of eight horses. 
Goodness, what luggage they had! This journey must 
have cost them a fortune. They all spoke English, far 
more than Italian. A funny thing is that my son sent a 
letter for me to the house where his pupil Attwood was 
staying. Attwood had gone out and Madame Storace's 
mother took the letter and was stupid enough to pack it 

1 Michael Kelly (1762-1826), who in Mozart's catalogue of his own works 
appears as "Occhelly", was born in Dublin. He went to Naples in 1779 to be 
trained as an operatic tenor, and four years later came to Vienna where he 
enjoyed the intimate friendship of Mozart. Kelly took the parts of Basilic and 
Don Curzio in the first performance of "Le Nozze di Figaro". He also com 
posed songs which were popular. His Reminiscences in two volumes, written 
by Theodore Hook with the help of material supplied by Kelly, appeared in 
1826. They contain accounts of Mozart which are both interesting and 

2 Stephen Storace (1763-1796) had composed two operas in Vienna. 

3 Thomas Attwood (1765-1838) first studied music at Naples from 1783 
until 1785, and then went to Vienna to learn composition under Mozart. His 
exercise books are now in the possession of Mr. C. B. Oldman. In 1796 he 
was appointed organist of St. Paul's Cathedral. In later life Attwood wrote 
many successful operas and became a close friend of Mendelssohn. 

4 Nancy Storace never returned to Vienna. 



in some trunk or maybe to lose it. Basta! the letter was 
not to be found. I shall write to your brother about it 
to-morrow. As for your brother I hear that he is back in 
Vienna. I had no reply to the letter I sent to him at 
Prague. The English company told me that he made a 
thousand gulden there, that little Leopold, his last boy, 
has died, 1 and that, as I had gathered, he wants to travel 
to England, but that his pupil 2 is first going to procure a 
definite engagement for him in London, I mean, a con 
tract to compose an opera, or a subscription concert, etc. 
Probably Madame Storace and the whole company had 
filled him with stories to the same effect and these people 
and his pupil must have first given him the idea of 
accompanying them to England. But no doubt after I 
sent him a fatherly letter, saying that he would gain 
nothing by a journey in summer, as he would arrive in 
England at the wrong time, that he ought to have at 
least two thousand gulden in his pocket before under 
taking such an expedition, and finally that, unless he had 
procured in advance some definite engagement in Lon 
don, he would have to be prepared, no matter how clever 
he was, to be hard up at first at any rate, he has probably 
lost courage, particularly as Madame Storace's brother 
will of course write the opera for the next season. 3 

(546) Mozart to his Father 

[Autograph formerly in the Musikhistorisches Museum 

von W. Heyer, Cologne] 

MON TRES CHER PERE! VIENNA, April $th, 1787 

I am very much annoyed that owing to the stupidity 
of Madame Storace my letter never reached you. Amongst 

1 Mozart's third child, Johann Thomas Leopold, died on November 15th, 
1786. 2 Thomas Attwood. 

3 Stephen Sto race's "La cameriera astuta" was performed on March 
4th r 1788, at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket. 



other things it contained, I expressed the hope that you 
had received my last letter; but as you do not mention 
this particular one, I mean, my second letter from Prague, 
I do not know what to think. It is quite likely that som'e 
servant of Count Thun's l had the brilliant idea of pocket 
ing the postage money. Indeed I would rather pay double 
postage than suspect that my letters have fallen into the 
wrong hands. Ramm and the two Fischers, the bass 
singer 2 and the oboist from London, 3 came here this 
Lent. If the latter when we knew him in Holland 4 
played no better than he does now, he certainly does not 
deserve the reputation he enjoys. But this is between our- 
selves. In those days I was not competent to form an 
opinion. All that I remember is that I liked his playing 
immensely, as indeed everyone did. This is quite under 
standable, of course, on the assumption that taste can 
undergo remarkable changes. Possibly he plays in some 
old-fashioned style? Not at all! The long and short of it 
is that he plays like a bad beginner. Young Andre, who 
took some lessons from Fiala, plays a thousand times 
better. And then his concertos! His own compositions! 
Why, each ritornello lasts a quarter of an hour; and then 
our hero comes in, lifts up one leaden foot after the other 
and stamps on the floor with each in turn. His tone is 
entirely nasal, and his held notes like the tremulant on 
the organ. Would you ever have thought that his playing 

1 The Mozarts during their stay in Prague were the guests of Count Thun. 
See p. 1344. 

2 Karl Ludwig Fischer (1745-1825), who took the part of Osmin in the 
original production of the "Entfiihrung aus dem Serail". 

3 Johann Christian Fischer (1733-1800), a famous oboist in his day. He 
held an appointment at the Dresden court from 1764 until 1771, and then 
more or less settled in London, where he was a frequent performer at the 
Bach- Abel concerts. He married the daughter of Gainsborough, who painted 
his portrait. It was on his minuet that Mozart composed in 1774 his popular 
Fischer variations (K. 179). 

4 The Mozart family met J. C. Fischer at The Hague in 1765. See Leopold 
Mozart's Reiseaufzeichnungen, p. 42. 



is like this? Yet it is nothing but the truth, though a 
truth which I should only tell to you. 

This very moment I have received a piece of news which 
greatly distresses me, the more so as I gathered from your 
last letter that, thank God, you were very well indeed. But 
now I hear that you are really ill. I need hardly tell you 
how greatly I am longing to receive some reassuring news 
from yourself. And I still expect it; although I have now 
made a habit of being prepared in all affairs of life for the 
worst. As death, when we come to consider it closely, is the 
true goal of our existence, I have formed during the last few 
years such close relations with this best and truest friend 
of mankind, that his image is not only no longer terrifying 
to me, but is indeed very soothing and consoling! And I 
thank my God for graciously granting me the oppor 
tunity (you know what I mean) of learning that death is 
the key which unlocks the door to our true happiness. I 
never lie down at night without reflecting that young as 
I am I may not live to see another day. Yet no one of all 
my acquaintances could say that in company I am morose 
or disgruntled. For this blessing I daily thank my Creator 
and wish with all my heart that each one of my fellow- 
creatures could enjoy it. In the letter which Madame 
Storace took away with her, I expressed my views to you 
on this point, in connection with the sad death of my 
dearest and most beloved friend, Count von Hatzfeld. 1 He 
was just thirty-one, my own age. I do not feel sorry for 
him, but I pity most sincerely both myself and all who 
knew him as well as I did. I hope and trust that while I 
am writing this, you are feeling better. But if, contrary to 
all expectation, you are not recovering, I implore you by 
. . . not to hide it from me, but to tell me the whole truth 
or get someone to write it to me, so that as quickly as is 

1 Count August von Hatzfeld (1756-1787), an excellent amateur violinist 
and an intimate friend of Mozart's. 



humanly possible I may come to your arms. I entreat you 
by all that is sacred to both of us. Nevertheless I trust 
that I shall soon have a reassuring letter from you; and 
cherishing this pleasant hope, I and my wife and our 
little Karl l kiss your hands a thousand times and I am 

your most obedient son 


(547) Mozart to Baron Gottfried von Jacquin 

\Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 


Please tell Herr Exner to come at nine o'clock to 
morrow morning to bleed my wife. 

I send you herewith your Amynt and the sacred song. 
Please be so good as to give the sonata 2 to your sister 
with my compliments and tell her to tackle it at once, for 
it is rather difficult. Adieu. Your true friend 


I inform you that on returning home to-day I received 
the sad news of my most beloved father's death. 3 You can 
imagine the state I am in. 

1 Mozart's son, Karl Thomas, born on September 2ist, 1784. 

3 K. 521, sonata in C major for four hands, composed in 1787, which 
Mozart dedicated later to two sisters, Babette and Nanette Natorp, the 
former of whom subsequently married Jacquin's brother. 

3 Leopold Mozart died on May 28th, 1787. The last letter of his which 
is preserved is addressed to his daughter, is dated May ioth-1 ith, and con 
tains the following remark about his son: "Your brother is now living in the 
Landstrasse no. 224. He does not say why he has moved. Not a word. But 
unfortunately I can guess the reason." Mozart and his family, for the sake of 
economy, had moved at the end of April into a cheaper house, the yearly rent 
of which was about fifty gulden. They left this house at the end of the year. 

I35 2 


(548) Mozart to his Sister 

[From Nissen,pp. 525-526] 

VIENNA, June i6/A, 1787 

I was not at all surprised, as I could easily guess the 
reason, that you yourself did not inform me of the sad 
death of our most dear father, which to me was quite 
unexpected. May God take him to Himself! Rest assured, 
my dear, that if you desire a kind brother to love and 
protect you, you will find one in me on every occasion. 
My dearest, most beloved sister! If you were still un 
provided for, all this would be quite unnecessary, for, as 
I have already said and thought a thousand times, I 
should leave everything to you with the greatest delight. 
But as the property would really be of no use to you, 
while, on the contrary, it would be a considerable help to 
me, I think it my duty to consider my wife and child. 

(549) Mozart to his Sister 

[Autograph in the possession of Frau Floersheim-Kock, Florence} 

VIENNA, August ist, 1787 

At the moment I am simply replying to your letters, 
so I am writing very little and in great haste, as I really 
have far too much to do. As both your husband, my dear 
brother-in-law, whom I ask you to kiss a thousand times 
for me, and I are particularly anxious to wind up the 
whole business as soon as possible, I am accepting his 
offer, on the understanding, however, that the thousand 
gulden shall be paid to me not in Imperial but in Viennese 
currency and, moreover, as a bill of exchange. Next post- 



day I shall send your husband the draft of an agreement 
or rather of a contract between us. Then the two original 
documents will follow, one signed by me, the other to 
be signed by him. I shall send you as soon as possible 
some new compositions of mine for the clavier. Please do 
not forget about my scores. A thousand farewells to you. 
I must close. My wife and our Karl send a thousand 
greetings to you and your husband, and I am ever your 
brother who loves you sincerely, 

The Landstrasse, 1 August ist, 1787. 

(550) Mozart to Baron Gottfried von Jacquin, 

\_Autograph in the Grdfliches Czernisches Archiv, Neuhaus] 

DEAREST FRIEND! PRAGUE, October 15^-25^, 1787 

You probably think that my opera 2 is over by now. 
If so, you are a little mistaken. In the first place, the stage 
personnel here are not as smart as those in Vienna, when 
it comes to mastering an opera of this kind in a very short 
time. Secondly, I found on my arrival that so few pre 
parations and arrangements had been made that it would 
have been absolutely impossible to produce it on the I4th, 
that is, yesterday. So yesterday my "Figaro" was per 
formed in a fully lighted theatre and I myself conducted. 

1 Mozart lived here (Hauptstrasse 224, now Hiihnergasse 17) from spring 
1787 until about the end of the year. 

2 During his first visit to Prague in January 1787 Mozart was asked to 
compose an opera buffa for the autumn season, and signed a contract to this 
effect with the theatrical manager Bondini. He was to receive the usual fee 
of 100 ducats. There is no evidence to show when Mozart and Constanze 
arrived in Prague. They probably left Vienna early in September. "Don 
Giovanni", for which Da Ponte wrote the libretto, was performed on October 



In this connection I have a good joke to tell you. A 
few of the leading ladies here, and in particular one very 
high and mighty one, were kind enough to find it very 
ridiculous, unsuitable, and Heaven knows what else that 
the Princess 1 should be entertained with a performance 
of Figaro, the "Crazy Day", 2 as the management were 
pleased to call it. It never occurred to them that no opera 
in the world, unless it is written specially for it, can be 
exactly suitable for such an occasion and that therefore 
it was of absolutely no consequence whether this or that 
opera were given, provided that it was a good opera and 
one which the Princess did not know; and "Figaro" at 
least fulfilled this last condition. In short by her per 
suasive tongue the ringleader brought things to such a 
pitch that the government forbade the impresario to pro 
duce this opera on that night. So she was triumphant! 
"Ho vinto", 3 she called out one evening from her box. 
No doubt she never suspected that the ho might be 
changed to a sono. But the following day Le Noble 
appeared, bearing a command from His Majesty to the 
effect that if the new opera could not be given, "Figaro" 
was to be performed! My friend, if only you had seen the 
handsome, magnificent nose of this lady! Oh, it would 
have amused you as much as it did me! "Don Giovanni" 
has now been fixed for the 24th. 

October 2ist. It was fixed for the 24th, but a further 
postponement has been caused by the illness of one of 
the singers. As the company is so small, the impresario 
is in a perpetual state of anxiety and has to spare his 
people as much as possible, lest some unexpected indis 
position should plunge him into the most awkward of all 

1 Prince Anton of Saxony and his bride, the Archduchess Maria Theresa, 
a sister of the Emperor Joseph II, spent a few days in Prague during their 

3 The sub-title of Beaumarchais' comedy "Le manage de Figaro" is "La 
folle journee". 3 I have conquered. 



situations, that of not being able to produce any show 

So everything dawdles along here because the singers, 
who are lazy, refuse to rehearse on opera days and the 
manager, who is anxious and timid, will not force them. 
But what is this? Is it possible? What vision meets my 

ears, what sound bombards my eyes? A letter from 

I am almost rubbing my eyes sore Why, it is The 
devil take me t God protect us t It actually is from 
you indeed! If winter were not upon us; I would smash 
the stove in good earnest. But as I frequently use it now 
and intend to use it more often in future, you will allow 
me to express my surprise in a somewhat more moderate 
fashion and merely tell you in a few words that I am 
extraordinarily pleased to have news from you and your 
most precious family. 

October 2$tk. To-day is the eleventh day that I have 
been scrawling this letter. You will see from this that my 
intentions are good. Whenever I can snatch a moment, I 
daub in another little piece. But indeed I cannot spend 
much time over it, because I am far too much at the dis 
posal of other people and far too little at my own. I need 
hardly tell you, as we are such old friends, that this is not 
the kind of life I prefer. 

My opera is to be performed for the first time next 
Monday, October 29th. You shall have an account of it 
from me a day or two later. As for the aria, 1 it is absolutely 
impossible to send it to you for reasons which I shall give 
you when we meet. I am delighted to hear what you say 
about Katherl, 2 that is, that she commands the respect of 
cats and knows how to retain the friendship of dogs. If 
your Papa, to whom I send most cordial greetings, likes 

1 There is no trace of this composition, if it was an aria written specially 
for Jacquin. Dr. A. Einstein suggests Masetto's aria in "Don Giovanni", 
Act I, "Ho capito, Signor, si". 2 Mozart's dog. 



to keep her, well, let us pretend that she never belonged 
to me. Now, farewell. Please kiss your gracious Mamma's 
hands for me, give my best greetings to your sister and 
your brother and rest assured that I shall ever be your 
true friend and servant 


(551) Mozart to Baron Gottfried von Jacquin, 

[Autograph in the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna^ 

PRAGUE, November qth-gth, 1787 

I hope you received my letter. My opera "Don 
Giovanni" had its first performance on October 2gth and 
was received with the greatest applause. It was performed 
yesterday for the fourth time, for my benefit. I am think 
ing of leaving here on the I2th or I3th. When I return, 
you shall have the aria 1 at once, remember, between 
ourselves. How I wish that my good friends, particularly 
you and Bridi, 2 were here just for one evening in order 
to share my pleasure! But perhaps my opera will be per 
formed in Vienna after all! I hope so. 3 People here are 
doing their best to persuade me to remain on for a couple 
of months and write another one. But I cannot accept this 
proposal, however flattering it may be. Well, dearest 
friend, how are you? I trust that you #//are as fit and well 
as we are. You cannot fail to be happy, dearest friend, for 

1 See p. 1356, n. i. 

2 Giuseppe Antonio Bridi, a young merchant from Roveredo, who had a 
fine tenor voice and enjoyed the friendship of Mozart. He published in 1827 
a volume of Brevi notizie intorno ad alcuni compositor* di musica^ in which 
he records his association with Mozart. In Leopold Mozart's Reiseaufzeich- 
nungen, p. 49, a Doctor Bridi appears in Mozart's handwriting in the list of 
their acquaintances at Roveredo. Possibly he was the father of G. A. Bridi. 

3 "Don Giovanni" was performed in Vienna on May 7th, 1788, 



you possess everything that you can wish for at your age 
and in your position, particularly as you now seem to be 
entirely giving up your former rather restless way of 
living. Surely you are becoming every day more con 
vinced of the truth of the little lectures I used to inflict 
upon you? Surely the pleasure of a transient, capricious 
infatuation is as far removed as heaven from earth from 
the blessed happiness of a deep and true affection? Surely 
in your heart of hearts you often feel grateful to me for 
my admonitions? You will end up by making me quite 
conceited. But, jesting apart, you do owe me some thanks 

after all, if you have become worthy of Fraulein N ,* 

for I certainly played no insignificant part in your reform 
or conversion. My great-grandfather used to say to his 
wife, my great-grandmother, who in turn told her daughter, 
my grandmother, who repeated it to her daughter, my 
mother, who used to remind her daughter, my own sister, 
that to talk well and eloquently was a very great art, but 
that an equally great one was to know the right moment 
to stop. So I shall follow the advice of my sister, thanks 
to our mother, grandmother and great-grandmother, and 
put a stop not only to my moral digression but to my whole 

November gtk. It has been a most pleasant surprise to 
receive your second letter. If the song in question is 
necessary to prove my friendship for you, you have no 
further cause to doubt it, for here it is. 2 But I trust that 
even without this song you are convinced of my true 
friendship, and in this hope I remain ever your most 
sincere friend 


P.S. That neither your dear parents nor your brother 

1 Marianne von Natorp, to whom Gottfried von Jacquin dedicated some 
songs. 3 K. 530, < Wo bist du, Bild", written for Gottfried von Jacquin. 



and sister should have sent me any remembrances, I 
really cannot understand. I put it down, my friend, to 
your forgetfulness and 'flatter myself that I am not 
mistaken. Now I must explain the double seal. The red 
wax was no good, so I put black wax on the top of it. 
And I had left my usual seal behind me in Vienna. 

Adieu. I hope to embrace you soon. 

We send our compliments to your whole family 
and to the Natorps. 1 

(552) Mozart to his Sister 

[Autograph in the British Museum} z 

DEAREST SISTER, VIENNA, December igth, 1787 

I most humbly beg your pardon for having left you 
so long without an answer. Of my writing "Don Gio 
vanni" for Prague and of the opera's triumphant success 
you may have heard already, but that His Majesty the 
Emperor has now taken me into his service 3 will probably 
be news to you. I am sure you will be pleased to hear it. 
Will you please send me the box with my scores as soon 
as possible? As for recent clavier music of my own, will 
you please note down the themes of the pieces I have sent 
you from Vienna and send them to me, so that I may not 
send you anything twice over? This will be to your 
advantage as well as mine. 

Well, good-bye, dear sister. Write to me frequently. If 
I don't always answer promptly, put it down not to any 
negligence on my part, but simply to stress of work. 

* See p. 1352, n. 2. For a full account of the Natorp family and their con 
nection with the Jacquins and Mozart see Deutsch-Oldman, ZMW t xiv., and 
Hedwig Kraus, ZMW, xv. 

2 This letter was first published by Mr. C. B. Oldman in The Musical 
Times, July 1929. 

3 Mozart's appointment as Kammerkomponist to the Emperor Joseph II 
dated from December 7th T 1787. His yearly income was 800 gulden. Cluck, 
his predecessor, had received 2000 gulden. 



Adieu. I embrace you with all my heart and am ever your 
sincerely affectionate brother 


A thousand kisses from my wife, who is expecting to 
be confined any moment. 1 All sorts of messages to your 
dear husband from us both. 

(553) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 2 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, /. 55] 3 

DEAREST BROTHER! 4 VIENNA, early in June, 1788 

Your true friendship and brotherly love embolden 
me to ask a great favour of you. I still owe you eight 
ducats. Apart from the fact that at the moment I am not 
in a position to pay you back this sum, my confidence in 
you is so boundless that I dare to implore you to help me 
out with a hundred gulden until next week, when my 
concerts in the Casino are to begin. By that time I shall 
certainly have received my subscription money and shall 
then be able quite easily to pay you back 136 gulden with 
my warmest thanks. 

1 The Mozarts' fourth child, a daughter, christened Theresia, was born 
on December 27th. She died six months later, on June 29th, 1788. 

2 Michael Puchberg was a wealthy merchant of Vienna and a talented 
musician. He was closely connected with several Masonic Lodges, though 
not with the particular Lodge "Zur Wohltatigkeit", of which Mozart had 
become a member in December 1784. For a very full account of Mozart's 
connections with the leading Freemasons in Vienna and the works he com 
posed for their festive occasions, see Otto Erich Deutsch, Mozart und die 
Wiener Logen, Vienna, 1932. 

3 The only source for nearly all Mozart's letters to Puchberg is Notte- 
bohm's Mozartiana, Leipzig, 1880, which, however, rarely quotes any dates. 
The present arrangement of these letters follows that of Ludwig Schieder- 
mair, which is based on Spitta's article, "Zur Herausgabe der Briefe 
Mozarts", in the AMZ, 1880, p. 402 f. 

4 i.e. Brother Freemason. 



IliMftflf^' '' '^$R 


From an engraving by C. F. Riedel 
(C. B. Oldman, Esq., London) 


I take the liberty of sending you two tickets which, as 
a brother, I beg you to accept without payment, seeing 
that, as it is, I shall never be able adequately to return the 
friendship which you have shown me. 

Once more I ask your forgiveness for my importunity 
and with greetings to your esteemed wife I remain in true 
friendship and fraternal love, your most devoted brother 


(554) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[Autograph in the possession of Frau Flosrsheim-Kock, Florence] 

VIENNA, June i^tk, 1788 


The conviction that you are indeed my friend and 
that you know me to be a man of honour encourages me 
to open my heart to you completely and to make you the 
following request. In accordance with my natural frank 
ness I shall go straight to the point without affectation. 

If you have sufficient regard and friendship for me to 
assist me for a year or two with one or two thousand 
gulden, at a suitable rate of interest, you will help me 
enormously! You yourself will surely admit the sense and 
truth of my statement when I say that it is difficult, nay 
impossible, to live when one has to wait for various odd 
sums. If one has not at least a minimum of capital behind 
one, it is impossible to keep one's affairs in order. Nothing 
can be done with nothing. If you will do me this kindness 
then, primo, as I shall have some, money to go on with, 
I can meet necessary expenses whenever they occur \ and 
therefore more easily, whereas now I have to postpone 

1 Puchberg- noted on this letter, "sent 100 gulden". 
2 i.e. of Freemasons. 

VOL. Ill 1361 X 


payments and then often at the most awkward time have 
to spend all I receive at one go; secondo, I can work with 
a mind more free from care and with a lighter heart, and 
thus earn more. As to security I do not suppose that you 
will have any doubts. You know more or less how I stand 
and you know my principles. You need not be anxious 
about the subscription: I am now extending the time by a 
few months. 1 I have hopes of finding more patrons abroad 
than here. 

I have now opened my whole heart to you in a matter 
which is of the utmost importance to me; that is, I have 
acted as a true brother. But it is only with a true brother 
that one can be perfectly frank. And now I look forward 
eagerly to your reply, which I do hope will be favour -able. 
I do not know, but I take you to be a man who, provided 
he can do so, will like myself certainly assist a friend, if he 
be a true friend, or his brother, if he be indeed a brother. 
If you should find it inconvenient to part with so large a 
sum at once, then I beg you to lend me until to-morrow 
at least a couple of hundred gulden, as my landlord in the 
Landstrasse has been so importunate that in order to 
avoid an unpleasant incident I have had to pay him on 
the spot, and this has made things very awkward for me! 
We are sleeping to-night, for the first time, in our new 
quarters, where we shall remain both summer and winter. 2 
On the whole the change is all the same to me, in fact I 
prefer it. As it is, I have very little to do in town and, as 
I am not exposed to so many visitors, I shall have more 
time for work. If I have to go to town on business, which 
will certainly not be very often, any fiacre will take me 
there for ten kreutzer. Moreover our rooms are cheaper 

1 Mozart is probably referring to the subscription list for his concerts. 

2 The Mozarts had left the Landstrasse by December 1787, as their fourth 
child was born on December 27th in a house (which has now disappeared) 
"Unter den Tuchlauben 281". They moved again into a house in a street 
somewhat outside the town. 



and during the spring, summer and autumn more 
pleasant, as I have a garden too. The address is Wahrin- 
gergasse, bei den Drei Sternen. No. I35- 1 Pray regard 
this letter as a real proof of my complete confidence in 
you and remain ever my friend and brother as I shall 
be until the grave, your true, most devoted friend and 


P.S. When are we to have a little musical party at 
your house again? 

I have composed a new trio! 3 

(555) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[Copy in the Preussische Stoat sbibliothek, Berlin] 

MOST HONOURABLE B.O., 4 VIENNA, June 2 jtk, 1788 


I have been expecting to go to town myself one of 
these days and to be able to thank you in person for the 
kindness you have shown me. But now I should not even 
have the courage to appear before you, as I am obliged to 
tell you frankly that it is impossible for me to pay back so 
soon the money you have lent me and that I must beg 
you to be patient with me! I am very much distressed that 
your circumstances at the moment prevent you from 
assisting me as much as I could wish, for my position is 
so serious that I am unavoidably obliged to raise money 
somehow. But, good God, in whom can I confide? In no 
one but you, my best friend! If you would only be so kind 
as to get the money for me through some other channel! 

1 This house still exists as Wahringerstrasse 28. 

2 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent 200 gulden on June iyth, 1788". 

3 K. 542, piano trio in E major. 4 i.e. Brother of the Order. 



I shall willingly pay the interest and whoever lends it to 
me will, I believe, have sufficient security in my character 
and my income. 1 I am only too grieved to be in such an 
extremity; but that is the very reason why I should like 
a fairly substantial sum for a somewhat longer period, I 
mean, in order to be able to prevent a recurrence of this 
state of affairs. If you, my most worthy brother, do not 
help me in this predicament, I shall lose my honour and 
my credit, which of all things I wish to preserve. I rely 
entirely on your genuine friendship and brotherly love 
and confidently expect that you will stand by me in word 
and deed. If my wish is fulfilled, I can breathe freely again, 
because I shall then be able to put my affairs in order 
and keep them so. Do come and see me. I am always at 
home. During the ten days since I came to live here I 
have done more work than in two months in my former 
quarters, and if such black thoughts did not come to me 
so often, thoughts which I banish by a tremendous effort, 
things would be even better, for my rooms are pleasant 
comfortable and cheap. I shall not detain you any 
longer with my drivel but shall stop talking and hope. 
Ever your grateful servant, true friend and B.O. 

June 27th, 1788. 

(556) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[Autograph in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin] 

VIENNA, beginning of July, 1788 

Owing to great difficulties and complications my 
affairs have become so involved that it is of the utmost 
importance to raise some money on these two pawn- 

1 See p. 1359, n. 3. 


broker's tickets. In the name of our friendship I implore 
you to do me this favour; but you must do it immediately. 
Forgive my importunity, but you know my situation. 
Ah! If only you had done what I asked you! Do it even 
now then everything will be as I desire. 

Ever your 


(557) Mozart to his Sister 

[From Ludwig Nohl, Mozarts Brief e, -2nd edition, p. 431] 

DEAREST SISTER! VIENNA, A ugwt 2nd, 1788 

'Indeed you have every reason to be vexed with me! 
But will you really be so, when you receive by this mail 
coach my very latest compositions for the clavier? 1 
Surely not! This, I hope, will make everything all right 

As you must be convinced that every day I wish you 
every possible happiness, you will forgive me for limping 
along rather far behind with my congratulations on your 
name-day, 2 Dearest sister, with my whole heart and soul 
I wish you all that you believe is most advantageous to 
yourself. So now Punctum. 

Dear sister! You must realise that I have a great deal 
to do. Besides, you know very well that I am rather lazy 
about letter-writing. So do not take it amiss, if I seldom 
write to you. But this must not prevent you from writing 
very often to me. Indeed, though I detest writing letters, 
I love getting them. Moreover you have far more to write 
about than I have, as Salzburg affairs interest me more 
than what is happening in Vienna can interest you. 

Well, I have a request to make. I should very much 

1 Probably K. 540, adagio in B minor, K. 545, sonata in C major, and 
K. 547, clavier and violin sonata in F major. 2 July 26th. 



like Haydn 1 to lend me for a short time his two Tutti- 
masses and the Graduate which he has composed, all of 
them in the original scores. Tell him that I shall return 
them with many thanks. It is now exactly a year since I 
wrote to him and invited him to come and stay with me; 
but he has not replied. As a matter of fact, as far as 
answering letters is concerned, he seems, don't you think, 
to have a good deal in common with myself. So I urge 
you to arrange this for me in the following way. Invite 
him to your house at St. Gilgen and play to him some of 
my latest compositions. I am sure he will like the Trio and 
the Quartet. 2 Adieu, dearest sister! As soon as I can 
collect some new music again, I shall send it to you. I am 
ever your sincere brother 


P.S. My wife sends her love to you and we both send 
ours to our dear brother-in-law. 

P.S, In reply to your question about my appointment, 
I must tell you that the Emperor has taken me into his 
household. I now have therefore a permanent appoint 
ment, but for the time being at a salary of only 800 
gulden. However, no one else in the household is drawing 
so large a sum. The notice which was printed at the time 
when my Prague opera "Don Giovanni" (which by the 
way is being given again to-day) was performed and on 
which there are certainly not too many particulars about 
me, as the management of the Imperial Theatre were 
responsible for it, stated: 'The music is by Herr 
Mozart, duly-appointed Kapellmeister to His Imperial 

1 Michael Haydn. 

2 Probably K. 542, piano trio in E major, and K. 493, piano quartet in Eb. 
See Kochel, p. 693. 



(558) Mozart to Franz Hofdemel l 

[Autograph sold by Leo Liepmannssohn, Berlin, 
November ibth, 1928, Catalogue 52] 

DEAREST FRIEND! VIENNA, end of March, 1789 

I am taking the liberty of asking you without any 
hesitation for a favour. I should be very much obliged to 
you if you could and would lend me a hundred gulden 
until the 2Oth of next month. On that day I receive the 
quarterly instalment of my salary and shall then repay 
the loan with thanks. I have relied too much on a sum of 
a hundred ducats due to me from abroad. Up to the 
present I have not yet received it, although I am ex 
pecting it daily. Meanwhile I have left myself too short 
of cash, so that at the moment I greatly need some ready 
money 2 and have therefore appealed to your goodness, as 
I am absolutely convinced of your friendship. 

Well, we shall soon be able to call one another by a 
more delightful name! For your novitiate is very nearly 

at an end! 3 


1 Franz Hofdemel, private secretary to a certain Count Seilern, held later 
as "Tustizkanzlist" an appointment in the Vienna Law Courts. He married 
Magdalene Pokorny, the daughter of Kapellmeister Gotthard Pokorny and 
a pupil of Mozart's. Shortly after the latter's death Hofdemel in a fit of 
jealousy attempted to murder his wife, an incident which gave rise to all kinds 
of gossip about Mozart's private life. . 

2 Prince Karl Lichnowsky had offered to take Mozart to Berlin and intro 
duce him to King Frederick William II. Evidently Mozart needed money 
for this journey. 

3 Hofdemel had joined the Order of Freemasons. 

+ Hofdemel acceded to Mozart's request and Mozart sent him a receipt 
dated April 2nd, 1789, and a promise to repay the sum within four months. 
The autograph of this document is in the possession of Frau Floersheim- 
Koch, Florence. 


Z. 560 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i 7 8g 

(559) Mozart to his Wife 

[From Nottebohm^ Mozartiana, p. 83] 


While the Prince * is busy bargaining about horses, 
I am delighted to seize this opportunity to write a few 
lines to you, dearest little wife of my heart. How are you? I 
wonder whether you think of me as often as I think of you? 
Every other moment I look at your portrait and weep 
partly for joy, partly for sorrow. Look after your health 
which is so precious to me and fare well, my darling! Do 
not worry about me, for I am not suffering any dis 
comforts or any annoyance on this journey apart from 
your absence which, as it can't be helped, can't be 
remedied. I write this note with eyes full of tears. Adieu. 
I shall write a longer and more legible letter to you from 
Prague, for then I shan't have to hurry so much. Adieu. 
I kiss you millions of times most tenderly and am ever 
yours, true till death 

stu stu 


Kiss Karl for me and give all sorts of messages to Herr 
and Frau von Puchberg. More very soon. 

(560) Mozart to his Wife 

{Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliotkek, Berlin\ 

PRAGUE, Good Friday, April iotk y 1789 

We arrived here safely to-day at half past one in the 
afternoon. Meanwhile I trust that you have received my 

1 Prince Karl Lichnowsky, a nephew of Countess Wilhelmine Thun, was 
a pupil and friend of Mozart's. 



little note from Budwitz. Now for my account of Prague. 
We alighted at the "Unicorn" and after I had been 
shaved, had my hair done and got dressed, I drove out to 
Canal's 1 on the chance of having a meal with him. But 
as my drive took me past the Duscheks*, I called there 
first and was told that Madame had left yesterday for 
Dresden! So I shall meet her there. Duschek was 
lunching at Leliborn's, where I too used often to lunch. 
So I drove straight there. I sent in a message to Duschek, 
just as if someone or other wished to speak to him, and 
asked him to come out. You can just imagine our delight. 
So I lunched at Leliborn's. After it was over I drove off 
to Canal and Pachta, 2 but they were both out. So I went 
on to Guardasoni, 3 who has practically arranged to give 
me 200 ducats next autumn for the opera and 50 ducats 
for travelling expenses. 4 Then I came home to write all 
this to my dear little wife. That reminds me. Only a week 
ago Ramm left Prague to return home. He came from 
Berlin and said that the King 5 had frequently and in 
sistently enquired whether it was certain that I was 
coming to Berlin, as I had not yet appeared. He had 
said a second time: "I fear that he will not come at all". 
Ramm became very uneasy and tried to convince him 
that I really was coming. Judging by this, my affairs 
ought to be fairly successful. I am now taking the 
Prince 6 to see Duschek, who is expecting us, and at nine 
o'clock we are starting off for Dresden, where we hope to 
arrive to-morrow evening. Dearest little wife! I arn simply 

1 Count Canal. See p. 1344, n. 3. 

2 Count Johann von Pachta. See p. 444, n. i. 

3 Domenico Guardasoni had been manager of the National Theatre at 
Prague since 1788. In 1789 he went to Warsaw to organise theatrical pro 
ductions there, and only returned to Prague in 1791. 

4 This commission was never carried out. 

5 King Frederick William II, who was an excellent performer on the 
violoncello and a great lover and active patron of musk. 

6 Prince Karl Lichnowsky. 


L. 561 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i 7 8 9 

aching for news of you. Perhaps I shall find a letter at 
Dresden! Great God, fulfil my wishes! When you receive 
this letter you must write to me at Leipzig Poste 
Restante, of course. Adieu, my love, I must close, or I 
shall miss the post. Kiss our Karl a thousand times and I, 
who kiss you most ardently, 

remain ever your faithful 


P.S. All sorts of messages to Herr and Frau von 
Puchberg. I must wait until I get to Berlin to write and 
thank him. 

Adieu, aimez-moi et gardez votre sante si chere et 
precieuse a votre epoux. 

(561) Mozart to his Wife 

\Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek> Berlin\ 

DRESDEN, April 13^, 1789 
At seven o'clock in the morning 

We expected to reach Dresden after dinner on 
Saturday, but we did not arrive until yesterday, Sunday, 
at two o'clock in the afternoon, as the roads were so bad. 
All the same I went yesterday to the Neumanns, 1 where 
Madame Duschek is staying, in order to deliver her 
husband's letter. Her room is on the third floor beside the 
corridor and from it you can see anyone who is coming 
to the house. When I arrived at the door, Herr Neumann 
was already there and asked me to whom he had the 
honour to speak. "That I shall tell you in a moment/' 
I replied, "but please be so kind as to call Madame 

1 Johann Leopold Neumann, secretary to the Saxon War Council, wrote 
and translated opera texts. His wife was an excellent pianist. 



Duschek, so that my joke may not be spoilt." But at the 
same moment Madame Duschek stood before me, for she 
had recognised me from the window and had said at once: 
"Why, here comes someone who is very like Mozart". 
Well, we were all delighted. There was a large party, 
consisting entirely of ugly women, who by their charm, 
however, made up for their lack of beauty. The Prince 
and I are going to breakfast there to-day; we shall then 
see Naumann 1 and then the chapel. To-morrow or the 
day after we shall leave for Leipzig. After receiving this 
letter you must write to Berlin, Poste Restante. I trust 
that you got my letter from Prague. All the Neumanns 
and the Duscheks send their greetings to you and also to 
my brother-in-law Lange and his wife. 

Dearest little wife, if only I had a letter from you! If I 
were to tell you all the things I do with your dear portrait, 
I think that you would often laugh. For instance, when I 
take it out of its case, I say, "Good-day, Stanzerl! 
Good-day, little rascal, pussy-pussy, little turned-up nose, 
little bagatelle, Schluck und Druck", and when I put it 
away again, I let it slip in very slowly, saying all the time, 
"Nu Nu Nu Nu!" with the peculiar emphasis which 
this word so full of meaning demands, and then just at the 
last, quickly, "Good night, little mouse, sleep well". Well, 
I suppose I have been writing something very foolish (to 
the world at all events); but to us who love each other so 
dearly, it is not foolish at all. To-day is the sixth day since 
I left you and by Heaven! it seems a year. I expect you 
will have some difficulty here and there in reading my 
letter, because I am writing in a hurry and therefore 

1 Johann Gottlieb Naumann (1741-1801), a prolific composer of operas 
and church music. He studied in Italy under Tartlni and Padre Martini, 
and in 1776 was appointed Kapellmeister and in 1786 Oberkapellmeister to 
the Dresden court. During a visit to Stockholm, 1776-1778, he produced two 
of his best works, " Amphion" and "Cora", the Swedish texts of which were 
subsequently translated into German by J. L. Neumann. 


Z. 562 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i 7 8g 

rather badly. Adieu, my only love! The carriage is 
waiting. This time I do not say: "Hurrah the carriage 
has come at last", but "male'. 1 Farewell, and love me for 
ever as I love you. I kiss you a million times most 
lovingly and am ever your husband who loves you 


P.S. How is our Karl behaving? Well, I hope. Kiss him 
for me. All sorts of kind messages to Herr and Frau von 
Puchberg. Remember, you must not regulate the length 
of your letters by that of mine. Mine are rather short, but 
only because I am in a hurry. If I were not, I should cover 
a whole sheet. But you have more leisure. Adieu. 

(562) Mozart to his Wife 

[Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliottiek, Berlin\ 

DRESDEN, April i6tk, 1789 
Half past eleven at night 

What? Still in Dresden? Yes, my love. Well, I shall 
tell you everything as minutely as possible. On Monday, 
April 1 3th, after breakfasting with the Neumanns we all 
went to the Court chapel. The mass was by Naumann, 
who conducted it himself, and very poor stuff it was. We 
were in an oratory opposite the orchestra. All of a sudden 
Neumann nudged me and introduced me to Herr von 
Konig, who is the Directeur des Plaisirs (of the melan 
choly plaisirs of the Elector). He was extremely nice and 
when he asked me whether I should like His Highness 
to hear me, I replied that it would indeed be a great 
privilege, but that, as I was not travelling alone, I could 

1 i.e. Confound it! 


not prolong my stay. So we left It at that. My princely 
travelling companion invited the Neumanns and Madame 
Duschek to lunch. While we were at table a message came 
that I was to play at court on the following day, Tuesday, 
April 1 4th, at half past five in the evening. That is some 
thing quite out of the ordinary for Dresden, for it is 
usually very difficult to get a hearing, and you know that 
I never thought of performing at court here. We had 
arranged a quartet among ourselves at the Hotel de 
Pologne. So we performed it in the Chapel with Anton 
Teiber (who, as you know, is organist here) and with Herr 
Kraft, 1 Prince Esterhazy's violoncellist, who is here with 
his son. 2 At this little concert I introduced the trio 3 which 
I wrote for Herr von Puchberg and it was played quite 
decently. Madame Duschek sang a number of arias from 
" Figaro" and "Don Giovanni". The next day I played at 
court my new concerto in D, 4 and on the following morn 
ing, Wednesday, April I5th, I received a very handsome 
snuff-box. Then we lunched with the Russian Ambassador, 
to whom I played a great deal. After lunch we agreed to 
have some organ playing and drove to the church at four 
o'clock Naumann was there too. At this point you must 
know that a certain Hassler, 5 who is organist at Erfurt, 
is in Dresden. Well, he too was there. He was a pupil of a 

1 Anton Kraft (1752-1820), a distinguished violoncellist. He studied in 
Vienna, where Haydn secured him for the orchestra of Prince Esterhazy. On 
the latter's death in 1790 Kraft became chamber musician to Prince Grassal- 
kowics, and in 1795 to Prince Lobkowitz, in whose service he died. He 
composed several works for his instrument. 

2 Nicolaus Kraft (1778-1853), son of Anton Kraft. He early became pro 
ficient on the violoncello, accompanied his father on concert tours and in 
1790 settled with him in Vienna, where he was one of Prince Karl Lichnow- 
sky's famous quartet. He was a more gifted composer than his father. 

3 K. 563, a divertimento for violin, viola and 'cello, composed in 1788. 

4 K. 537, clavier concerto in D major, composed in 1788. 

5 Johann Wilhelm Hassler (1747-1822), who enjoyed a great reputation as 
an organist and had already won success by his performances at Dresden in 


Z. 562 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i 7 8 9 

pupil 1 of Bach's. His forte is the organ and the clavier 
(clavichord). Now people here think that because I come 
from Vienna, I am quite unacquainted with this style and 
mode of playing. Well, I sat down at the organ and 
played. Prince Lichnowsky, who knows Hassler very 
well, after some difficulty persuaded him to play also. 
This Hassler's chief excellence on the organ consists in 
his foot- work, which, since the pedals are graded here, is 
not so very wonderful. Moreover, he has done no more 
than commit to memory the harmony and modulations of 
old Sebastian Bach and is not capable of executing a 
fugue properly; and his playing is not thorough. Thus he 
is far from being an Albrechtsbergen 2 After that we 
decided to go back to the Russian Ambassador's, so that 
Hassler might hear me on the fortepiano. He played too. 
I consider Mile Aurnhammer as good a player on the 
fortepiano as he is, so you can imagine that he has begun 
to sink very considerably in my estimation. After that we 
went to the opera, which is truly wretched. Do you know 
who is one of the singers? Why Rosa Manservisi. 3 You 
can picture her delight at seeing me. But the leading 
woman singer, Madame Allegranti, 4 is far better than 
Madame Ferraresi, 5 which, I admit, is not saying very 

1 Johann Christian Kittel (1732-1809), one of the last pupils of Johann 
Sebastian Bach. He was organist first at Langensalza and later at the Predi- 
gerkirche in Erfurt, his native town. 

2 Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (1736-1809), organist and composer. He 
was appointed in 1772 court organist at Vienna and director of music at St. 
Stephen's. He was also a famous teacher and the author of a great theoretical 
work, Grundliche Anweisung zur Composition, Leipzig, 1790. 

3 Rosa Manservisi took the part of Sandrina in Mozart's "La finta 
giardiniera", which was performed at Munich in 1775. 

4 Maddalena Allegranti, a famous soprano singer of the eighteenth century. 
She studied under Holzbauer at Mannheim and made her first appearance 
in Venice in 1771, and from that time sang frequently in Italy. She performed 
in England in 1781. 

5 Adriana Ferraresi del Bene first appeared in Vienna in 1788 in Martin's 
"L'arbore di Diana". For the revival of "Le Nozze di Figaro" in August 1789 



much. When the opera was over we went home. Then 
came the happiest of all moments for me. I found a letter 
from you, that letter which I had longed for so ardently, 
my darling, my beloved! Madame Duschek and the Neu 
manns were with me as usual. But I immediately went off 
in triumph to my room, kissed the letter countless times 
before breaking the seal, and then devoured it rather than 
read it. I stayed in my room a long time; for I could not 
read it or kiss it often enough. When I rejoined the com 
pany, the Neumanns asked me whether I had had a letter 
from you, and when I said that I had, they all congratu 
lated me most heartily as every day I had been lament 
ing that I had not yet heard from you. They are delightful 
people. Now for your dear letter. You shall receive by the 
next post an account of what will have taken place here 
up to the time of our departure. 

Dear little wife, I have a number of requests to make. 
I beg you 

(1) not to be melancholy, 

(2) to take care of your health and to beware of the spring 

(3) not to go out walking alone and preferably not to go 
out walking at all, 

(4) to feel absolutely assured of my love. Up to the 
present I have not written a single letter to you 
without placing your dear portrait before me, 

(6) and lastly I beg you to send me more details in your 
letters, I should very much like to know whether our 
brother-in-law Hofer came to see us the day after my 
departure? Whether he comes very often, as he 
promised me he would? Whether the Langes come 
sometimes? Whether progress is being made with the 

Mozart composed for her the aria "Al desio di chi t'adora", sung by Susanna. 
He also wrote for her the part of Fiordiligi in "Cosi fan tutte", which was 
performed on January 26th, 1790. 



portrait? 1 What sort of life you are leading? All these 
things are naturally of great interest to me. 
(5) I beg you in your conduct not only to be careful of 
your honour and mine> but also to consider appear 
ances. Do not be angry with me for asking this. You 
ought to love me even more for thus valuing our 

Now farewell, dearest, most beloved! Please remember 
that every night before going to bed I talk to your por 
trait for a good half hour and do the same when I awake. 
We are leaving on the i8th, the day after to-morrow. So 
continue to write to Berlin, Poste Restante. 

O Stru! Stri! I kiss and squeeze you 1095060437082 
times (now you can practise your pronunciation) and am 
ever your most faithful husband and friend 


The account of the rest of our Dresden visit will follow 
in my next letter. Good night! 

(563) Mozart to his Wife 

[Autograph in the possession of Heinrich Eisemann, London} 

LEIPZIG, May i6th, 1789 

What? Still in Leipzig? 2 My last letter, dated May 
8th or gth, told you, it is true, that I was leaving at two 
o'clock that night; but the insistent requests of my friends 
persuaded me not to make the whole of Leipzig suffer for 

1 Possibly a lost portrait of Constanze. 

2 This letter was written during Mozart's second visit to Leipzig, whither 
he made a trip from Potsdam. 



the shortcomings of one or two persons, but to give a 
concert on Tuesday, the I2th. From the point of view of 
applause and glory this concert was absolutely magnifi 
cent, but the profits were wretchedly meagre. Madame 
Duschek, who happens to be in Leipzig, sang at it. The 
Neumanns of Dresden are all here too. The pleasure of 
being as long as possible in the company of these dear 
good people, who all send their best greetings to you, has 
up to the present delayed my journey. I wanted to get 
away yesterday, but could find no horses. I am having 
the same difficulty to-day. For at the present moment 
everyone is trying to get off and the number of travellers 
is simply enormous. But we shall be on the road to 
morrow at five o'clock. My love! I am very sorry and yet 
perhaps a little glad that you are in the same state as I 
have been. No, no! I would rather that you had never 
been in the same sad situation and I hope and trust that 
at the time I am writing this letter, you will have received 
at least one of mine. God knows what the cause may be! 
I received in Leipzig on April 2ist your letter of April 
1 3th. Then I spent seventeen days in Potsdam without 
any letters. Not until May 8th did I receive your letter of 
April 24th, while apart from this I have not received any, 
with the exception of one dated May 5th, which came 
yesterday. For my part I wrote to you from Leipzig on 
April 22nd, from Potsdam on the 28th, again from Pots 
dam on May 5th, from Leipzig on the gth, and now I am 
writing on the i6th. The strangest thing of all is that we 
both found ourselves at the same time in the same sad 
situation, I was very anxious from April 24th until 
May 8th, and to judge from your letter this was also the 
time when you were worried. But I trust that by now you 
will have got over this. And my consolation is that soon 
letters will no longer be necessary, for we shall be able to 
talk to each other and kiss and press each other to our 1377 Y 

Z. 563 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i 7 8g 

hearts. In my last letter I told you not to write to me any 
more; and that is the safest course. But I am now asking 
you to send a reply to this letter, and to address it to 
Duschek at Prague. You must put it in a proper convert 
and ask him to keep it until my arrival. I shall probably 
have to spend at least a week in Berlin. So I shall not be 
able to reach Vienna before June 5th or 6th that is, ten 
or twelve days after you receive this letter. One thing 
more about the loss of our letters. I also wrote to our dear 
friend Puchberg on April 28th. Please give him a thousand 
greetings from me and thank him on my behalf. I had no 
idea that Schmidt * was ill. You probably told me this in 
the letter which I did not receive. A thousand thanks 
for the account of Seydelmann's opera. 2 Indeed a more 
suitable name for him would be Maasmann. But if you 
knew him personally, as I do, you would probably call 
him Bluzermann, or at any rate, Zimmentmann. 3 Fare 
well, dear little wife. Please do all the things I have asked 
you to do in "my letters, for what prompted me was love 
real, true love; and love me as much as I do you. I am 

your only true friend and faithful husband 


1 Possibly Ludwig Schmidt. See p. 1317, n. 3. 

2 Franz Seydelmann (1748-1806), a native of Dresden and a pupil of 
J. G. Naumann. After studying in Italy he was appointed in 1772 church 
composer in Dresden and in 1787 Kapellmeister. His opera "II Turco in 
Italia", produced at Dresden in 1788, was performed in Vienna on April 
28th, 1789. Evidently Constanze had seen it. 

3 The words "Seidel, Maas, Bluzer and Zimment" are expressions in the 
Viennese dialect for drinking-measures. Mozart alludes, of course, to Seydel- 
mann's tendency to drink. 



(564) Mozart to his Wife 

[From Nottebohm, Mozarfiana, p. 33] 

BERLIN, May igtk, 1789 * 

Well, I trust that you will by now have received some 
letters from me, for they can't all have been lost. This time 
I can't write very much to you, as I have to pay some 
calls and I am only sending you this to announce my 
arrival. I shall probably be able to leave by the 25th; at 
least I shall do my best to do so. But I shall let you know 
definitely before then. I shall quite certainly get away by 
the 27th. Oh, how glad I shall be to be with you again, 
my darling! But the first thing I shall do is to take you by 
your front curls; for how on earth could you think, or even 
imagine, that I had forgotten you? How could I possibly 
do so? For even supposing such a thing you will get on the 
very first night a thorough spanking . . ., and this you 
may count upon. 

Ever your only friend and your husband 
who loves you with all his heart 


(565) Mozart to his Wife . 

[Autograph in the possession of Frau Floersheim-Koch, Florence] 

BERLIN, May 2yd, 1789 


I was above measure delighted to receive here your 

dear letter of May I3th, and only this very moment your 

1 For an account of Mozart's visit to Berlin, see an article by Ernst Fried- 
lander, "Mozarts Beziehungen zu Berlin", in MMB, April 1897. 



previous one of the gth, which had to find its way from 
Leipzig to Berlin. Well, the first thing I am going to do is 
to make a list of all the letters which I sent you and then a 
list of the letters which I have received from you. 

I wrote to you on April 8th from the post-stage Budwitz 

On April loth from Prague 
On April i3thJ fromDresden 

and I7thj 
On April 22nd (in French) from Leipzig 

On April 28th] , D A 

. , , Krom Potsdam 
and May 5th J 

On May othl r T 

; ; , \ from Leipzig 
and i6thj ^ 5 

On May iQth from Berlin 

and I am now writing on the 23rd. 1 

That makes eleven letters. 
I received your letter of April 8th on April I5th 

in Dresden 
of April i3th April 2ist 

in Leipzig 

of April 24th May 8th ' \ g 

in Leipzig 1 | 

of May 5th May I4th I 

in Leipzig; 
of May i3th May 2oth 

in Berlin 
of May 9th May 22nd 

in Berlin 

That makes six letters. 

You see that there is a gap between April i3th and 24th. 
So one of your letters must have gone astray and thus I 
was without a letter for seventeen days. So if you too had 

1 Mozart's four letters written between April 22nd and May 9th have un 
fortunately been lost. 



to spend seventeen days in the same condition, one of my 
letters must have been lost. Thank God, we shall soon 
have got over these mischances. In your arms I shall be 
able to tell you all, all that I felt at that time. But you 
know how I love you. Well, where do you think I am 
writing this letter? In my room at the inn? Not at all. In 
a restaurant in the Tiergarten (in a summer house with 
a lovely view) where I lunched to-day all by myself, in 
order to devote myself wholly to you. The Queen wants 
to hear me play on Tuesday, but J sharit make much 
money. I only announced my arrival because such is the 
custom here, and because she would have taken it amiss 
had I not done so. First of all, my darling little wife, when 
I return you must be more delighted with having me 
back than with the money I shall bring. A hundred 
friedrichs d'or are not nine hundred gulden but seven 
hundred at least that is what they have told me here. 
Secondly, Lichnowsky (as he was in a hurry) left me here, 
and so I have had to pay for my keep in Potsdam, which 
is an expensive place. Thirdly, I had to lend him a 
hundred gulden, as his purse was getting empty. I could 
not well refuse him: you will know why. Fourthly, my 
concert at Leipzig was a failure, as I always said it would 
be, so I had a journey of sixty-four miles there and back 
almost for nothing. Lichnowsky alone is to blame for this, 
for he gave me no peace but insisted on my returning to 
Leipzig. I shall tell you more about this when we meet. 
But (i) if I gave a concert here I should not make much 
out of it and (2) the King would not care for me to give 
one. So you must just be satisfied as I am with this, that 
I am fortunate enough to be enjoying the King's favour. 
What I have just written to you is for ourselves alone. On 
Thursday, the 28th, I shall leave for Dresden, where I 
shall spend the night. On June ist I intend to sleep in 
Prague, and on the 4th the 4th with my darling little 



wife. Arrange your dear sweet nest very daintily, for my 
little fellow deserves it indeed, he has really behaved 
himself very well and is only longing to possess your 
sweetest. . . .* Just picture to yourself that rascal; as I write 
he crawls on to the table and looks at me questioningly. 
I, however, box his ears properly but the rogue is 
simply . . . and now the knave burns only more fiercely 
and can hardly be restrained. Surely you will drive out 
to the first post-stage to meet me? I shall get there at 
noon on the 4th. I hope that Hofer, whom I embrace a 
thousand times, will be with you. If Herr and Frau von 
Puchberg drive out with you too, then all the friends I 
want to see will be together. Don't forget to bring our 
Karl. But the most important thing of all is that you 
should have with you someone you can rely on (Satmann 
or someone else), who can drive off to the customs in 
my carriage with my luggage, so that / may not have 
to face that unnecessary seccatura, but can drive home 
with all you dear people. Now remember this. 

Well, adieu. I kiss you millions of times and am ever 
your most faithful husband 


(566) Mozart to his Wife 

[Autograph in the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna] 

PRAGUE, May $ist, 1789 

I have just arrived this very moment. I hope that 
you received my last letter of the 23rd. Well, the arrange 
ment still stands. I shall arrive on Thursday, June 4th, 

1 The dotted passages are words which have been blotted out in the 

2 The autograph of this letter has the address "Auf dem Hohen Markt, 
im Malseckischen Hause, bei Herrn von Puchberg". Probably Mozart's wife 
and child were living with the Puchbergs during his absence in Germany. 



between eleven and twelve o'clock at the last, or rather the 
first post-stage, where I hope to find you all. Do not forget 
to bring someone with you, who can drive to the customs 
instead of me. Adieu. Good God, how delighted I am to 
be seeing you again! In haste. 


(567) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, pp. 12-14] 



Great God! I would not wish my worst enemy to be 
in my present position. And if you, most beloved friend 
and brother, forsake me, we are altogether lost, both my 
unfortunate and blameless self and my poor sick wife and 
child. Only the other day when I was with you I was 
longing to open my heart to you, but I had not the 
courage to do so and indeed I should still not have the 
courage for, as it is, I only dare to write and tremble as 
I do so and I should not even dare to write, were I not 
certain that you know me, that you are aware of my 
circumstances, and that you are wholly convinced of my 
innocence so far as my unfortunate and most distressing 
situation is concerned. Good God! I am coming to you 
not with thanks but with fresh entreaties! Instead of 
paying my debts I am asking for more money! If you 
really know me, you must sympathise with my anguish 
in having to do so. I need not tell you once more that 
owing to my unfortunate illness I have been prevented 
from earning anything. But I must mention that in spite 
of my wretched condition I decided to give subscription 
concerts at home in order to be able to meet at least my 
present great and frequent expenses, for I was absolutely 



convinced of your friendly assistance. But even this has 
failed. Unfortunately Fate is so much against me, though 
only in Vienna, that even when I want to, I cannot make 
any money. A fortnight ago I sent round a list for sub 
scribers and so far the only name on it is that of Baron 
van Swieten! Now that (the I3th) my dear little wife seems 
to be improving every day, I should be able to set to 
work again, if this blow, this heavy blow, had not come. 
At any rate, people are consoling me by telling me that 
she is better although the night before last she was 
suffering so much and I on her account that I was 
stunned and despairing. But last night (the I4th), she 
slept so well and has felt so much easier all the morning 
that I am very hopeful; and at last I am beginning to feel 
inclined for work. I am now faced, however, with mis 
fortunes of another kind, though, it is true, only for 
the moment. Dearest, most beloved friend and brother 
you know my present circumstances, but you also know 
my prospects. So let things remain as we arranged; that 
is, thus or thus, you understand what I mean. Mean 
while I am composing six easy clavier sonatas for Princess 
Friederike J and six quartets for the King, 2 all of which 
Kozeluch is engraving at my expense. At the same time 
the two dedications will bring me in something. In a 
month or two my fate must be decided in every detail. 
Therefore, most beloved friend, you will not be risking 
anything so far as I am concerned. So it all depends, my 
only friend, upon whether you will or can lend me another 
500 gulden. Until my affairs are settled, I undertake to 

1 Princess Friederike, the eldest daughter of King Frederick William II 
of Prussia. Mozart appears to have finished only one of these sonatas, K. 576, 
in D major, his last clavier sonata. 

2 Mozart finished three quartets, K. 575, composed in 1789, and K. 589 
and 590, composed in 1790. K. 590 was Mozart's last string quartet. 
Kozeluch did not engrave these works, which were published by Artaria 
immediately after Mozart's death. 



pay back ten gulden a month; and then, as this is bound 
to happen in a few months, I shall pay back the whole 
sum with whatever interest you may demand, and at the 
same time acknowledge myself to be your debtor for life. 
That, alas, I shall have to remain, for I shall never be 
able to thank you sufficiently for your friendship and 
affection. Thank God, that is over. Now you know all. 
Do not be offended by my confiding in you and remember 
that unless you help me, the honour, the peace of mind, 
and perhaps the very life of your friend and brother 
Mason will be ruined. 

Ever your most grateful servant, true 
friend and brother 

At home, July I4th, 1789. 

O God! I can hardly bring myself to despatch this 
letter! and yet I must! If this illness had not befallen me, 
I should not have been obliged to beg so shamelessly 
from my only friend. Yet I hope for your forgiveness, for 
you know both the good and the bad prospects of my 
situation. The bad is temporary; the good will certainly 
persist, once the momentary evil has been alleviated. 
Adieu. For God's sake forgive me, only forgive me! 
and Adieu! 

(568) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[A utograph formerly in the Musikhistorisches Museum von W. Heyer, Cologne] 

VIENNA,/^ 17$ A, 1789 

I fear you are angry with me, for you are not sending 
me a reply! When I compare the proofs of your friendship 
with my present demands upon it, I cannot but admit that 



you are perfectly right. But when I compare my mis 
fortunes (for which I am not to blame) with your kindly 
disposition towards me, then I do find that there is some 
excuse for me. As in my last letter to you, my dear friend, 
I told you quite frankly everything that was burdening 
my heart, I can only repeat to-day what I said then. But 
I must still add that (i) I should not require such a con 
siderable sum if I did not anticipate very heavy expenses 
in connection with the cure my wife may have to take, 
particularly if she has to go to Baden. 1 (2) As I am 
positive that in a short time I shall be in better circum 
stances, the amount of the sum I shall have to repay is a 
matter of indifference to me. Nevertheless at the present 
moment I should prefer it to be a large sum, which would 
make me feel safer. (3) I entreat you, if it is quite impos 
sible for you to assist me this time with such a large sum, 
to show your friendship and brotherly affection by helping 
me at once with as much as you can spare , for I am really 
in very great need. You certainly cannot doubt my 
integrity, for you know me too well for that. Nor can you 
distrust my assurances, my behaviour or my mode of life, 
as you are well acquainted with my manner of living and 
my conduct. Consequently, forgive me for thus confiding 
in you, for I am absolutely convinced that only the im 
possibility of doing so will prevent you from helping your 
friend. If you can and if you will entirely relieve me, I 
shall return thanks to you as my saviour, even beyond 
the grave, for you will be enabling me to enjoy further 
happiness on earth. But if you cannot do this, then I beg 
and implore you, in God's name, for whatever temporary 
assistance you can give me and also for your advice and 
comforting sympathy. 

Ever your most grateful servant 


1 A watering-place and health resort about seventeen miles south of Vienna. 



P.S. My wife was wretchedly ill again yesterday. 
To-day leeches were applied and she is, thank God, 
somewhat better. I am indeed most unhappy, and am 
forever hovering between hope and fear! Dr. Closset came 
to see her again yesterday. 1 

(569) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 85] 

VIENNA, second half of July -, 1789 

Since the time when you rendered me that great and 
friendly service, I have been living in such misery y that for 
very grief not only have I not been able to go out, but I 
could not even write. 

At the moment she is easier, and if she had not con- 
traded bed-sores, which make her condition most wretched, 
she would be able to sleep. The only fear is that the bone 
may be affected. She is extraordinarily resigned and 
awaits recovery or death with true philosophic calm. My 
tears flow as I write. Come and see us, most beloved friend, 
if you can; and, if you can, give me your advice and help 

in the matter you know of. 


(570) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 2 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 35] 

VIENNA, middle of August, 1789 

I was delighted to get your dear letter and I trust 
that you received yesterday my second one together with 

1 Puchberg noted on this letter, "answered the same day, July iyth, 1789, 
and sent 150 gulden". 

2 This and the following letters to Constanze are addressed to her at 
Baden, where she had gone for her health. 


L. 570 MOZART TO HIS WIFE 776*9 

the infusion, the electuaries and the ants' eggs. I shall 
sail off to you at five o'clock to-morrow morning. Were 
it not for the joy of seeing you again and embracing you, 
I should not drive out to Baden just yet, for "Figaro" is 
going to be performed very soon, 1 and as I have some 
alterations to make, my presence will be required at the 
rehearsals. I shall probably have to be back here by the 
i gth. But to stay here until the igth without you would 
be quite impossible. Dear little wife! I want to talk to you 
quite frankly. You have no reason whatever to be un 
happy. You have a husband who loves you and does all 
he possibly can for you. As for your foot, you must just 
be patient and it will surely get well again. I am glad 
indeed when you have some fun of course I am but I 
do wish that you would not sometimes make yourself so 
cheap. In my opinion you are too free and easy with 
N.N. 2 , . . and it was the same with. N.N., when he was 
still at Baden. Now please remember that N.N. are not half 
so familiar with other women, whom they perhaps know 
more intimately, as they are with you. Why, N.N. who is 
usually a well-conducted fellow and particularly respect 
ful to women, must have been misled by your behaviour 
into writing the most disgusting and most impertinent 
sottises which he put into his letter. A woman must 
always make herself respected, or else people will begin 
to talk about her. My love! Forgive me for being so 
frank, but my peace of mind demands it as well as our 
mutual happiness. Remember that you yourself once 
admitted to me that you were inclined to comply too 
easily. You know the consequences of that. Remember 
too the promise you gave to me. Oh, God, do try, my love! 

1 "Le Nozze di Figaro" was revived in Vienna during the summer of 


2 In this and the following letters to his wife certain names have been 
crossed out by a later hand. 


MOZART (1789) 

From a silver point drawing by Doris Stock 
(Musikbibliothek Peters, Leipzig) 


Be merry and happy and charming to me. Do not tor 
ment yourself and me with unnecessary jealousy. Believe 
in my love, for surely you have proofs of it, and you 
will see how happy we shall be. Rest assured that it is 
only by her prudent behaviour that a wife can enchain 
her husband. Adieu. To-morrow I shall kiss you most 


(571) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From Nottebohm^ Mozartiana t p. 27] 

DEAREST LITTLE WIFE! VIENNA, end of August, 1789 

I arrived here safely at a quarter to eight l and when 
I knocked at my door Hofer has written this, who 
happens to be here and sends you greetings I found it 
closed, as the servant was not at home. I waited in vain 
for about a quarter of an hour, then I drove to Hofer's, 
imagined I was at home and finished dressing there. The 
little aria, which I composed for Madame Ferraresi, 2 
ought, I think, to be a success, provided she is able to 
sing it in an artless manner, which, however, I very 
much doubt. She herself liked it very much. I have just 
lunched at her house. I think that "Figaro'' will be per 
formed on Sunday for certain, but I shall let you know 
beforehand. How delighted I am when we hear it to 
gether! I am off this very moment to see whether any 
change has possibly been made in the arrangements. If 
it is not going to be performed before Saturday, I shall 
be with you to-day. Adieu, my love! Never go out walk 
ing alone. The very thought of this terrifies me. 
Ever your loving 


1 Mozart had been staying with his wife at Baden. 

2 K. 579, "Un moto di gioia", an extra aria for Susanna in "Le Nozze 
di Figaro". See Kochel, p. 728. 



(572) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 75] 

VIENNA, Autumn, 1789 

I trust that you have received my letter. Well, I must 
scold you a little, my love! Even if it is not possible for 
you to get a letter from me, you could write all the same; 
for must all your letters be replies to mine? I was most 
certainly expecting a letter from my dear little wife but 
unfortunately I was mistaken. Well, you must make 
amends and I advise you to do so, otherwise I shall never, 
never forgive you. Yesterday I was at the second part of 
"Cosa rara'V but I did not like it as much as "Die 
Antons". 2 If you return to Vienna on Saturday, you will 
be able to spend Sunday morning here. We have been 
invited to a service and to lunch at Schwechat. 3 Adieu 
Take care of your health. A propos. N.N. (you know 
whom I mean) is a cad. He is very pleasant to my face, 
but he runs down "Figaro" in public and has treated 
me most abominably in the matters you know of 
/ know it for certain. 

Your husband, who loves you with all his heart, 


1 "Una cosa rara", an opera composed by Vicente Martin y Solar (1754- 
1810), which, on its production in Vienna in November 1786, completely 
threw Mozart's "Figaro" into the shade. According to the recently published 
monograph by 0. E. Deutsch, Das Wiener Freihaustheater, Vienna, 1937, 
p. 1 6, the second part of this opera, "Der Fall ist noch weit seltner", by 
Schikaneder and Schack, was first performed on May loth, 1790. Hence 
Mozart's letter must have been written after that date. 

* "Der dumme Gartner oder Die beiden Antons", an operetta by Benedict 
Schack (1758-1826), a Czech, who in 1784 had joined Schikaneder's theatre 
in Vienna, He was an excellent flautist, possessed a good tenor voice, and 
created the part of Tamino in Mozart's "Zauberflote". 

3 A small village near Vienna, where Mozart's friend Joseph Eybler 



(573) Mozart to Michael Puckberg 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana> p. 63] 

VIENNA, December 2$th, 1789 

Do not be alarmed at the contents of this letter. Only 
to you, most beloved friend, who know everything about 
me and my circumstances, have I the courage to open my 
heart completely. According to the present arrangement 
I am to receive from the management next month 200 
ducats for my opera. 1 If you can and will lend me 400 
gulden until then, you will be rescuing your friend from 
the greatest embarrassment; and I give you my word of 
honour that by that time you will have the money back in 
full and with many thanks. In spite of the great expenses 
I have to incur daily, I should try to hold out until then, 
were it not the New Year, when I really must pay off the 
chemists and doctors, whom I am no longer employing, 
unless I wish to lose my good name. We have in particular 
alienated Hundschowsky * (for certain reasons) in a 
rather unfriendly fashion, so that I am doubly anxious 
to settle accounts with him. Beloved friend and brother! 
I know only too well how much I owe you! I beg you 
to be patient a little longer in regard to my old debts. I 
shall certainly repay you, that I promise on my honour. 
Once more I beg you, rescue me just this time from my 
horrible situation. As soon as I get the money for my 
opera, you shall have the 400 gulden back for certain. 
And this summer, thanks to my work for the King of 
Prussia, 3 I hope to be able to convince you completely of 
my honesty. Contrary to our arrangement we cannot have 

1 "Cosl fan tutte", performed on January 26th, 1790. 

2 Nottebohm, p. 64, n. i, suggests "Lichnowsky". 

3 See p. 1384, n. 2. 



any music at our house to-morrow I have too much 
work. By the way, if you see Zistler, 1 you might tell him 
this. But I invite you, you alone, to come along on 
Thursday at 10 o'clock in the morning to hear a short 
rehearsal of my opera, 2 I am only inviting Haydn and 
yourself. I shall tell you when we meet about Salieri's 
plots, which, however, have completely failed already. 

Ever your grateful friend and brother, 


(574) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 57] 

DEAREST FRIEND! VIENNA, January zotk, 1790 

They forgot to deliver at the proper time your last 
kind note. So I could not reply to it sooner. I am very 
much touched by your friendship and kindness. If you 
can and will send an extra hundred gulden, you will 
oblige me very greatly. 

We are having the first instrumental rehearsal in the 
theatre to-morrow. 4 Haydn is coming with me. If your 
business allows you to do so and if you care to hear the 
rehearsal, all you need do is to be so kind as to turn up 
at my quarters at ten o'clock to-morrow morning and 
then we shall all go there together. 

Your most grateful friend 

January 2oth, 1790. 

1 Nottebohm, p. 64, n. 2, suggests the violinist, Joseph Zistler, who in 
1782 became Konzertmeister at Pressburg. 

2 "Cosi fan tutte." 3 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent 300 gulden". 

4 "Cosi fan tutte." 

5 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent on the same day 100 gulden". 



(575) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[From Notts bo km, Mozartiana, p. 56] 

DEAREST FRIEND! VIENNA, February 2otk, 1790 

Had I known that your supply of beer had almost 
run out, I should certainly never have ventured to rob 
you of it; I therefore take the liberty of returning here 
with the second measure, as to-day I am already provided 
with wine. I thank you heartily for the first one, and the 
next time you have a supply of beer, pray send me a little 
of it. You know how much I like it. I beg you, most 
beloved friend, to lend me a few ducats just for a few days, 
if you can do so, as I have to settle a matter at once, which 
cannot be postponed. Forgive my importunity, which is 
prompted by my complete confidence in your friendship. 

Ever your 


(576) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p, 87] 

VIENNA, end of March or beginning of April, 1 790 

Herewith, dearest friend, I am sending you Handel's 

life. 2 When I got home from my visit to you the other 

day, I found the enclosed note from Baron van Swieten. 3 

You will gather from it, as I did, that my prospects are 

1 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent on February 2Oth, 1790, 25 gulden". 

2 John Mainwaring's Memoirs of the life of the late G. F. Handel, 1760, 
which had appeared in 1761 in a German translation by Johann Mattheson. 

3 Baron van Swieten was endeavouring to introduce Handel's oratorios to 
the Viennese public and had already given some performances in the large 
hall of the Hofbibliothek under the management of Joseph Starzer. On the 
latter's death in 1787 Mozart was entrusted with the organisation of these 
performances, and for this purpose reorchestrated Handel's "Acis and 
Galatea" hi 1788, his "Messiah" in 1789, and his "Alexander's Feast" and 
"Ode on St. Cecilia's Day" in 1790. 

VOL. Ill 1393 Z 


now better than ever. 1 I now stand on the threshold of 
my fortune; but the opportunity will be lost for ever, if this 
time I cannot make use of it. My present circumstances, 
however, are such that in spite of my excellent prospects 
I must abandon all hope of furthering my fortunes unless 
I can count on the help of a staunch friend. For some time 
you must have noticed my constant sadness and only 
the very many kindnesses which you have already 
rendered me, have prevented me from speaking out. 
Now, however once more, but for the last time I call 
upon you to stand by me to the utmost of your power in 
this most urgent matter which is going to determine my 
whole happiness. You know how my present circum 
stances, were they to become known, would damage the 
chances of my application to the court, and how necessary 
it is that they should remain a secret; for unfortunately 
at court they do not judge by circumstances, but solely by 
appearances. You know, and I am sure you are convinced 
that if, as I may now confidently hope, my application is 
successful, you will certainly lose nothing. How delighted 
I shall be to discharge my debts to you! How glad I shall 
be to thank you and, in addition, to confess myself 
eternally your debtor! What a pleasant sensation it is to 
reach one's goal at last and what a blessed feeling it 
is when one has helped another to do so! Tears prevent 
me from completing the picture! In short! my whole 
future happiness is in your hands. Act according to the 
dictates of your noble heart! Do what you can and re 
member that you are dealing with a right-minded and 
eternally grateful man, whose situation pains him even 
more on your account than on his own. 


1 Since the death of Emperor Joseph II and the accession of Emperor 
Leopold II Mozart had greater hopes of being appointed Kapellmeister to 
the Viennese court. 2 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent 150 gulden". 



(577) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

\Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berliri\ 

VIENNA, April %tk, 1790 

You are right, dearest friend, not to honour me with a 
reply! My importunity is too great. I only beg you to con 
sider my position from every point of view, to remember 
my cordial friendship and my confidence in you and to 
forgive me! But if you can and will extricate me from 
a temporary embarrassment, then, for the love of God, 
do so! Whatever you can easily spare will be welcome. If 
possible, forget my importunity and forgive me. 

To-morrow, Friday, Count Hadik I has invited me to 
perform for him Stadler's Quintet 2 and the Trio I com 
posed for you. 3 Hering 4 is going to play. I should have 
gone to see you myself in order to have a chat with 
you, but my head is covered with bandages due to rheu 
matic pains, which make me feel my situation still more 
keenly. Again I beg you to help me as much as you can 
just for this once\ and forgive me. 

Ever your 


1 Field-marshal Count Andreas Hadik, President of the War Council in 
Vienna. It was owing to his influence that Aloysia Weber had obtained her 
appointment at the Vienna National Theatre. 

2 K. 581, quintet in A major for clarinet and strings, composed in 1789 
for Anton Stadler (1753-1812), an excellent clarinettist for whom Mozart 
also wrote in 1791 his clarinet concerto in A major, K. 622. 

3 K. 563, Divertimento in & for violin, viola and violoncello, composed 
in 1788. 

4 A banker and amateur violinist. 

5 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent on April 8th, 1790, 25 gulden in bank 



(578) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

{From Nottebohm, Mozartiana^p. 57] 

VIENNA, April 2$rd, 1790 

If you can send me something, even though it be 
only the small sum you sent me last time, you will greatly 
oblige your ever grateful friend and brother 


(579) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 62] 

VIENNA, beginning of May, 1790 

I am very sorry that I cannot go out and have a 
talk with you myself, but my toothache and headache are 
still too painful and altogether I still feel very unwell. I 
share your view about getting some good pupils, but I 
thought of waiting until I should be in our new quarters, 2 
as I intended to give lessons at home. In the meantime 
I beg you to tell people about this plan of mine. I am also 
thinking of giving subscription concerts at home during 
the three months of June, July and August. So it is only 
my present situation which is oppressing me. When I 
move out of these quarters, I shall have to pay 275 gulden 
towards my new home. But I must have something to 
live on until I have arranged my concerts and until the 
quartets 3 on which I am working have been sent to be 
engraved. So, if only I had in hand 600 gulden at least, 

1 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent on April 23rd, 25 gulden". 

2 The Mozarts moved early in October 1790 to the first floor of a house 
in the Rauhensteingasse 970 (now no. 8). It was here that Mozart died. 

3 K. 589 and 590. They were not engraved during Mozart's lifetime. See 
p. 1384, n. 2. 



I should be able to compose with a fairly easy mind. And 
ah! I must have peace of mind. But what worries me 
dreadfully at the moment is a debt to the haberdasher in 
the Stock im Eisen, 1 who, although he at first saw my 
difficulty and said that he was content to wait, is now 
demanding payment urgently and impatiently. The debt 
amounts to 100 gulden. I wish with all my heart that I 
were rid of this unpleasant business. Well, I have made 
frank confession to you and I entreat you to do the 
utmost that your means and true friendship permit. 

Ever your 


(580) Mozart to the Archduke Francis 3 

[Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 
VIENNA, during the first half of May, 1790 


I make so bold as to beg your Royal Highness very 
respectfully to use your most gracious influence with His 
Majesty the King with regard to my most humble petition 
to His Majesty. Prompted by a desire for fame, by a love 
of work and by a conviction of my wide knowledge, I 
venture to apply for the post of second Kapellmeister, 
particularly as Salieri, 4 that very gifted Kapellmeister, has 
never devoted himself to church music, whereas from my 
youth up I have made myself completely familiar with 
this style. The slight reputation which I have acquired 
in the world by my pianoforte playing, has encouraged 

1 A small place adjoining the Stefansplatz in Vienna. 

2 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent 100 gulden". 

3 This is the unfinished draft of a petition to the Archduke Francis to use 
his influence with his brother, King Leopold II, who had succeeded to the 
throne on March I3th, 1790, and was crowned Emperor on October 9th. 

4 Salieri had been appointed Court Kapellmeister in 1788. 



me to ask His Majesty for the favour of being entrusted 
with the musical education of the Royal Family. In the 
sure conviction that I have applied to the most worthy 
mediators who, moreover, are particularly gracious to 
me, I remain with the utmost confidence and shall l . . . 

(581) Mozart to Michael Puchb erg 

[Coj>y in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 

You will have heard, no doubt, from your household 
that I called on you yesterday, uninvited, as you had 
given me permission to do. You know how things are 
with me; in short, as I can find no true friends to help me, 
I am obliged to resort to moneylenders; but as it takes 
time to seek out the most Christian among this un- 
Christian class of people, I am at the moment so destitute 
that I must beg you, dearest friend, in the name of all 
that is sacred, to assist me with whatever you can spare. 
If, as I hope to do, I get the money in a week or a fort 
night, I shall at once repay what you lend me now. Alas, 
I must still ask you to wait patiently for the sums I have 
already been owing you for such a long time. If you only 
knew what grief and worry all this causes me. It has 
prevented me all this time from finishing my quartets. 2 
I now have great hopes of an appointment at court, for 
I have reliable information that the Emperor has not 
sent back my petition with a favourable or damning 
remark, as he has the others, but has retained it. That 
is a good sign. Next Saturday I intend to perform my 
quartets at home, and request the pleasure of your com 
pany and that of your wife. Dearest, most beloved friend 
and brother, do not withdraw your friendship because of 

1 The autograph breaks off with these words. 2 See p. 1396, n. 3. 



my importunity, but stand by me. I rely wholly on you 
and am ever your most grateful 


P.S. I now have two pupils and should very much 
like to raise the number to eight. Do your best to spread 
the news that I am willing to give lessons. 1 

(582) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

\From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 85] 

DEAREST FRIEND AND B.O., VIENNA, June i2tk y 1790 
I have returned to town in order to conduct my 
opera. 2 My wife is slightly better. She already feels some 
relief, but she will have to take the baths sixty times 
and later on in the year she will have to go out there 
again. God grant that it may do her good. Dearest 
friend, if you can help me to meet my present urgent 
expenses, oh, do so! For economy's sake I am staying 
at Baden and only come into town when it is absolutely 
necessary. I have now been obliged to give away my 
quartets 3 (those very difficult works) for a mere song, 
simply in order to have cash in hand to meet my present 
difficulties. And for the same reason I am now composing 
some clavier sonatas. 4 Adieu. Send me what you can most 
easily spare. One of my masses 5 is being performed to 
morrow at Baden. Adieu. About ten o'clock. 

Ever your 

P.S. Please send me the viola as well. 6 

1 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent, on May ryth, 150 gulden". 

2 "Cosl fan tutte." 3 See p. 1384, n. 2. 

* There is no trace of these works. So far as we know, Mozart's last clavier 
sonata was K. 576, composed in 1789. 
s Probably K. 317. See p. 1413* n - 3- 
6 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent, on June I2th, 25 gulden". 


L. 584 MOZART TO HIS WIFE 2-790 

(583) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

\From Nottebohm % Mozartiana, p. 53] 

VIENNA, August iqth, 1790 

Whereas I felt tolerably well yesterday, I am 
absolutely wretched to-day. I could not sleep all night 
for pain. I must have got overheated yesterday from 
walking so much and then without knowing it have 
caught a chill. Picture to yourself my condition ill and 
consumed with worries and anxieties. Such a state quite 
definitely prevents me from recovering. In a week or a 
fortnight I shall be better off certainly but at present 
I am in want! Can you not help me out with a trifle? 
The smallest sum would be very welcome just now. You 
would, for the moment at least, bring peace of mind to 
your true friend, servant and brother 


(584) Mozart to his Wife 2 

{Autograph sold by V. A. Heck, Vienna, Catalogue 58] 

FRANKFURT AM MAIN, September 28t&, 1790 

We have this moment arrived, that is, at one o'clock 
in the afternoon; so the journey has only taken us six 
days. We could have done it still more quickly, if on three 

1 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent, on August I4th, 1790, 10 gulden". 

z This and the following letters were written from Frankfurt am Main, 
which Mozart visited in the hope of getting work in connection with the 
coronation of the Emperor Leopold II on October 9th. He took as his 
companion his brother-in-law, Franz de Paula Hofer. They left Vienna on 
September 23rd. 



occasions we had not rested a little at night. Well, we 
have just alighted at an inn in the suburb of Sachsen- 
hausen, and are in the seventh heaven of delight at 
having secured a room. So far we do not yet know what 
our fate will be, I mean, whether we shall be together or be 
separated. If I cannot get a room anywhere for nothing 
and if I do not find the inns too expensive, I shall certainly 
stay on here. I hope that you received my letter from 
Efferding. 1 I could not write more to you during our 
journey, as we stopped seldom and then only to rest. The 
journey was very pleasant, and we had fine weather 
except on one day; and even this one day caused us no 
discomfort, as my carriage (I should like to give it a 
kiss!) is splendid. At Regensburg we lunched magnifi 
cently to the accompaniment of divine music, we had 
angelic cooking and some glorious Moselle wine. We 
breakfasted at Nuremberg, a hideous town. At Wiirz- 
burg, a fine, magnificent town, we fortified our precious 
stomachs with coffee. The food was tolerable everywhere, 
but at Aschaffenburg, two and a half stages from here, 
mine host was kind enough to fleece us disgracefully. 

I am longing for news of you, of your health, our affairs 
and so forth. I am firmly resolved to make as much money 
as I can here and then return to you with great joy. What 
a glorious life we shall have then! I will work work so 
hard that no unforeseen accidents shall ever reduce us 
to such desperate straits again. I should like you to get 
Stadler to send N.N. to you about that matter. His last 
suggestion was that the money should be advanced on 
Hoffmeister's draft alone, that is, 1000 gulden in cash 
and the remainder in cloth. Then everything could be 
paid off, we should have a little over, and on my return I 
should have nothing to do but work. The whole business 

1 There is no trace of this letter, which must have been sent off on Sep 
tember 24th or 25th. 


Z. 585 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i 7go 

could t>e settled by a friend with carte blanche from me. 
Adieu. I kiss you a thousand times. 

Ever your 


(585) Mozart to his Wife 

[Autograph in the possession of Arturo Toscanint] 

FRANKFURT AM MAIN, September 30^, 1790 

If only I had a letter from you, all would be well. I 
hope that you have received mine from Efferding l and 
Frankfurt. In my last one I told you to speak to Red- 
currant Face. 2 For safety's sake I should very much like 
to raise 2000 gulden on Hoffmeister's draft. But you will 
have to give some other reason; you may say, for example, 
that I am making some speculation about which you know 
nothing. My love, there is no doubt whatever that I shall 
make something in this place, but certainly not as much 
as you and some of my friends expect. That I am both 
known and respected here is undeniable. Well, we shall 
see. But as in every case I prefer to play for safety, I 
should like to make that deal with H , 3 as I shall thus 
obtain some money and not have to pay anything; all I 
shall have to do is to work and that I shall willingly do 
for the sake of my dear little wife. When you write to me, 
always address your letters, Poste Restante. Where do 
you think I am living? In the same house as Bohm, 4 and 
Hofer is with me too. We pay thirty gulden a month, 
which is wonderfully cheap, and we also take our meals 

1 See p. 1401, n. i. 

2 Mozart's nickname for Anton Stadler. 3 Probably Hoffmeister. 
4 Johannes B ohm's theatrical company had been giving- performances in 

Frankfurt since 1780. On October I2th and 22nd they produced Mozart's 
"Entfuhrung aus dem Serail" and "La finta giardiniera", the latter 
in a German translation. Bohm was living in the Kalbachergasse, near the 



there. And whom do you think I have come across? The 
girl who so often played hide-and-seek with us in the 
Auge Gottes. I think her name was Buchner. She is now 
Madame Porsch : and this is her second marriage. She 
asks me to send you all sorts of kind messages. As I do 
not know whether you are at Baden or Vienna, I am 
addressing this letter again to Madame Hofer. 2 I am as 
excited as a child at the thought of seeing you again. If 
people could see into my heart, I should almost feel 
ashamed. To me everything is cold cold as ice. Perhaps 
if you were with me I might possibly take more pleasure 
in the kindness of those I meet here. But, as it is, every 
thing seems so empty. Adieu, my love. I am ever your 
husband, who loves you with all his soul, 

Frankfurt am Main, September 3Oth, 1790. 

(586) Mozart to his Wife 

Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 44] 

FRANKFURT AM MAIN, October ^rd, 1790 

At last I feel comforted and happy. First of all, 
because I have had news from you, my love, news for 
which I was simply aching; and, secondly, on account of 
the reassuring information about my affairs. I have now 
made up my mind to compose at once the Adagio for the 
watchmaker 3 and then to slip a few ducats into the hand 

1 Porsch was an actor at the Frankfurt National Theatre. 

* Josefa, Constanze's eldest sister, who since 1788 had been married to 

3 K. 594, adagio and allegro in F minor and major for a mechanical organ, 
composed for Count Josef Deym, owner of the M tiller waxworks, on the 
occasion of the exhibition of the effigy of the late Field-marshal Laudon, who 
had died on July I4th, 1 79O.This work has been published only in a transcription 
as a piano duet. For the same instrument Mozart wrote in 1791. K. 608, fantasy 
in F minor, and K. 616, andante in F major. See also p. 147 9, n. I. 


L. 586 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i 79 o 

of my dear little wife. And this I have done; but as it 
is a kind of composition which I detest, I have unfor 
tunately not been able to finish it. I compose a bit of it 
every day but I have to break off now and then, as I get 
bored. And indeed I would give the whole thing up, if 
I had not such an important reason to go on with it. But 
I still hope that I shall be able to force myself gradually to 
finish it. If it were for a large instrument and the work 
would sound like an organ piece, then I might get some 
fun out of it. But, as it is, the works consist solely of little 
pipes, which sound too high-pitched and too childish for 
my taste. 

Up to the present I have been living here altogether 
in retirement. Every morning I stay indoors in my 
hole of a bedroom and compose. My sole recreation is the 
theatre, where I meet several acquaintances from Vienna, 
Munich, Mannheim and even Salzburg. Franz Lang, the 
horn player, and Gres, the Treasurer, are here and old 
Wendling too with his Dorothea. This is the way I should 
like best of all to go on living but I fear that it will 
soon come to an end and that I am in for a restless life. 
Already I am being invited everywhere and however 
tiresome it may be to let myself be on view, I see never 
theless how necessary it is. So in God's name I submit to 
it. Well, it is probable that my concert may not be a 
failure. I wish it were over, if only to be nearer the time 
when I shall once more embrace my love! On Tuesday 
the theatrical company of the Elector of Mainz are per 
forming "Don Giovanni" in my honour. 1 Farewell, my 
love. Give my greetings to the few friends who wish me 
well. Take care of your health which is so precious to me 
and be ever my Constanze as I shall ever be your 


1 This performance did not take place. But "Figaro" was performed during 
Mozart's stay at Frankfurt. 



Remember, keep on writing to me even though you 
only send me a few lines. 

P.S. I lunched yesterday with Herr Schweitzer, the 
wealthiest banker in all Frankfurt. Mile Crux is here too. 
I have not yet seen the girl, but Madame Quallenberg 
tells me that she has grown so tall and buxom that I shan't 
recognise her. Adieu. 

The state entry takes place to-morrow Monday, and 
the coronation a week later. 1 

(587) Mozart to his Wife 

[A utograph in the possession of Frau Floersheim-Koch^ Florence] 

FRANKFURT AM MAIN, October StA, 1790 

I have now had three letters from you, my love. That 
of September 28th has this moment arrived. I have not 
yet received the one you sent by Herr von Alt, but I shall 
make enquiries about it at once at Le Noble's. You must 
now have had four letters from me. 2 This is the fifth. You 
will not be able to write to me any more, for in all 
probability when you read this letter I shall no longer be 
here, as I intend to give my concert on Wednesday or 
Thursday and then on Friday forthwith tschiri-tschitschi 
seek safety in flight! Dearest little wife! I trust that 
you have dealt with the business about which I wrote to 
you, and are still dealing with it. I shall certainly not 
make enough money here to be able to pay back 800 or 
1000 gulden immediately on my return. But if the business 
with Hoffmeister is at least so far advanced that only my 
presence is required, then, after deducting interest at the 

1 The coronation took place on October 9th. 
2 See p. 1401, n. I. 


L. 587 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i 79 o 

rate of 20%, I shall have 1600 out of 2000 gulden. I can 
then pay out 1000 gulden and shall have 600 left. Well, I 
shall begin to give little quartet subscription concerts in 
Advent and I shall also take pupils. I need never repay 
the sum, as / am composing for Hoffmeister so every 
thing will be quite in order. But please settle the affair 
with Hoffmeister, that is, if you really want me to return. 
If you could only look into my heart. There a struggle is 
going on betv/een my yearning and longing to see and 
embrace you once more and my desire to bring home a 
large sum of money. I have often thought of travelling 
farther afield, but whenever I tried to bring myself to take 
the decision, the thought always came to me, how bitterly 
I should regret it, if I were to separate myself from my 
beloved wife for such an uncertain prospect, perhaps even 
to no purpose whatever. I feel as if I had left you years 
ago. Believe me, my love, if you were with me I might 
perhaps decide more easily, but I am too much accustomed 
to you and I love you too dearly to endure being separated 
from you for long. Besides, all this talk about the 
Imperial towns is mere misleading chatter. True, I am 
famous, admired and popular here; on the other hand, the 
Frankfurt people are even more stingy than the Viennese. 
If my concert is at all successful, it will be thanks to my 
name, to the Countess Hatzfeldt and the Schweitzer 
family who are working hard on my behalf. But I shall be 
glad when it is over. If I work very hard in Vienna and 
take pupils, we can live very happily; and nothing but a 
good engagement at some court can make me abandon 
this plan. But do your best with the help of Red-currant 
Face * or someone else to conclude that business with 
Hoffmeister and to make known generally my intention 
to take pupils. Then we shall certainly have enough to 
live on. Adieu, my love. You will still get a few more 

1 See p. 1402, n. 2. 


letters from me. But I, alas! can get no more from you. 

Ever love your own 

Frankfurt am Main, October 8th, 1790. 

The Coronation is to-morrow. 

Take care of your health and be careful when you go 
out walking. Adieu. 

(588) Mozart to his Wife 

\From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 84] 

FRANKFURT AM MAIN, October \$th> 1790 

I have not yet received a reply to any of my letters 
from Frankfurt, which makes me rather anxious. My 
concert took place at eleven o'clock this morning. 1 It was 
a splendid success from the point of view of honour and 
glory, but a failure as far as money was concerned. 
Unfortunately some Prince was giving a big dejeuner and 
the Hessian troops were holding a grand manoeuvre. But 
in any case some obstacle has arisen on every day during 
my stay here. You can't imagine how . 2 But in spite 
of all these difficulties I was in such good form and 
people were so delighted with me that they implored me 
to give another concert next Sunday. I shall therefore 
leave on Monday. I must close this letter, or I shall miss 
the post. I gather from your letters that you have not yet 
received any from me from Frankfurt. Yet I sent you 
four. Moreover I seem to notice that you doubt my 

1 Mozart played his piano concertos K. 459 and K. 537, the so-called 
coronation concerto. He also accompanied Hofer in a violin sonata and 
played a piano duet with Beecke. 

2 Nottebohm, the only source for this letter, omits the word or words. 
According to Dr. A. Einstein they may be about the wretched performance 
of Margarete Schick (nle Hampel), who sang an aria and a duet with 


Z. 590 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i 79 a 

punctuality or rather my eagerness to write to you, and 
this pains me bitterly. Surely you ought to know me 
better. Good God! Only love me half as much as I love 
you, and I shall be content. Ever your 

Frankfurt, October I5th, 1790. 

(589) Mozart to his Wife 

\Cofiy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 

MAINZ, October 17 th, 1790 x 

P.S. While I was writing the last page, tear after tear 
fell on the paper. But I must cheer up catch! An 
astonishing number of kisses are flying about The 
deuce! I see a whole crowd of them! Ha! Ha! ... I have 
just caught three They are delicious! You can still 
answer this letter, but you must address your reply to 
Linz, Poste Restante That is the safest course. As I do 
not yet know for certain whether I shall go to Regens- 
burg, I can't tell you anything definite. Just write on 
the cover that the letter is to be kept until called for. 
Adieu Dearest, most beloved little wife Take care of 
your health and don't think of walking into town. Do 
write and tell me how you like our new quarters 2 
Adieu. I kiss you millions of times. 

(590) Mozart to his Wife 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 29] 

MANNHEIM, October zyd t 1790 

We are going to Schwetzingen to-morrow to see the 
gardens. In the evening " Figaro" will be given here for 

1 The letter to which this is a postscript has unfortunately been lost. 
2 See p. 1396, n. 2. 



the first time. We shall leave the day after to-morrow. It 
is "Figaro" which is responsible for my being here still, 
for the whole cast implored me to stay on and help them 
with the rehearsals. " Figaro" too is the reason why I cannot 
write as much to you as I should like to, for it is just the 
time for the dress rehearsal. Why, the first act at least will 
already be over. I trust that you received my letter of the 
iyth from Mainz. The day before my departure I played 
before the Elector, but only received the meagre sum of 
fifteen carolins. Get things going so that that affair with 
Hoffmeister may be concluded. I now hope to embrace 
you for certain in a fortnight, that is, six or seven days 
after you receive this letter. But you will still get letters 
from me from Augsburg, Munich and Linz. You, how 
ever, cannot send any more letters to me. All the same if 
you write immediately after receiving this letter, I can 
still get your reply at Linz. Do try to do this. Now, fare 
well, dearest little wife! I kiss you a thousand times and 
am ever and unchangingly your faithful husband 


(591) Mozart to his Wife 

[Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, erlin\ 

MUNICH, November 2nd, 1790 

You have no idea how much it pains me that I have 
to wait until I get to Linz before I can have news from you. 
Patience; for if one does not know how long one is going 
to stay in a place, it is impossible to make better arrange 
ments. Though I would have gladly prolonged my stay 
with my old Mannheim friends, I only wanted to spend 
a day here; but now I am obliged to remain until the 5th 
or 6th, as the Elector has asked me to perform at a concert 
which he is giving for the King of Naples. It is greatly to 

VOL. in 1409 2 A 


the credit of the Viennese court that the King has to hear 
me in a foreign country. 1 You can well imagine that I have 
had a good time with the Cannabichs, la bonne Madame 
Ramm, Marchand and Brochard, and that we have talked 
a great deal about you, my love. I am looking forward to 
seeing you, for I have a great deal to discuss with you. I 
am thinking of taking this very same journey with you, 
my love, at the end of next summer, so that you may try 
some other waters. At the same time the company, the 
exercise and the change of air will do you good, for it has 
agreed very well with me. I am greatly looking forward to 
this, and so are all my friends. 

Forgive me for not writing as much as I should like to, 
but you cannot conceive what a fuss they are making of 
me. I must now be off to Cannabich's, where a concerto 
is being rehearsed. Adieu, dear little wife. According to 
my calculation I cannot expect an answer to this letter. 
Farewell, my love, I kiss you millions of times and am 
ever, until death, your loving husband 


P.S. Gretl 2 is now married to Madame Le Brun's 3 
brother, so her name is Madame Danzi. Little Hannah 
Brochard 4 is now sixteen and alas! her looks have been 
spoilt by smallpox. What a pity! She never stops talking 
about you. She plays the clavier very nicely. 

1 Mozart is alluding to the visit to Vienna in September 1790 of King 
Ferdinand and Queen Caroline of Naples for the celebration of the double 
wedding of their daughters, Maria Theresa and Louise, to the Archdukes 
Francis and Ferdinand. The festivities consisted of performances of operas by 
S alien and Weigl and a concert at which works by Haydn and other com 
posers were rendered. Mozart was entirely neglected. 

2 Margarete Marchand, Leopold Mozart's former pupil, married in 1790 
Franz Danzi (1763-1826), 'cellist in the Munich court orchestra. 

3 Franziska Danzi, daughter of the Mannheim 'cellist, Innocenz Danzi, 
had married in 1778 the Mannheim oboist, Ludwig August Le Brun. 

4 Maria Johanna Brochard, cousin of Heinrich and Margarete Marchand, 
had been Leopold Mozart's pupil. 



(592) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 52] 

VIENNA, April i$th, 1791 

I shall be drawing my quarterly pay on April 2oth, 
that is, in a week. If you can and will lend me until 
then about twenty gulden, you will oblige me very much, 
most beloved friend, and you will have it back with very 
many thanks on the aoth, as soon as I draw my money. I 
am anxiously awaiting the sum. Ever your most grateful 

April 1 3th, 1791. 

(593) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

{Autograph in the possession of Heinrich Eisemann, London} 

VIENNA, between April list and 27 th, 1791 
I trust that Orsler 2 has returned the keys. It was not 
my fault. Further I hope that on my behalf he has asked 
you in advance to lend me for to-day a violin and two 
violas. They are for a quartet at Greiner's. 3 You know 
already that I am very anxious to have them. If you 
should care to come to our little concert in the evening, 
both he and I most politely invite you to do so. 


1 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent, on April ijth, 1791, 30 gulden". 

2 Joseph Orsler, who from 1772 to 1806 was 'cellist in the Vienna court 

3 Court Councillor von Greiner (1732-1798), the father of Caroline 
Pichler, write^ and musician. For an excellent account of her connection 
with Mozart see Bliimml, pp. 104-118. 



P.S. Please forgive me for not having repaid, as I 
promised to do, the sum you know of. But Stadler, who 
was to have gone to the pay office for me, because I have 
so much to do, altogether forgot about the 2Oth. So I 
must wait for another week. 

(594) Mozart to the Municipal Council of Vienna 

{Autograph in the possession of Frau Floersheim-Koch, Florence] 

VIENNA, beginning of May, 1791 

When Kapellmeister Hofmann T was ill, I thought 
of venturing to apply for his post, seeing that my 
musical talents, my works and my skill in composi 
tion are well known in foreign countries, my name is 
treated everywhere with some respect, and I" myself was 
appointed several years ago composer to the distin 
guished court of Vienna. I trusted therefore that I was 
not unworthy of this post and that I deserved the favour 
able consideration of our enlightened municipal council. 

Kapellmeister Hofmann, however, has recovered his 
health and in the circumstances for I wish him from 
my heart a long life it has occurred to me that it might 
perhaps be of service to the Cathedral and, most worthy 
gentlemen, to your advantage, if I were to be attached 
for the time being as unpaid assistant to this ageing 
Kapellmeister and were to have the opportunity of help 
ing this worthy man in his office, thus gaining the appro 
bation of our learned municipal council by the actual 
performance of services which I may justly consider 

1 Leopold Hofmann (c. 1730-1793), Kapellmeister at the Stefanskirche 
in Vienna. 



myself peculiarly fitted to render on account of my 
thorough knowledge of both the secular and ecclesiastical 
styles of music. 

Your most humble servant, 

Royal and Imperial Court Composer 1 

(595) Mozart to Choir-master Stoll 2 at Baden 

[Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 

DEAR OLD STOLL! VIENNA, beginning of June y 1791 

Don't be a poll! 

Primo. I should like to know whether Stadler called on 
you yesterday and asked you for this mass: 3 

Did he? Well then, I hope that I shall get it to-day. If 
not, please be so kind as to send it to me at once and, 
remember, with all the parts. I shall return it very soon. 

Secondo. Will you please find a small apartment for my 
wife? She only needs two rooms, or one room and a 
dressing-room. But the main thing is that they should 
be on the ground floor. The rooms I should prefer are 
those which Goldhahn 4 used to occupy on the ground 
floor at the butcher's. Please enquire there first; perhaps 
they are still to let. My wife is going out to Baden on 

1 The Municipal Council of Vienna granted Mozart's request, but Kapell 
meister Hofmann outlived the petitioner. His successor was Johann Georg 

2 Anton Stoll (1748-1805), school teacher and choir-master of Baden near 
Vienna. Mozart wrote for him on June I7th, 1791, his motet K. 618, "Ave, 
verum corpus" for four voices, strings and organ. 

3 K. 317, composed in 1779, Mozart's so-called coronation mass. 

4 Josef Odilo Goldhahn was one of Mozart's acquaintances in Vienna. 


Z. 596 MOZART TO HIS WIFE j 79 j 

Saturday, or Monday, at latest. If we cannot have these 
rooms, then you must look for something fairly near the 
baths; but the important point is that they should be on 
the ground floor. The ground floor at the town notary's, 
where Dr. Alt stayed, 1 would do very well, but the rooms 
at the butcher's would be best of all. 

Terzo. I should like to know whether the theatre in 
Baden is open yet? 

Please reply as quickly as possible and send me 
information on these three points. 


P.S. My address is: In the Rauhensteingasse, in the 
Kaiserhaus, No. 970, first floor. 

P.S. This is the silliest letter I have ever written in 
my life; but it is just the very thing for you. 

(596) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[Prom Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 24] 

I hope that on alighting from the carriage my letter 
handed you Sabinde and that after you read Sabinde, you 
were very glad that I let it go off for a drive to Baden. 
It slept with me last night and I wrote Sabinde early this 
morning ss ss a. A whole crowd of people were made 
fools of to-day in St. Stefan. Madame Schwingenschuh 
and Lisette called on me very early in the morning and I told 
them so. Then I sent Lori 2 to church to tell Jacquin and 
Schafer at once. They both came to see me immediately. 
I then sent another message, as they had seen Hofmann 
go to the choir. I shall fly to you on Wednesday in the 

1 Stoll took these rooms in the Renngasse for Constanze. See MM. May 
1920, pp. 109-112. 2 Leonore, the Mozarts' maidservant. 



company of the Schwingenschuhs. I am sleeping to-night 
at Leutgeb's and the whole time I am thinking that I 
have given Lori the consilium abeundi. I am looking 
forward to reading a letter from you soon. Adieu, my 
love. Ever your husband 


(597) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

\Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg} 

J'ecris cette lettre dans la petite chambre au jardin 
chez Leutgeb ou j'ai couche cette nuit excellemment et 
j'espere que ma chere epouse aura passe cette nuit aussi 
bien que moi. J'y passerai cette nuit aussi, puisque j'ai 
congedie Leonore et je serais tout seul a la maison, ce qui 
n'est pas agreable. 

J 'attends avec beaucoup d'impatience une lettre qui 
m'apprendra comme vous avez passe le jour d'hier. Je 
tremble quand je pense au bain de Saint Antoine, car 
je crains toujours le risque de tomber sur Tescalier en 
sortant et je me trouve entre Tesperance et la crainte 
une situation bien desagreable! Si vous n'etiez pas grosse, 
je craignerais moins. 1 Mais abandonnons cette idee triste! 
Le ciel aura eu certainement soin de ma chere Stanzi- 
Marini. 2 

Madame de Schwingenschuh m'a prie de leur procurer 
une loge pour ce soir au theatre de Wieden, 3 oil Ton 
donnera la cinquieme partie d' Antoine 4 , et j'etais si 
heureux de pouvoir les servir. J'aurai done le plaisir de 
voir cet opera dans leur compagnie. 

1 The Mozarts' sixth child, Franz Xaver Wolfgang, was born on July 26th, 
1791. He became a professional pianist and died at Karlsbad in 1844. 

2 One of Mozart's pet-names for Constanze. 3 Schikaneder's theatre. 
4 " Anton bei Hofe", an opera by Benedict Schack. 


L. 598 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i ?gi 

I have this moment received your dear letter and am 
delighted to hear that you are well and in good spirits. 
Madame Leutgeb has laundered my nightcap and neck 
tie, but I should like you to see them! Good God! I kept 
on telling her, "Do let me show you how she (my wife] does 
them\" But it was no use. I am delighted that you have 
a good appetite but whoever gorges a lot, must also shit 
a lot no, walk a lot, I mean. But I should not like you 
to take long walks without me. I entreat you to follow 
my advice exactly, for it comes from my heart. Adieu 
my love my only one. Do catch them in the air those 
2 999i little kisses from me which are flying about, waiting 
for someone to snap them up. Listen, I want to whisper 
something in your ear and you in mine and now we 
open and close our mouths again again and again at 

last we say: "It is all about Plumpi Strumpi " Well, 

you can think what you like that is just why it's so con 
venient. Adieu. A thousand kisses. Ever your 

June 6th, 1791. 

(598) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 1 1] 

th, 1791 

N.B. Since you headed your letter Vienna, 
I must head mine Baden. 


I simply cannot describe my delight at receiving 
your last letter of the 6th, which told me that you are 
well and in good health, and that, very sensibly, you are 
not taking baths every day. Heavens! How delighted I 

1 Mozart was writing from Vienna. 


should have been if you had come to me with the Wild- 
burgs! Indeed I was wild with myself for not telling you 
to drive into town but I was afraid of the expense. Yet 
it would have been charmant if you had done so. At five 
o'clock to-morrow morning, we are all driving out, three 
carriagefuls of us, and so between nine and ten I expect 
to find in your arms all the joy which only a man can feel 
who loves his wife as I do! It is only a pity that I can't 
take with me either the clavier or the bird! That is 
why I would rather have gone out alone; but, as it is, I 
can't get out of the arrangement without offending the 

I lunched yesterday with Sussmayr l at the "Un- 
garische Krone", 2 as I still had business in town at one 

o'clock, as S 3 has to lunch early and Mme S , 

who wanted me very much to lunch with them one of 
these days, had an engagement at Schonbrunn. To-day 
I am lunching with Schikaneder, as you know, since you 
too were invited. 

So far I have had no letter from Mme Duschek; but 
I shall enquire again to-day. I can't find out anything 
about your dress, as I have not seen the Wildburgs since. 
If it is at all possible, I shall certainly bring your hat with 
me. Adieu, my little sweetheart. I simply cannot tell you 
how I am looking forward to to-morrow. Ever your 


1 Franz Xaver Sussmayr (1766-1803), born at Schwanenstadt in Upper 
Austria, became a pupil of Mozart in composition. He accompanied Mozart 
and Constanze to Prague in August 1791, and was probably responsible for 
certain portions of Mozart's opera "La Clemenza di Tito". He completed 
Mozart's Requiem after the composer's death. See Abert, vol. ii. p. 850 S. 

2 A restaurant in the Himmelpfortgasse, which still exists. 

3 Possibly Benedict Schack, who had married a contralto singer. 


L. 599 ' MOZART TO HIS WIFE 1791 

(599) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From No tteb ohm, Mozartiana, p. 46] 

Criez avec moi centre mon mauvais sort! Mile. 
Kirchgessner l ne donne pas son academie lundi ! 2 Par 
consequent j'aurais pu vous posseder, ma chere, tout ce 
jour de dimanche. Mercredi je viendrai surement. 

I must hurry, as it is already a quarter to seven and 
the coach leaves at seven. When you are bathing, do take 
care not to slip and never stay in alone. If I were you I 
should occasionally omit a day in order not to do the cure 
too violently. I trust that someone slept with you last 
night. I cannot tell you what I would not give to be with 
you at Baden instead of being stuck here. From sheer 
boredom I composed to-day an aria for my opera. 3 I got 
up as early as half past four. Wonderful to relate, I have 
got back my watch but as I have no key, I have un 
fortunately not been able to wind it. What a nuisance! 
Schlumbla! That is a word to ponder on. Well, I wound 
our big clock instead. Adieu my love! I am lunching 
to-day with Puchberg. I kiss you a thousand times and say 
with you in thought: ' ' Death and despair were his reward! ' ' 4 

Ever your loving husband 


See that Karl behaves himself . Give him kisses from me. 
Take an electuary if you are constipated not otherwise. 

1 Marianne Kirchgessner (1770-1809) was a blind performer on the glass 
harmonica. She undertook numerous successful concert tours. Mozart com 
posed for her in May 1791 K. 617, an adagio and rondo in C minor and 
major for harmonica, flute, oboe, viola and violoncello. 

2 Her concert, which was to have taken place on June I3th, was postponed 
until August 1 9th. K. 617 was performed, 

3 "Die Zauberflote", which Schikaneder had commissioned Mozart to 
write for performance at his theatre Auf der Wieden. 

4 A quotation from the "Zauberflote". 



Take care of yourself in the morning and evening, if it is 

(600) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, pp. 27-29] 

VIENNA, June iztk, 1791 

Now why did I not get a letter from you last night? 
So that you might keep me even longer in anxiety about 
your baths? This and something else spoilt the whole of 
yesterday for me. I went to see N.N. in the morning, who 
promised me, parole d'honneur, to call on me between 
twelve and one in order to settle up everything. So I 
could not lunch with Puchberg, but had to wait at home. 
Well, I waited until half past two. He never came, so I sent 
a note to his father by our servant. Meanwhile I went off 
to the " Ungarische Krone", as it was too late to get lunch 
anywhere else; even there I had to take my meal alone, 
as all the guests had already left. You can imagine the 
sort of lunch I had, worried as I was about you and 
annoyed with N.N. If only I had had someone to console 
me a little. It is not at all good for me to be alone, when 
I have something on my mind. At half past three I was 
at home again. The servant had not yet returned. I 
waited and waited until half past six when she turned up 
with a note. Waiting is always disagreeable, to be sure, 
but even more so when the result is not what you expect. 
The note only contained apologies for not having been 
able to get some definite information, and assurances that 
he would not forget me and would certainly keep his 
word. To cheer myself up I then went to the Kasperle 
Theatre to see the new opera "Der Fagottist", 1 which is 

1 "Kaspar der Fagottist", by Wenzel Miiller (1767-1835), who was con 
ductor at Marinelli's Theatre in Vienna. The first performance of this opera 
was on June 8th, 1791. 


Z. 600 MOZART TO HIS WIFE j 79 j 

making such a sensation, but which is shoddy stuff. When 
passing the coffee-house I looked in to see whether Loibl l 
was there, but there was not a sign of him. In the evening 
I again took a meal at the "Krone" simply in order not 
to be alone, and there at least I found someone to talk to. 
Then I went straight to bed. I was up again at five 
o'clock, got dressed at once, went to see Montecucoli 2 
"whom I found at home then went off to N.N., who, 
however, had already decamped. I am only sorry that 
on account of that business ', which has not yet been 
settled, I was not able to write to you this morning. How 
I should have liked to write! 

I am off now to the Rehbergs, that is, to the great 
banquet which they are giving to their friends. If I had 
not made a solemn promise to turn up and if it were not 
extremely rude of me to stay away, I should not go at 
alL But what good would that do me? Well, to-morrow I 
am driving out to Baden and to you! If only my affairs 
were settled! Who will now keep on prodding N.N. on 
my behalf? For if he is not prodded, he becomes luke 
warm. I have had to look him up every morning, other 
wise he would not have done even what he has done. 
Please do not go to the Casino to-day even if the 
Schwingenschuhs should go out to Baden. Save it up 
for when I am with you. If only I had news from you! 
Well, it is half past ten now and the Rehbergs lunch at 
noon. Why, it is striking eleven! So I can't wait any 
longer! Adieu, dear little wife, love me as I do you. I 
kiss you 2000 times in thought. Ever your 


1 Johann Martin Loibl, a notary, a lover of music and a member of the 
same masonic lodge as Mozart, 

2 Ludwig Franz. Marchese di Montecucoli, was a pupil of Mozart's. 



(60 1 ) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[A utografih in the possession of Dr. Richard Strauss] 

N.N. has this moment gone off to Baden. It is now 
nine o'clock in the evening and I have been with him 
since three. I think he will keep his word this time. He 
promised to call on you, so I urge you to go for him 
hard. But please do not go to the Casino. 

Primo, the company 2 is -you understand what I mean 

Secondo, you can't dance, as things are and to look on . . . ? 

Why, you can do that more easily when your little 
husband is with you. 

I must close, as I have still to go and see Montecucoli. 
I just wanted to dash off this piece of news to you. You 
will have a proper letter to-morrow. Adieu do what I 
have told you about the baths and love me as much as I 
love and shall ever love you. 

Ever your 


My greetings to your court flunkeys! 

(602) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From Nottebohm t Mozartiana, p. 35] 

VIENNA, June 2$th y 1791 

These are only a few lines written to you in haste, 
as I am going to give Leutgeb a surprise by going out 
to breakfast with him. It is now half past five. After 

1 This letter is undated. 2 Probably the Schwingenschuhs. 



lunch I shall write more. And I am hoping that by then 
I shall have had a letter from you. Adieu I only wanted 
to say good morning. Take care of yourself, particularly 
when you are taking the baths. If you feel the slightest 
weakness, stop them at once. Adieu! Two thousand 


My compliments to Snai J and tell him to pester N.N. 

\Autograph in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin} 


I have this moment received your letter, which has 
given me extraordinary pleasure. I am now longing for 
a second one to tell me how the baths are affecting you. 
I too am sorry not to have been present yesterday at 
your fine concert, not on account of the music, but be 
cause I should have been so happy to be with you. I gave 
N.N. 2 a surprise to-day. First of all I went to the Reh- 
bergs. Well, Frau Rehberg sent one of her daughters up 
stairs to tell him that a dear old friend had come from Rome 
and had searched all the houses in the town without being 
able to find him. He sent down a message to say, would 
I please wait for a few minutes. Meanwhile the poor 
fellow put on his Sunday best, his finest clothes, and 
turned up with his hair most elaborately dressed. You 
can imagine how we made fun of him. I can never resist 
making a fool of someone if it is not N.N., then it must 
be N.N. or Snai. And where did I sleep? At home, of 
course. And I slept very well, save that the mice kept me 

1 Abert, vol. ii. p. 753, n. 2, suggests that Snai was one of Mozart's nick 
names for Siissmayr, who was then at Baden. 2 Probably Leutgeb. 



most excellent company. Why, I had a first-rate argument 
with them. I was up before five o'clock. A propos, I advise 
you not to go to mass to-morrow. Those peasant louts 
are too cheeky for my taste. True, you have a rough 
compagnon, but the peasants don't respect him, perdent 
respectum, as they see at once that he is a silly ass 

I shall give a verbal reply to Stissmayr. I would 
rather not waste paper on him. 

Tell Kriigel or Kliisel that you would like to have 
better food. Perhaps, when you are passing, you could 
speak to him yourself. That would be even better. He is 
a good fellow in other ways and respects me. 

To-morrow I shall join the procession to the Josefstadt, 
holding a candle in my hand! Snai! 

Do not forget my warnings about the morning and 
evening air and about bathing too long. My kind 
regards to Count and Countess Wagensperg. Adieu. I 
kiss you two thousand times in thought and am ever 


Vienna, June 25th, 1791. 

P.S. Perhaps after all it would be well to give Karl 
a little rhubarb. Why did you not send me that long 
letter? Here is a letter for him I should like to have 
an answer. Catch Catch bis bis bs bs kisses 
are flying about for you bs why, another one is 
staggering after the rest! 

I have this moment received your second letter. Be 
ware of the baths! And do sleep more and not so 
irregularly, or I shall worry I am a little anxious as 
it is. 




(603) Mozart to Michael Puchberg 

[Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 

VIENNA, June 2$th, 1791 

Business has prevented me from having the pleasure 
of calling on you to-day. I have a request to make. My 
wife writes to say that she can see that, although they are 
not expecting it, the people with whom she is living would 
be glad to receive some payment for her board and lodg 
ing and she begs me to send her some money. I had 
intended to settle everything when it was time for her to 
leave and I now find myself in very great embarrassment. 
I should not like to expose her to any unpleasantness; 
yet at the moment I cannot leave myself short of money. 
If you, most beloved friend, can assist me with a small 
sum, which I can send to her at once, you will oblige me 
exceedingly. I require the loan only for a few days, when 
you will receive 2000 gulden in my name, from which you 
can then refund yourself. 

Ever your 


(604) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 34] 

VIENNA, June ^oth or July 1st, 1791 

I have just this moment arrived and have already 
called on Puchberg and Montecucoli. The latter was not 
at home so I shall call again at half past nine. I am 

1 Puchberg noted on this letter, "sent eodem die 25 gulden"* 


now going to look up N.N. You will have received a 
letter for me from Montecucoli. As I think it probable 
that instead of spending Sunday with you I shall have 
to spend it in Vienna, please send me the two summer 
suits, white and brown, with their trousers. I entreat you 
to take the baths only every other day, and only for 
an hour. But if you want me to feel quite easy in my 
mind, do not take them at all, until I am with you again. 
Adieu. I kiss you a thousand times and am ever your 


N.B. My greetings to Snai and tell him that I should 
like to know how he is probably as tough as an ox. Tell 
him to keep on writing until I get my belongings. Adieu. 

I am sealing this letter in the presence of that good 
fellow Primus. 1 

(605) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

\Autograph in the possession of D. N. Heineman, Brussels} 

MA TRES CHfeRE EPOUSE! VIENNA, July 2nd, 1791 

I trust that you are very well. I have just remem 
bered that you have very seldom been upset during preg 
nancy. Perhaps the baths are having a too laxative effect? 
I should not wait for certain proofs, which would be too 
unpleasant. My advice is that you should stop them now! 
Then I should feel quite easy in my mind. To-day is the 
day when you are not supposed to take one and yet I 
wager that that little wife of mine has been to the baths? 
Seriously I had much rather you would prolong your 
cure well into the autumn. I hope that you got my first 
little note. 

1 Mozart's nickname for Joseph Deiner, a steward at the "Silberne 

Schlange", an eating-house and beer-shop in the Karntnergasse, where 
Mozart usually lunched. 

VOL. Ill H 2 5 2B 

L. 606 MOZART TO HIS WIFE j 79 j 

Please tell that idiotic fellow Siissmayr to send me my 
score of the first act, from the introduction to the finale, 
so that I may orchestrate it. 1 It would be a good thing if 
he could put it together to-day and dispatch it by the first 
coach to-morrow, for I should then have it at noon. I have 
just had a visit from a couple of Englishmen who refused 
to leave Vienna without making my acquaintance. But of 
course the real truth is that they wanted to meet that great 
fellow Siissmayr and only came to see me in order to find 
out where he lived, as they had heard that I was fortunate 
enough to enjoy his favour. I told them to go to the 
"Ungarische Krone" and to wait there until he should 
return from Baden! 2 Snai! They want to engage him to 
clean the lamps. I am longing most ardently for news of 
you. It is half past twelve already and I have heard 
nothing. I shall wait a little longer before sealing my 
letter. . . . Nothing has come, so I must close it! Farewell, 
dearest, most beloved little wife! Take care of your health, 
for as long as you are well and are kind to me, I don't 
care a fig if everything else goes wrong. Follow the 
advice I gave you at the beginning of this letter and 
farewell. Adieu a thousand kisses for you and a thou 
sand boxes on the ear for Lacci Bacci. Ever your 

Vienna, Saturday, July 2nd, 1791. 

(606) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 
\ I j 

{Autograph in the Mozarteum, Salzburg] 

July yd, 1791 

I received your letter together with Montecucoli's 
and am delighted to hear that you are well and in good 

1 Mozart was composing "Die Zauberflote". 
2 Mozart is punning on the word "baden", which means "to bathe". 



spirits. I thought as much. If you take the baths twice in 
succession, you will be thoroughly spanked when I come 
out to you again! Thanks for the finale you sent and my 
clothes, but I cannot understand why you did not put in 
a letter. I searched all the pockets in the coat and trousers. 
Well, perhaps the post- woman is still carrying it about in 
her pocket! I am only delighted that you are in good 
health, my dear little wife. I rely on your following my 
advice. If you do, I can feel a little calmer! As for my 
health, I feel pretty well. I trust that my affairs will 
improve as rapidly as possible. Until they are settled I 
cannot be quite easy in my mind. But I hope to be so soon. 
I trust that N.N. 1 will not forget to copy out at once 
what I left for him; and I am counting on receiving to-day 
those portions of my score for which I asked. I see from 
N.N.'s Latin letter that neither of you is drinking any 
wine. I don't like that. Have a word with your supervisor, 
who no doubt will only be too delighted to give you some 
on my account. It is a wholesome wine and not expensive, 
whereas the water is horrid. I lunched yesterday at Schika- 
neder's with the Lieutenant-Colonel, who is also taking 
the Antony baths. To-day I am lunching with Puchberg. 
Adieu, little sweetheart. Dear Stanzi Marini, I must 
close in haste, for I have just heard one o'clock strike; 
and you know that Puchberg likes to lunch early. Adieu. 
Ever your 

Sunday, July 3rd, 1791. 

Lots of kisses for Karl and whippings for that table- 

1 Sussmayr. 



(607) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p, 34] 


I must be brief. It is half past one and I have not 
yet had any lunch. I wish I could send you more money. 
Meanwhile, here are three gulden. You will get some 
more to-morrow at noon. Cheer up and keep up your 
spirits. All will be well yet. I kiss you a thousand times. 
I am weak for want of food. Adieu. 

Ever your 


I have waited until now in the hope of being able to 
send you more money! 

(608) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 32] 

VIENNA, July $th, 1791 

Here are twenty-five gulden. Settle the account for 
your baths. When I come we shall pay for everything. 
Tell N.N. 1 to send me Nos. 4 and 5 of my manuscript 
and the other things I asked for and tell him to ... I must 
hurry off to Wetzlar 2 or I shall miss him. Adieu. I kiss you 
two thousand times and am 

ever your 

Vienna, July 5th, 1791. 

P.S. Didn't you laugh when you got my three 

1 Siissmayr. 2 See p. 1161, n. i. 



gulden? But I thought it would be better than nothing. 
Have a good time, little sweetheart, and be ever my 
Stanzi M. 

(609) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

{From. Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 31] 

VIENNA, July $th, 1791 

Do not be melancholy, I beg you! I hope you 
received the money. It is surely better for your foot that 
you should stay on at Baden, for there you can go out 
more easily. I hope to hold you in my arms on Saturday, 
perhaps sooner. As soon as my business here is over, I 
shall be with you, for I mean to take a long rest in your 
arms; and indeed I shall need it, for this mental worry and 
anxiety and all the running about connected with it is 
really exhausting me. I received safely the last parcel and 
thank you for it. I am more delighted than I can express 
that you are not taking any more baths. In a word, all I 
need now is your presence. Sometimes I think I cannot 
wait for it any longer. True, when my business is over I 
could have you back for good 
but I should like to spend a 
few more delightful days with 
you at Baden. N.N. is with me 
at the moment and tells me that 
I ought to do this to you. He 
has a penchant for you and is perfectly certain that you 
must have noticed it. 

And what is my second fool doing now? I find it hard 
to choose between the two fools! When I turned in at the 
"Krone" yesterday evening, I found the -English lord 
lying there quite exhausted, as he was still waiting for 


L. 610 MOZART TO HIS WIFE i 7gi 

Snai. 1 On my way to Wetzlar's to-day I saw a couple of 
oxen yoked to a waggon and when they began to pull, they 
moved their heads exactly like our idiotic N.N. Snai! 

If you need anything, little sweetheart, let me know 
quite frankly, for I shall indeed be delighted to try to 
satisfy in every way my Stanzi Marini 

Ever your 

Vienna, July 5th, 1791. 

Karl must be a good boy. Then perhaps I shall answer 
his letter. Adieu. 

(610) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana> p. 81] 

VIENNA, July 6tk y 1791 

With indescribable pleasure I received the news that 
you got the money safely. I can't remember, but I'm sure 
I never told you to settle up everything. Now, how could 
I , a sensible person, have written such nonsense? Well, if 
I did, I must have been completely out of my mind! 
Which is quite possible, as at the moment I have so many 
important things to think about. I only meant that you 
should pay for your baths and use the rest yourself. All 
other debts, the amount of which I have more or less 
reckoned up, I shall settle myself when I come. This very 
moment Blanchard 2 is either going up in his balloon or 
else will fool the Viennese for the third time. That this 
should be taking place to-day is most inconvenient for 

1 Siissmayr. See p. 1426 

2 Blanchard went up in his balloon Montgolfiere on July 6th, 1791, starting 
from the Prater and coming down in the neighbourhood of Vienna. 



me, for it is preventing me from settling up my business. 
N.N. promised to come and see me before going out there, 
but he hasn't turned up. Perhaps he will when the fun is 
over. I shall wait until two o'clock, then I shall stuff down 
a little food and go off and hunt him up. Our life is not at 
all a pleasant one. But patience! Things are bound to 
improve. And then I shall rest in your arms! 

I thank you for your advice not to rely entirely on 
N.N. But in such cases you are obliged to deal with only 
one person. If you turn to two or three, and the affair 
becomes common property, others, with whom you cannot 
deal, regard you as a fool or an unreliable fellow. But the 
greatest pleasure of all you can give me is to be happy and 
jolly. And if I know for certain that you have everything 
you want, then all my trouble is a joy and a delight. 
Indeed the most difficult and complicated situation, in 
which I can possibly find myself, becomes a trifle, if only 
I know that you are well and in good spirits. And now, 
farewell. Make good use of your table-fool. Think of me 
and talk about me very often, both of you. Love me for 
ever as I do you and be always my Stanzi Marini, as I 
shall always be your 

Stu! Knaller Frailer 

Give N.N. a box on the ear and tell him that you 
simply must kill a fly which I have spied on his face! 
Adieu Look there! Catch them bi bi bi three 
kisses, as sweet as sugar, are flying over to you! 

Wednesday, Vienna, July 6th, 1791. 


(6 1 1) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[From Nottebohm, Mozartiana, p. 21] 

VIENNA, July jth, 1791 

You will forgive me, I know, for only sending you one 
letter a day. The reason is that I must keep hold of N.N. 
and not let him escape. I am at his house every day at 
seven o'clock in the morning. 

I hope that you got my letter of yesterday. I did not go 
to see the balloon, for it is the sort of thing which one can 
imagine. Besides, I thought that this time too nothing 
would come of it. But goodness! How the Viennese are 
rejoicing! They are as full of his praises now as they have 
been up to the present of abuses. 

There is something in your letter which I cannot read 
and something I cannot understand. You say: "I am 
certain that my little husband will be in the Prater to-day 
in a numerous com. etc." I cannot read the adjective 
before "little husband". I presume that "com." stands for 
"company" but what you mean by "numerous com 
pany" I cannot think. 

Tell Sauermayer * from me that I have not had time to 
be for ever running off to his Primus and that whenever 
I did go he was never at home. Just give him the three 
gulden, so that he may not cry. 

My one wish now is that my affairs should be settled, 
so that I can be with you again. You cannot imagine how 
I have been aching for you all this long while, I can't 
describe what I have been feeling a kind of emptiness, 
which hurts me dreadfully a kind of longing, which is 
never satisfied, which never ceases, and which persists, 
nay rather increases daily. When I think how merry we 

1 One of Mozart's nicknames for Siissmayr. 


were together at Baden like children and what sad, 
weary hours I am spending here! Even my work gives 
me no pleasure, because I am accustomed to stop working 
now and then and exchange a few words with you. Alas! 
this pleasure is no longer possible. If I go to the piano and 
sing something out of my opera, 1 I have to stop at once, 
for this stirs my emotions too deeply. Basta! The very hour 
after I finish this business I shall be off and away from 
here. I have no news to tell you. The illuminations at 
Baden were, I daresay, a little premature as the truth is 
precisely to the contrary. I shall enquire at the court 
chemist's, where the electuary may perhaps be obtained. 
If so, I shall send it to you at once. Meanwhile, if it is 
necessary, I should advise you to take tartar rather than 
brandy. Adieu, dearest little wife, 

Ever your 
Vienna, July 7th, 1791. 

(612) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliotkek, Berlin\ 

VIENNA,/^ gth, 1791 

I have received your letter of the 7th together with 
the receipt for the correct payment. But for your own sake 
I should like to have seen the signature of a witness. For 
if N.N. chooses to be dishonest, he may make things 
rather unpleasant for you in regard to genuineness and 
short weight. As the document simply says "box on the 
ear", he can suddenly send you a legal summons for a 
heavy or a violent or even a gentle box on the ear. What 
will you do then? You will have to pay him at once, which 
is not always convenient! I should advise you to come to 
a friendly understanding with your opponent and give 

1 "Die Zauberflote," 


him two heavy and three violent boxes on the ear followed 
by one gentle one, and even more, if he is not satisfied. 
For I maintain that kindness cures everything, that 
magnanimous and forbearing conduct has often recon 
ciled the bitterest enemies and that if you are not in a 
position to pay the whole debt, you still have acquain 
tances who can. No doubt, if you ask Madame N., she 
will make herself responsible for the payment in cash, if 
not of the whole, at any rate of part of the debt. 

Dearest little wife, I hope you received my letter of 
yesterday. The time, the happy time of our reunion is 
drawing ever nearer. Have patience and be as cheerful as 
possible. Your letter of yesterday made me feel so 
depressed that I almost made up my mind to let that 
business slide and drive out to you. But what good would 
it have done? I should only have had to drive in again at 
once or, instead of being happy, I should have been most 
dreadfully worried. The affair must be concluded in a few 
days, forZ's promises were really serious and solemn. Then 
I shall go straight to you. But if you prefer it, I shall send 
you the money you need and you can then pay everything 
and return to Vienna. There is nothing I should like 
better. At the same time I do think that in this fine weather 
Baden must be very pleasant for you and most beneficial 
to your health, as there are such glorious walks there. 
You yourself must feel this more than anyone. So if you 
find that the air and exercise thoroughly agree with you, 
stay a little longer. I shall come and fetch you or, if you 
like, spend a few days with you. But, as I have already 
said, if you would rather do so, return to Vienna to 
morrow. Tell me quite frankly which you prefer. Now 
farewell, dearest Stanzi Marini. I kiss you millions of 
times and am ever your 

Vienna, July gth, 1791. 


P.S. Give the following message to N.N. from me: 

What does he say? Does he like it? Not particularly, I 
daresay. They are difficult expressions and rather hard to 
understand. Adieu. 

(613) Mozart to Choir-master Stoll at Baden 

\Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin] 

VIENNA, July iztk, 1791 
Stoll, my dear, 
You're a little bit queer 
And an ass, I fear. 
You've been swilling some beer! 
The minor, I hear, 
Is what tickles your ear! 

I have a request to make, and that is, that you would 
be so kind as to send me by the first mail coach to-morrow 
my mass in B^ 1 which we performed last Sunday, and 
Michael Haydn's Graduale in B^, "Pax Vobis", which 
we also performed. I mean, of course, the parts, not 
the scores. I have been asked to conduct a mass in a 
church. Please do not think that this is an excuse to get 
back my mass. If I were not quite satisfied that you 
should have it, I should never have given it to you. On 
the contrary, I am delighted to be able to do you a kind 
ness. I rely entirely on you, for I have given a promise. 

Vienna, July I2th, 1791. 

1 K. 275, composed in 1777. 

Z. 614 MOZART TO HIS WIFE j 79 j 


Do not let us down or we shall be landed in the 
gutter. My beautiful delicate handwriting testifies to the 
truth of what Herr von Mozart has said, that is the mass 
and Michael Haydn's Graduale or no news of his opera. 

We shall return them at once. 

By the way, be so kind as to kiss the hand of my dear 
Theresa for me. If you don't, I swear eternal enmity. 
Your handwriting must testify to it, as mine is doing now. 
Then you will get back Michael Haydn's mass about 
which I have already written to my father. 

Remember, a man keeps his word! 

I am . r - j 

your sincere friend 

Shitting-house, July I2th. 

(614) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[Autograph in the possession of Karl Geigy-Hagenbach, Basel] 

VIENNA, October jth-%th, 1791 * 
Friday, half past ten 
at night 

I have this moment returned from the opera, which 
was as full as ever. 2 As usual the duet "Mann und Weib" 
and Papageno's glockenspiel in Act I had to be repeated 

1 The non-existence of any letters from Mozart between the middle of 
July and the beginning of October 1791 is partly due to Mozart's and Con- 
stanze's visit to Prague for the performance of his "Clemenza di Tito", 
the opera which he had been commissioned to compose for the coronation on 
September 6th of the Emperor Leopold II as King of Bohemia. Siissmayr 
accompanied the Mozarts. 

2 The first performance of "Die Zauberflote" took place on September 3Oth, 
1791, Mozart himself conducting from the clavier. Schikaneder took the part 
of Papageno. Josefa Hofer was the Queen of Night. 



and also the trio of the boys in Act II. But what always 
gives me most pleasure is the silent approval. You can 
see how this opera is becoming more and more popular. 
Now for an account of my own doings. Immediately after 
your departure I played two games of billiards with Herr 
von Mozart, the fellow who wrote the opera which is run 
ning at Schikaneder's theatre; then I sold my nag for 
fourteen ducats; then I told Joseph T to get Primus to 
fetch me some black coffee, with which I smoked a 
splendid pipe of tobacco; and then I orchestrated almost 
the whole of Stadler's rondo. 2 Meanwhile I have had a 
letter which Stadler 3 has sent me from Prague. All the 
Duscheks are well. I really think that she cannot have 
received a single one of your letters and yet I can hardly 
believe it. Well, they have all heard already about the 
splendid reception of my German opera. 4 And the 
strangest thing of all is that on the very evening when 
my new opera was performed for the first time with such 
success, "Tito" was given in Prague for the last time with 
tremendous applause. Bedini 5 sang better than ever. The 
little duet in A major which the two maidens sing was 
repeated; 6 and had not the audience wished to spare 
Madame Marchetti, 7 a repetition of the rondo would have 
been very welcome. 8 Cries of "Bravo" were shouted at 
Stodla 9 from the parterre and even from the orchestra 
"What a miracle for Bohemia!" he writes, "but indeed I 
did my very best". Stodla writes too that Sussmayr . . . 

1 Joseph Deiner. See p. 1425, n. i. 

2 The rondo of K. 622, clarinet concerto in A major, one of Mozart's 
last compositions. 

3 Anton Stadler, who had taken part in the performance of "La Clemenza 
di Tito", had stayed on in Prague. 

4 "Die Zauberflote." 5 Bedini took the part of Annio. 

6 Probably No. 7, "Ah, perdona al primo affetto". 

7 Signora Marchetti-Fantozzi, the prima donna, took the part of Vitellia. 

8 No. 23, "Non piu di fiori". 

9 Anton Stadler, the clarinettist. Mozart is probably imitating his dialect. 



but I now see that he is an ass Siissmayr I mean, not 
Stodla, who is only a bit of an ass but Siissmayr, 
why, he is a full-blown ass. At half past five I left my 
room and took my favourite walk by the Glacis to the 
theatre. But what do I see? What do I smell? Why, here 
is Don Primus l with the cutlets! Che gusto! 2 Now I am 
eating to your health! It is just striking eleven. Perhaps 
you are already asleep? St! St! St! I won't wake you. 

Saturday, the 8tA. You should have seen me at supper 
yesterday! I couldn't find the old tablecloth, so I fished 
out one as white as a snowdrop, and put in front of me 
the double candlestick with wax candles. According to 
Stadler's letter the Italians are done for in Vienna. 
Further, Madame Duschek must have got one letter from 
you, for he says: 'The lady was very well pleased with 
Mathies' postscript. She said: 'I like the ASS, or A-S-S, 
as he is'/' Do urge Siissmayr to write something for 
Stadler, for he has begged me very earnestly to see to 
this. As I write, no doubt you will be having a good swim. 
The friseur came punctually at six o'clock. At half 
past five Primus had lit the fire and he then woke me up 
at a quarter to six. Why must it rain just now? I did so 
much hope that you would have lovely weather. Do keep 
very warm, so that you may not catch a cold. I hope that 
these baths will help you to keep well during the winter. 
For only the desire to see you in good health made me 
urge you to go to Baden. I already feel lonely without 
you. I knew I should. If I had had nothing to do, I should 
have gone off at once to spend the week with you; but I 
have no facilities for working at Baden, and I am anxious, 
as far as possible, to avoid all risk of money difficulties. 
For the most pleasant thing of all is to have a mind at 
peace. To achieve this, however, one must work hard; 
and I like hard work. Give Siissmayr a few sound boxes 

1 Joseph Deiner. * What a delicious taste! 


on the ear from me, and I ask Sophie H., 1 whom I kiss 
a thousand times, to give him a couple too. For Heaven's 
sake do not let him starve in this respect. The last thing 
in the world I could wish would be his reproach that you 
had not treated or looked after him properly. Rather give 
him too many blows than too few. It would be a good 
thing if you were to leave a bump on his nose, or knock 
out an eye, or inflict some other visible injury, so that the 
fellow may never be able to deny that he has got some 
thing from you. 

Adieu, dear little wife! The coach is just going. I trust 
that I shall have a letter from you to-day and in this 
sweet hope I kiss you a thousand times and am ever 
your loving husband 


(615) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[A utograph in the Zavertal Collection, University of Glasgow^ 

VIENNA, ^October %th-gth}, 1791 2 
Saturday night at half past ten o'clock 


I was exceedingly delighted and overjoyed to find 
your letter on my return from the opera. Although 
Saturday, as it is post-day, is always a bad night, the 
opera was performed to a full house and with the usual 
applause and repetition of numbers. It will be given 
again to-morrow, but there will be no performance on 
Monday. So Siissmayr must bring Stoll in on Tuesday 

1 Sophie Haibel, Constanze's youngest sister. 

2 The autograph of this letter, which bears no date, has been published 
by Farmer and Smith, New Mozartiana, pp. 65-75, 123-127. The editors 
maintain that this letter was written after the letter dated October I4th, but 
do not provide sufficient evidence to upset the traditional order of Mozart's 
last letters. 



when it will be given again for the first time. I say for 
the first time, because it will probably be performed 
several times in succession. I have just swallowed a 
delicious slice of sturgeon which Don Primus (who is my 
faithful valet) has brought me; and as I have a rather 
voracious appetite to-day, I have sent him off again to 
fetch some more if he can. So during this interval I shall 
go on writing to you. This morning I worked so hard at 
my composition that I went on until half past one. So I 
dashed off in great haste to Hofer, simply in order not to 
lunch alone, where I found Mamma l too. After lunch I 
went home at once and composed again until it was time 
to go to the opera. Leutgeb begged me to take him a 
second time and I did so. I am taking Mamma to-morrow. 
Hofer has already given her the libretto to read. In her 
case what will probably happen will be that she will see 
the opera, but not hear it. The N.Ns. had a box this 
evening and applauded everything most heartily. But he, 
the know-all, showed himself to be such a thorough 
Bavarian that I could not remain or I should have had 
to call him an ass. Unfortunately I was there just when 
the second act began, that is, at the solemn scene. He 
made fun of everything. At first I was patient enough to 
draw his attention to a few passages. But he laughed at 
everything. Well, I could stand it no longer. I called him 
a Papageno and cleared out. But I don't think that the 
idiot understood my remark. So I went into another box 
where Flamm 2 and his wife happened to be. There every 
thing was very pleasant and I stayed to the end. But 
during Papageno's aria with the glockenspiel I went 
behind the scenes, as I felt a sort of impulse to-day to 
play it myself. Well, just for fun, at the point where 

1 Frau Weber. 

* A member of the Vienna Municipal Council. His daughter Antonie 
afterwards became a famous singer. 



Schikaneder has a pause, I played an arpeggio. He was 
startled, looked behind the wings and saw me. When he 
had his next pause, I played no arpeggio. This time he 
stopped and refused to go on. I guessed what he was think 
ing and again played a chord. He then struck the glocken 
spiel and said "Shut up". Whereupon everyone laughed. 
I am inclined to think that this joke taught many of the 
audience for the first time that Papageno does not play 
the instrument himself. By the way, you have no idea 
how charming the music sounds when you hear it from a 
box close to the orchestra it sounds much better than 
from the gallery. As soon as you return you must try 
this for yourself. 

Sunday, at seven o'clock in the morning. I have slept 
very well and hope that you too have done the same. I 
have just enjoyed thoroughly my half of a capon which 
friend Primus has brought back with him. I am going to 
the service at the Piarists at ten o'clock, as Leutgeb has 
told me that I can then have a word with the Director; 1 
and I shall stay to lunch. 

Primus told me last night that a great many people in 
Baden are ill. Is this true? Do take care and don't trust 
the weather. Well, Primus has just returned with the 
tiresome news that the coach left to-day before seven 
o'clock and that there won't be another one until the 
afternoon. So all my writing at night and in the early 
morning has been to no purpose and you will not get my 
letter until this evening, which is very annoying. I shall 
certainly go to you next Sunday, when we shall all visit 
the Casino and come home together on Monday. Lech- 
leitner was again at the opera. Though he is no connois 
seur, he is at any rate a genuine lover of music, which 

1 Mozart was thinking of removing- his little son Karl from his school at 
Perchtholdsdorf and placing him at a Christian Brothers* seminary. 

VOL. Ill 1441 2 C 

Z. 616 MOZART TO HIS WIFE j 79 j 

N.N. is not. N.N. is really a nonentity and much prefers 
a dinee. Farewell, my love I kiss you millions of times 
and am ever your 


P.S. Kiss Sophie for me. I send Siissmayr a few 
good nose-pulls and a proper hair-tug and Stoll a 
thousand greetings. Adieu. The hour is striking Fare 
well We shall meet again. 1 

N.B. You probably sent the two pairs of yellow 
winter trousers along with the boots to the laundry, for 
Joseph and I have hunted for them in vain! Adieu. 

(6 1 6) Mozart to his Wife at Baden 

[Copy in the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin\ 

VIENNA, October 14^, 1791 

Hofer drove out with me yesterday, Thursday the 
I3th, to see our Karl. 2 We lunched there and then we all 
drove back to Vienna. At six o'clock I called in the carriage 
for Salieri and Madame Cavalieri and drove them to 
my box. Then I drove back quickly to fetch Mamma and 
Karl, whom I had left at Hofer's. You can hardly imagine 
how charming they were and how much they liked not only 
my music, but the libretto and everything. They both said 
that it was an operone? worthy to be performed for the 
grandest festival and before the greatest monarch, and that 
they would often go to see it, as they had never seen a more 
beautiful or delightful show. Salieri listened and watched 
most attentively and from the ouverture to the last chorus 

1 A quotation from the "Zauberflote". 

2 Karl Mozart was at school in Perchtholdsdorf, a suburb of Vienna. 

3 A "grand opera". 



there was not a single number that did not call forth from 
him a bravo! or bello! It seemed as if they could not 
thank me enough for my kindness. They had intended 
in any case to go to the opera yesterday. But they would 
have had to be in their places by four o'clock. As it was, 
they saw and heard everything in comfort in my box. 
When it was over I drove them home and then had 
supper at Hofer's with Karl. Then I drove him home 
and we both slept soundly. Karl was absolutely delighted 
at being taken to the opera. He is looking splendid. As 
far as health is concerned, he could not be in a better 
place, but everything else there is wretched, alas! All 
they can do is to turn out a good peasant into the world. 
But enough of this. As his serious studies (God help 
them!) do not begin until Monday, I have arranged to 
keep him until after lunch on Sunday. I told them that 
you would like to see him. So to-morrow, Saturday, I 
shall drive out with Karl to see you. You can then keep 
him, or I shall take him back to Heeger's l after lunch. 
Think it over. A month can hardly do him much harm. 
In the meantime the arrangement with the Piarists, which 
is now under discussion, may come to something. On the 
whole, Karl is no worse; but at the same time he is not 
one whit better than he was. He still has his old bad 
manners; he never stops chattering just as he used to do 
in the past; and he is, if anything, less inclined to learn 
than before, as out at Perchtholdsdorf all he does is to 
run about in the garden for five hours in the morning 
and five hours in the afternoon, as he has himself con 
fessed. In short, the children do nothing but eat, drink, 
sleep and run wild. Leutgeb and Hofer are with me at 
the moment. The former is staying to supper with me. I 
have sent out my faithful comrade Primus to fetch some 

1 Wenzel Bernhard Heeger (1740-1807), headmaster of the school at 



food from the Biirgerspital. I am quite satisfied with the 
fellow. He has only let me down once, when I was obliged 
to sleep at Hofer's, which annoyed me intensely, as they 
sleep far too long there. I am happiest at home, for I am 
accustomed to my own hours. This one occasion put me 
in a very bad humour. Yesterday the whole day was 
taken up with that trip to Perchtholdsdorf, so I could not 
write to you. But that you have not written to me for 
two days, is really unforgivable. I hope that I shall 
certainly have a letter from you to-day, and that to 
morrow I shall talk to you and embrace you with all my 

Farewell. Ever your 

October I4th, 1791. 

I kiss Sophie a thousand times. Do what you like with 
N.N. Adieu. 


A letter, written many years later, which describes the 
last days of Mozart : 

Sophie Haibel to Georg Mikolaus von Nissen, Salzburg I 

{Extract] [Autograph in the possession of the Gesellschaft 

der Musikfreunde, Viennd\ 

DlAKOVAR, 2 April 1th, 1825 

Now I must tell you about Mozart's last days. Well, 
Mozart became fonder and fonder of our dear departed 
mother 3 and she of him. Indeed he often came running 
along in great haste to the Wieden (where she and I were 
lodging at the Goldner Pflug), carrying under his arm a 
little bag containing coffee and sugar, which he would 
hand to our good mother, saying, "Here, mother dear, 
now you can have a little 'Jause' ". 4 She used to be as de 
lighted as a child. He did this very often. In short, Mozart 
in the end never came to see us without bringing something. 
Now when Mozart fell ill, we both made him a night- 
jacket which he could put on frontways, since on account 
of his swollen condition he was unable to turn in bed. 
Then, as we didn't know how seriously ill he was, we also 
made him a quilted dressing-gown (though indeed his 
dear wife, my sister, had given us the materials for both 
garments), so that when he got up he should have 
everything he needed. We often visited him and he 

1 Mozart, who had been in poor health for some time, became very ill early 
in November and bedridden about a fortnight before his death on December 
5th, 1791. A vivid and moving account of his last days is given in the above 
letter written many years later by Sophie Haibel to her elder sister Constanze's 
second husband, Georg Nikolaus von Nissen, formerly Counsellor at the 
Danish Legation in Vienna, who at the time was collecting materials for 
his biography of Mozart. See Nissen, p. 573 if. and p. 687 ff. The letter was 
first published in full in MM, November 1918, pp. 21-23. 

2 Sophie Weber's husband, Jakob Haibel (1761-1826), musician and 
composer, was choir-master at Diakovar. 

3 Frau Cacilie Weber, who died on August 22nd, 1793. 

4 i.e. afternoon coffee. 



seemed to be really looking forward to wearing his dress 
ing-gown. I used to go into town every day to see him. 
Well, one Saturday when I was with him, Mozart said to 
me: "Dear Sophie, do tell Mamma that I am fairly well 
and that I shall be able to go and congratulate her on the 
octave of her name-day". Who could have been more de 
lighted than I to bring such cheerful news to my mother, 
who was ever anxious to hear how he was? I hurried home 
therefore to comfort her, the more so as he himself really 
seemed to be bright and happy. The following day was a 
Sunday. I was young then and rather vain, I confess, and 
liked to dress up. But I never cared to go out walking 
from our suburb into town in my fine clothes, and I had no 
money for a drive. So I said to our good mother: "Dear 
Mamma, I'm not going to see Mozart to-day. He was so 
well yesterday that surely he will be much better this 
morning, and one day more or less won't make much 
difference/' Well, my mother said: "Listen to this. Make 
me a bowl of coffee and then I'll tell you what you ought 
to do." She was rather inclined to keep me at home; and 
indeed my sister knows how much I had to be with her. 
I went into the kitchen. The fire was out. I had to light 
the lamp and make a fire. All the time I was thinking of 
Mozart. I had made the coffee and the lamp was still 
burning. Then I noticed how wasteful I had been with 
my lamp, I mean, that I had burned so much oil. It was 
still burning brightly. I stared into the flame and thought 
to myself, "How I should love to know how Mozart is". 
While I was thinking and gazing at the flame, it went out, 
as completely as if the lamp had never been burning. Not a 
spark remained on the main wick and yet there wasn't the 
slightest draught that I can swear to. A horrible feeling 
came over me. I ran to our mother and told her all. She 
said: "Well,, take off your fine clothes and go into town 
and bring me back news of him at once. But be sure not 



to delay." I hurried along as fast as I could. Alas, how 
frightened I was when my sister, who was almost de 
spairing and yet trying to keep calm, came out to me, 
saying: "Thank God that you have come, dear Sophie. 
Last night he was so ill that I thought he would not 
be alive this morning. Do stay with me to-day, for if he 
has another bad turn, he will pass away to-night. Go in to 
him for a little while and see how he is." I tried to control 
myself and went to his bedside. He immediately called 
me to him and said: "Ah, dear Sophie, how glad I am 
that you have come. You must stay here to-night and see 
me die." I tried hard to be brave and to persuade him to 
the contrary. But to all my attempts he only replied: 
"Why, I am already tasting death. And, if you do not 
stay, who will support my dearest Constanze when I am 
gone?" "Yes, yes, dear Mozart," I assured him, "but I 
must first go back to our mother and tell her that you 
would like me to stay with you to-day. Otherwise she will 
think that some misfortune has befallen you." "Yes, do 
so," said Mozart, "but be sure and come back soon." 
Good God, how distressed I felt! My poor sister followed 
me to the door and begged me for Heaven's sake to go to 
the priests at St. Peter's and implore one of them to come 
to Mozart a chance call, as it were. I did so, but for a 
long time they refused to come and I had a great deal of 
trouble to persuade one of those heartless people to go to 
him. Then I ran off to my mother who was anxiously 
awaiting me. It was already dark. Poor soul, how 
shocked she was! I persuaded her to go and spend the 
night with her eldest daughter, the late Josefa Hofer. 1 I 
then ran back as fast as I could to my distracted sister. 
Siissmayr was at Mozart's bedside. The well-known 

1 Josefa Weber-Hofer, who in 1797 had married as her second husband 
the actor and singer Friedrich Sebastian Mayer (1773-1835), died on Decem 
ber 29th, 1819, , 



Requiem 1 lay on the quilt and Mozart was explaining to 
him how, in his opinion, he ought to finish it, when he was 
gone. Further, he urged his wife to keep his death a secret 
until she should have informed Albrechtsberger, 2 who was 
in charge of all the services. A long search was made for 
Dr. Closset, who was found at the theatre, but who had to 
wait for the end of the play. He came and ordered cold 
poultices to be placed on Mozart's burning head, which, 
however, affected him to such an extent that he became 
unconscious and remained so until he died. 3 His last move 
ment was an attempt to express with his mouth the drum 
passages in the Requiem. That I can still hear. Miiller 4 
from the Art Gallery came and took a cast of his pale, 
dead face. Words fail me, dearest brother, to describe how 
his devoted wife in her utter misery threw herself on her 
knees and implored the Almighty for His aid. She simply 
could not tear herself away from Mozart, however much I 
begged her to do so. If it was possible to increase her 
sorrow, this was done on the day after that distressing 
night, when crowds of people walked past his corpse and 
wept and mourned for him. All my life I have never seen 
Mozart in a temper, still less, angry. 

1 K. 626. Six months previously Mozart had been commissioned by a 
certain Count Walsegg to compose this work, which, however, had been de 
layed by his journey to Prague early in September for the production of 
"La Clemenza di Tito", and by his work on "Die Zauberflote", first per 
formed on September 3oth. For a discussion of Siissmayr's share in the 
composition of the "Requiem" see Kochel, p. 808 ff. Cf. also p. 1494 ff. 

2 J. G. Albrechtsberger (1736-1809) was chief organist at the Stefans- 
kirche, where Hofmann was Kapellmeister. 

3 Mozart died at 55 minutes past midnight on December 5th. 

4 Count Josef Deym (1750-1804), alias Miiller, was the owner of a col 
lection of wax- works and casts from the antique, which from 1797 onwards 
was housed in a building hi the Stock im Eisen. Mozart's death-mask has 
disappeared. According to Nohl (Mozart nach den Schilderungen seiner 
Zeitgenossen, p. 393) Constanze, one day while cleaning, smashed the copy 
in her possession. She is said to have remarked that " she was glad that the 
ugly old thing was broken" (A. Schurig, Leopold Mozarts Reiseaufzeich- 
nungen, p. 92). 








From a portrait by Hans Hansen 

.(Mozart Museum, Salzburg) 


OF the six to seven hundred works by Mozart which are 
recorded in KocheFs catalogue, not more than seventy or 
so were published during the composer's lifetime, and, 
though many more were in circulation in manuscript, it is 
safe to say that at the time of his death, when by the irony 
of fate the success of his last opera had won him for the 
first time a universal popularity, the greater pan of his 
work was still inaccessible to the general musical public. 
This being so, it is at first a little surprising that his widow, 
hard pressed as she was to satisfy her husband's creditors, 
should not at once have realised that the mass of manu 
scripts which he had left behind him, though not even 
mentioned in the official inventory of his effects, was by 
far the most valuable of her assets. 

It must be remembered, however, that at that date 
autographs were not the marketable commodities that 
they have since become. At the present day the musical 
remains of a composer of eminence would possess a double 
value: they would interest both the music publishers and 
the collectors of manuscripts; the former would be eager 
to obtain the copyright of any unpublished compositions, 
and the latter would be willing to purchase any autograph, 
however insignificant, simply as a relic of the composer. 
But Constanze Mozart could not hope for much profit 
from either source. There were as yet no rich collectors to 
pay handsome sums for a few bars in the composer's hand, 
and the music publishers could not be expected to display 
much interest in the autographs of compositions, the most 
important of which were already in circulation, at least in 
manuscript copies. Moreover, Mozart's papers were in 



hopeless confusion, and Constanze had not sufficient 
musical knowledge to be able to sort them out and to 
identify them. In 1792, it is true, through the agency of 
the Prussian ambassador in Vienna, Baron von Jacobi- 
Klost, she did succeed in inducing the King of Prussia to 
purchase eight manuscripts from her at the price of one 
hundred ducats each, but this was no doubt an act of 
royal grace and as such exceptional. At any rate there is 
no record of any similar transaction. 

In the spring of 1798, however, the Leipzig publishers 
Breitkopf and Hartel, detecting unmistakable signs of a 
coming boom in Mozart, announced the forthcoming pub 
lication of a complete edition of his works, and on the i5th 
of May wrote to the composer's widow asking for her 
assistance in the undertaking. On the receipt of this letter 
Constanze at last took steps to have the manuscripts care 
fully investigated. Her chief business adviser at this time 
was Georg Nikolaus von Nissen, an official in the Danish 
Embassy, who had taken lodgings in her house in 1797 
and whom she was to marry some twelve years later. 
Unfortunately Nissen, though an enthusiastic admirer 
of Mozart, was not a skilled musician, and Constanze had 
to turn elsewhere for the expert advice that was needed. 
Her choice ultimately fell upon the Abbe Maximilian 
Stadler, an old friend of the Mozarts who had just taken 
up his residence in Vienna, and who, being a sound 
scholar as well as a capable composer, was fully qualified 
for the task. In his little pamphlet on Mozart's Requiem 
he has himself described how he visited Constant's house 
from time to time and, with Nissen's aid, soon succeeded 
in classifying and cataloguing the whole collection. He 
did his work thoroughly, and paid special attention to the 
many fragmentary compositions that he found. One or 
two of them, indeed, he himself completed in the hope of 
making them available for performance and so enhancing 



their commercial value. The lists which the Abbe drew up 
as a result of his labours were subsequently printed in the 
appendix to Nissen's biography of Mozart (1828), and 
have been frequently reproduced since. When supple 
mented by the two other lists there given Mozart's own 
list of his compositions for the years 1784 to 1791 and 
Leopold Mozart's list of his son's juvenile works they 
gave the musical public for the first time a comprehensive 
survey of the whole field of Mozart's work. 

But their immediate importance was more practical. 
They enabled Constanze to see exactly what manuscripts 
she possessed and made it easier for her to draw the fullest 
advantage from them. She was thus soon in a position to 
furnish Breitkopf and Hartel with whatever they wanted 
for their edition. Unfortunately it turned out that they 
did not want very much. For some years they had been 
accumulating manuscript copies of Mozart's works, and 
in most cases they were quite content to rely upon these. 
For a moment they seem to have been tempted by Con- 
stanze's proposal that they should purchase her collection 
en bloc, but in the end all that they took from her was a 
handful of works, some forty in all, of which they possessed 
no copies of any sort. Even so, if there is any truth in 
her statements, she was not very well paid for her assist 

*It was while the negotiations with Breitkopf were still 
dragging on that there suddenly appeared upon the scene 
a man who, unlike his rivals, combined business acumen 
with something of the collector's enthusiasm. Johann 
Anton Andre (1775-1842), son of Johann Andre (1741- 
1799), the founder of the music publishing house at Offen 
bach, was at this time a young man of twenty -four, but 
was already making his mark as a composer. At the 
moment, however, he was more concerned with develop 
ing the business which he had just inherited than with 



composition, and when Haydn called his attention to the 
straitened circumstances in which Mozart's widow was 
living, and spoke of her willingness to dispose of her hus 
band's manuscripts, he realised that he could satisfy the 
call of charity in a manner not altogether unprofitable to 
himself, and lost no time in coming to terms with Con- 
stanze, and in purchasing the whole collection from her. 
The transaction was not free from difficulties, the chief of 
which was that it was bound to disturb the harmony, if 
harmony had ever existed, of Constanze's relations with 
Breitkopf and Hartel. It certainly placed the latter in a 
very awkward position, and in spite of all their professions 
of indifference, they must have regarded the sale of the 
manuscripts with considerable alarm. At the very least it 
made it impossible for their edition of the "(Euvres com- 
plettes" of Mozart to fulfil the promise of its title. 

Andre finally arranged to give 3150 gulden (about 
,320) for the collection, to be paid in a certain number 
of instalments, had the music packed up in his presence, 
and left it to be sent on to him at Offenbach. It was clear, 
however, from Mozart's own thematic catalogue, which 
was included in his purchase, and from other sources, 
that the collection was not complete, and Constanze evi 
dently promised to do her utmost to procure the missing 
manuscripts for him. It will be seen from the letters that 
follow that his indefatigable efforts to secure them were a 
considerable trial to her. The ultimate extent of his collec 
tion can best be gauged from the catalogue which he pub 
lished in 1841, when he was endeavouring to dispose of it. 
It runs to no less than 280 items. At this point a brief note 
on the subsequent history of the manuscripts may not be 
out of place. Andre guarded them with the greatest care 
and had a special cabinet constructed to contain them. He 
studied them assiduously and gained a knowledge of the 
minutiae of Mozart's handwriting and methods of com- 



position that enabled him to do valuable pioneer work in 
cataloguing, classifying and dating the various pieces in 
this vast mass of music. Kochel frankly acknowledged his 
indebtedness to him and hardly ever ventured to differ 
from him on points of chronology. Strange to say, how 
ever, Andre did not in the end publish so many of the 
manuscripts as might have been expected, and he was 
from time to time subjected to sharp criticism for keeping 
these valuable treasures "hermetically sealed" at Offen 
bach. It is clear that the more he studied them the more 
engrossed in them he became, and that his interest in them 
grew to be more and more that of the scholar, with the 
result that their commercial potentialities, and even his 
duty to the public, came to seem of only secondary impor 
tance. But no one can accuse him of failing to appreciate 
the value of his collection. As he grew older he became 
anxious about its final disposal. He wished it to be kept 
intact, 1 but could not bequeath it to a public institution 
without injustice to his children. He therefore made over 
tures to the courts of Vienna, Berlin and London as well 
as to various national libraries, in the hope of finding a 
purchaser for the whole collection. It was only when all 
these attempts came to nothing that he decided to try to 
sell the manuscripts piecemeal. But here again he met 
with little success, and when he died in 1842 the bulk of 
the collection was still intact. In 1854 his heirs, consisting 
of his six sons and his son-in-law J. B. Streicher, divided 
the remaining MSS. among them. In the course of time 
many of them passed into other hands, but a large 
number were still in the possession of the Andre family 
when in 1873 the Prussian State Library decided to 

1 It is to be noted, however, that as early as 1811, apparently through 
Constanze's agency, Andre had sold a small but valuable group of manu 
scripts to J. A. Stumpff, the London harp manufacturer. This included the 
six quartets dedicated to Haydn, the three dedicated to the King of Prussia 
and the one in D (K. 499), all of which are now in the British Museum. 

VOL. Ill I4S7 2 D 


purchase all the MSS. that could be collected from them, 
and so finally preserved them from further dispersal. 

To return to Andre's original transaction. It naturally 
gave rise to a considerable amount of correspondence, but 
of this only some thirty of the letters written by Constanze 
or Nissen to Andre have been preserved. They appear to 
have been bequeathed by Andre to his amanuensis Hein- 
rich Henkel, and subsequently to have found their way to 
this country. They are now in the possession of the present 
writer. The passages which are here translated have been 
selected either for their bibliographical importance for 
many works are discussed which are not even mentioned 
in the rest of the Mozart correspondence or for the light 
that they throw upon the character of Mozart's Constanze. 
But here a word of warning is necessary. The letters though 
written in Constanze's name and occasionally bearing her 
signature, are all in Nissen's handwriting, and much of 
the petulance, to say nothing of the verbosity, that they 
display must be laid to his account. Even so most of the 
characteristics which may be ascribed to her on the 
strength of other evidence may readily be detected in 
these letters. No one can read them without picturing a 
capable, wide-awake woman; a little mercenary, perhaps, 
and somehow always giving the impression not alto 
gether justified that she was not quite straightforward 
in her dealings. This is not the Constanze that Mozart 
knew. Whilst he lived she was frivolous, inconsiderate 
and extravagant; but when suddenly thrown upon her own 
resources, she developed with an astonishing ease all those 
bourgeois virtues which, if she had displayed them earlier, 
might have jarred upon him, but would certainly have 
helped to save him from disaster. At her best she is not 
a very attractive figure, but it is only fair that these 
two pictures should be set side by side before any final 
judgment is pronounced upon her. 



Andre appears to have been a shrewd but lovable per 
son, kindly at heart, but not afraid of giving momentary 
offence by outspoken criticism. It is a matter for regret 
that his contributions to this correspondence have not 
been preserved. They would probably have illuminated 
many points that must now remain obscure, and would in 
any case have contributed to our knowledge of a man 
whom lovers of Mozart must always regard with respect. 

To our knowledge of Mozart himself these letters con 
tribute very little, though here and there a skilful bio 
grapher will find hints that are worth following up. Their 
chief importance lies in the odd scraps of information they 
contain on various compositions about which very little 
is otherwise known. Especially valuable are the passages 
dealing with certain "doubtful" works, such as the so- 
called "romantic" sonatas for clavier and violin, the Eb 
violin concerto, the Wiegenlied and the divertimenti for 
basset-horns and bassoon. These and other points of in 
terest, such as Constanze's very important though some 
what muddled references to the manuscripts of the 
Requiem, are fully discussed in the notes. It is only 
necessary to add that apart from a few extracts which 
have been quoted by other writers on Mozart, from Andre 
himself to Dr. Alfred Einstein, the reviser of the latest 
edition of Kochel, the letters are now printed for the first 
time in any form. 


VIENNA, February 2ist-2jt&> 1800 

I sit down to answer your letters in rotation. First, 
your letter of the 2ist of January. I have already 



requested Breitkopf and Hartel 1 to send the few original 
MSS. furnished by me, which are still in their possession, 
direct to you. Some of those they had you have already 
received through me. The particular one you were most 
desirous of possessing is now not so valuable, for the 
piano 2 concerto in question 3 will shortly be engraved, or 
possibly is engraved already. 

I see that you have already advertised our transaction 
in the Hamburg and Frankfurt journals. 4 The advertise 
ment is excellent, and, I should think, ought to be suffi 
cient, for where is the "Hamburger Zeitung" not to be 
found? If you wish to insert it in the "Literaturzeitung" or 
in any other journal, you are, of course, quite at liberty to 
do so: but for me, especially in view of my lack of connec 
tions, it means unnecessary expense. But your advertise 
ment is by itself proof against all contradiction and so 
authentic enough. I hope, however, that you will publish 
more works than the advertisement promises. While on 
this point a suggestion occurs to me. If you do not wish 
to bring out the older works, such as "Bastien und 
Bastienne" and all the others, in their entirety, why not 

1 In Letter V Constanze gives a list of the MSS. which were still in Breit 
kopf s possession. These MSS. were furnished by her in connection with the 
edition of Mozart's works which Breitkopf began to issue in 1798. For a full 
list of them see her letter to Breitkopf of November 3Oth, 1799 (Nottebohm, 
Mozartiana, p. 132). 

2 In view of the date at which these letters were written the editor 
has felt himself justified in translating the word "Klavier" as "piano 5 * or 
"pianoforte" throughout. 

3 This was, no doubt, the "hitherto quite unknown piano concerto in C 
major", the forthcoming publication of which was announced by Breitkopf in 
the AMZ for March 1800 (Int. Blatt IX), viz. K. 467. 

4 See e.g. the Frankfurter Staats-Ristretto of February loth, 1800. 
"Madame Mozart of Vienna, the composer's widow, has sold to me the whole 
of the manuscripts of her husband that remained in her possession. I am thus 
in a position to produce the most accurate edition of several works of our 
beloved Mozart, both known and unknown. ... As my edition progresses, 
I shall also bring out in score at least four of the best operas of the com 
poser, and perhaps several of his instrumental compositions. . . . J Andre, 
Offenbach, January 3ist, 1800." 



publish the many simple and pleasing airs they contain 
in a pianoforte arrangement as an additional collection 
of songs? 

Thank you for your promise to make your bills payable 
at shorter sight; but I cannot agree with you that it is not 
a matter of so much as a fortnight. It is very important 
that one should get one's money just when one counts on 
getting it. I am, however, honestly glad that you gain so 
considerably over the exchange. 

Next for your letter of the 27th of January. I thank you 
most sincerely for the trouble you have taken, and all to 
no purpose, and suggest that you try again some other 
time. Could you yourself by any chance engage my son 1 
on reasonable terms? He might be useful to you for he is a 
clever lad, especially at music. 

Now for your letter of the I3th of February. With this 
I received the bill for your third payment, but I shall let 
this letter wait till I can inform you that the money has 
been paid. How can you imagine that I should ever think 
that I had any ground of complaint against you on the 
score of your payments or any other matter? Far from it! 
It is true that my business adviser, 2 who sends you his 
best regards, has remarked that you have not thought it 
necessary to use the word "punctually". He points out 
that if Dellazia is not to pay till the 27th of February, I 
actually get that instalment four weeks, all but one day, 
later than I should do, according to the agreement. But 
you know how precise he is. This time I silenced him with 
the assurance that you would certainly be punctual with 
your last instalment. I am not surprised that you do not 

1 Karl Thomas Mozart (1784-1858) had already embarked on a com 
mercial career in Italy, but was dissatisfied and longed to turn to his 
father's profession. Constanze no doubt thought that a post with a publisher 
of music was a suitable compromise between the claims of art and business. 
The project came to nothing. 

2 Nissen. 



want to buy the "Requiem" 1 at so high a price: what does 
surprise me is that you make no offer for it at all. It is all 
one to me. I get nothing out of it. But merely from friend 
ship for you and interest in your collection I should have 
liked you to have it. And while we are on this point I will 
give you a word of advice. "Davidde penitente" is, so far 
as I know, only in circulation in manuscript copies, one 
of which I gave you, if I am not very much mistaken. 
Search then among the arias and the mass from which 
this oratorio was put together, 2 collect all the originals of 
the pieces belonging to it, and then publish the work as a 
pendant to the "Requiem". It will meet with just as much 
success, for it is a fine thing. My receipt of the "Musica- 
lische Zeitung" is terribly irregular, but I have no curiosity 
about the article to which you have called my attention. 3 
For the present I cannot think of anything to say on the 
matter. You know what works you have in the original 
manuscript, and, in consequence, what cannot and what 
may be in the possession of others. 

I am delighted beyond measure at the thought of the 
complete thematic catalogue which you kindly promise 
me. 4 

1 The reference is presumably to those portions of Mozart's autograph 
score, all incomplete, which still remained in Vienna, probably in Siissmayr's 
possession. These the latter had copied out, with his additions, in his own 
hand, in the copy of the score sent to Count Walsegg, who commissioned the 
work from Mozart. 

2 "Davidde penitente" (K. 469) was an adaptation of the unfinished mass 
in C minor (K. 427), with the addition of two arias (nos. 6 and 7) specially 

3 A review of Andre's edition (as Op. 67) of the PF. concerto K. 450 
(AMZ October 2nd, 1799), containing a statement that Breitkopf and Hartel 
possessed the original autographs of several unpublished concertos by Mozart. 

4 This never materialised. In 1805 Andre published Mozart's own cata 
logue, which covers the period from 1784 to the year of his death, and in 
1841 issued a thematic catalogue of all the Mozart MSS. which were then in 
his possession. He also drew up, but never published, a thematic list of all 
Mozart's compositions written before 1784, which is now preserved in the 
British Museum (Add. MS. 32412; see Music and Letters, April 1924). 



Enclosed you will find a few notes about things by 
Mozart that you haven't got. I will let you have several 
more. But please be so good as to inform me with whom 
you are most closely in touch here, so that I can send him 
anything that comes into my hands, and so save the cost 
of carriage. 

I am at present arranging the fragments, and it is very 
important that you should let me have a statement of the 
items of this kind that you purchased from me with the 
other works. Please have the kindness then to inform me, 
as soon as you can you will oblige me beyond measure by 
doing so of the key and other characteristic features of: 

the fragment of an oboe concerto, 1 

the unfinished piece for wind-instruments, 2 

the scena in Bb, 3 

the aria in D, 4 

the aria in Bi>, 5 

and the sonata for four hands in G major. 6 
In the case of the violin sonata, which was completed by 
a musical friend of mine, 7 I have this information already. 
In addition I should very much like to know how many 
acts and scenes are finished in the unnamed German 
opera, 8 which has accompanied declamation in the place 
of recitative; further, how many scenes are completed in 
the two unfinished Italian operas "L/ oca del Cairo" and 
"Lo sposo deluso" these, I think, are their names. 

1 K. 293. 

2 Possibly K. 411, if this is regarded as forming one movement only of 
a larger work. See Kochel, p. 557. 

3 Possibly K. 434. 4 Possibly K. 435. 
5 Possibly K. 580. 6 Possibly K. 357. 

7 K. 403. The musical friend was the Abbe Maximilian Stadler (1748- 
^33) a prolific composer of church music, now chiefly remembered for 
his publications in defence of the authenticity of the "Requiem". For a list 
of the works completed by him see p. 1473, n. 2. 

8 K. 344. Afterwards christened "Zaide" by Andre when he brought out 
an edition of the work in 1838. 



I send you a specimen to show you how I have recorded 
and described the other fragments. 

VIENNA, February 27th, 1800 

I can now have the honour of informing you that Herr 
Dellazia has paid. Pending the date of your final payment, 
when I can make out a formal receipt for the whole sum, 
this present letter will meet your requirements, wherein I 
declare that of the 3,150 gulden 1 mentioned in our agree 
ment, you have so far paid off 2,100 gulden in the three 
stipulated instalments. 

You remember you played and sang at my piano a 
chorus "Dir, Seele des Weltalls", and an aria "Dir danken 
wir die Freude". 2 Both of these pieces, which are frag 
ments of an unfinished cantata, were arranged for the 
piano by a musical friend of mine. I gave you the original 
manuscripts, which lacked, however, the last bars of the 
aria. These I have now discovered and will send to you 
together with the opening bars of the aria which was to 
have followed them, and, further, an imperfect score of 
the string quintet in G minor, 3 and a few other frag 
ments, which you may be able to use here and there for 
filling in. 

You are aware that many of the airs from the "Zauber- 
flote", "Don Giovanni", "Cosi fan tutte", and "Figaro" 
have been arranged for string quintet. Well, the Viennese 
public is now anxious for a similar adaptation of "Ido- 


1 About ^320. Jahn gives the price paid as 1000 ducats (about ^460), 
which was in fact what Constanze had asked when she was endeavouring to 
sell the collection to Breitkopf. Heinrich Henkel, who should have known, as 
he acted for many years as Andre's amanuensis, puts the figure as high as 
1000 carolins (about ^looo, see MMB, Heft 5. February 1898). 

2 K. 429. The musical friend was no doubt again the Abbe Stadler. 

3 K. 516. Mozart appears to have written out the whole work twice over. 
See Kochel, p. 655, for a full description both of the complete and of the 
fragmentary scores. 



I have the honour to be, most respectfully, 
your devoted servant 


Note i. The first part of "La finta giardiniera" you 
might perhaps be able to get, either in the original or in 
copy, from Herr Drexler, who is a grocer, or something 
of the sort, in Wels in Upper Austria, and once ran a 
private theatre. 2 

As for the "singspiel" with accompanied dialogue, that 
has no title, 3 you should advertise in the journals, on the 
chance that you may be able to complete it and to christen 
the poor bairn. I don't know whether it ever was finished. 

In "Don Giovanni" some wind parts are missing. 4 

A fantasia for pianoforte in F minor 5 should be in the 
hands of a certain Herr Leitl in Prague. 

For the scena no. 34 6 in the thematic catalogue you must 
apply to Count Hatzfeld of Mainz. 

1 The signature is autograph. 

2 The MS. of Act I of "La finta giardiniera", in the original Italian ver 
sion, appears to have gone astray during Mozart's lifetime and has never been 
discovered since. In the winter of 1779, when Bohm's troupe of players were 
at Salzburg, Mozart seems to have authorised the preparation of a German 
version of the text, which was finally written into the original score beneath 
the Italian words. If we may suppose that this very score was lent to the 
various travelling companies who wished to produce the authorised German 
version, it is not difficult to account for the disappearance of the first Act. Of 
Drexler (or Drechsler) nothing is known. 

3 K. 344. See above, p. 1463, n. 8. 

4 They are missing still from the autograph, but have been preserved 
in various transcripts. For particulars, see Kochel, p. 674. Mozart often 
wrote such parts on separate slips, which easily became detached from the 
main work. Cp. also p. 1480, n. 2. 

5 Presumably the PF. arrangement of the fantasia for mechanical] organ 
(K. 608), which is referred to again in Letter X (see p. 1499, n. i). Leitl 
(or Laitl) was a flute-player, who took part in the first performance of "Don 
Giovanni" in Prague and was an enthusiastic collector of Mozart's works. 

6 K. 490, a scena and rondo for soprano, with violin obbligato, written 
for an amateur performance of "Idomeneo" (Vienna, 1786). The Count Hatz 
feld referred to by Constanze was presumably Hugo Franz, son of Count 
August Hatzfeld for whom the violin part was written. In Andre's edition of 
Mozart's thematic catalogue this composition is number 35, not 34. 



A serenade "Piu non si trovano" 1 I shall send you at the 
earliest opportunity. 

Abbe Stadler may be able to get you the rest of the 
rondo of the piano concerto no. 26, as a result of his 
correspondence with Fraulein Ployen [Ployer]. 2 

Abbe Gelinek, 3 who is with Prince Kinsky here, should 
have one or two piano pieces that are still quite unknown, 
e.g. two fantasias and a concerto in C, which he got from 
the late Frau Trattner. 

I am told that Leitl has four concertos in C, and one 
in A. 4 

The original manuscript of the piano concerto no. 
47 5 is probably in the possession of the bookseller Herri 
in Prague. 

I am told that the fragment of a sonata for four hands, 6 
which formed, I believe, the last number in Herr Andre's 
list, is of no use, as the whole sonata is to be published by 
Hoffmeister. Another of my informants, however, has 
denied this. 

Traeg 7 has the manuscript of the bass aria no. 132 "Per 
questa bella mano", 8 and also of a divertimento. 

1 K. 549, a trio for two sopranos and bass, with accompaniment for three 
basset-horns. Cf. p. 1479, n. 4. 

2 On Babette Ployer see p. 1294, n. 4. The concerto referred to is K. 449. 
The autograph, now in the Prussian State Library, still lacks two leaves of the 
rondo, which are supplied in copy. 

3 Josef Gelinek (1758-1825), a prolific composer of drawing-room music, 
owed his appointment as music-master in Prince Kinsky's household to 
Mozart T s influence. Therese von Trattner was one of Mozart's favourite pupils 
and it was to her that he dedicated the fantasia and sonata in C min. (K. 475, 
457). He is not known to have written any other fantasia or a concerto for her. 

4 On Leitl see p. 1465, n. 5. It is probable that he possessed copies only of 
the four concertos in C (K. 246, 415, 467, 503) and of one of the two concertos 
in A (presumably K. 488). 

5 [? K. 503.] Herri was the publisher of Niemetschek's life of Mozart 
(Prague, 1798). 

6 K.' 357. Notpublished till 1853, when Andre's son Johann August, brought 
out an edition in which the missing portions were supplied by his brother Julius. 

7 Johann Traeg, a Viennese music-dealer who specialised in manuscript 
copies. 8 K. 612. 



Note 2. The sample or specimen 1 (see my letter). 

A German cantata "Dir, Seele des Weltalls, o Sonne", 
for two tenors and a bass. The first chorus in E b is quite 
complete. It starts with a splendid unison passage, marked 
throughout by a melody that is noble and at the same 
time simple and appealing. At the words "Von dir kommt 
Fruchtbarkeit, Warme, Licht" the word "Licht" is 
stressed by means of a sudden forte on the chord of the 
seventh, which would undoubtedly produce a powerful 
effect on the hearer, at least if the accompaniment for 
flutes, oboe, clarinets, bassoons, etc. were added in accord 
ance with the note in the score. After the chorus comes a 
tenor solo in B b , full of the tenderest melody and with a 
fine accompaniment for the double bass. Here too, how 
ever, the parts for the other instruments are wanting. Last 
comes a second tenor solo in F, of which, however, only 
17 bars are finished. 


VIENNA, March i2th, 1800 

I have just received your letter this very moment and 
hasten to answer it at once. I am sorry to find in it an ugly 
passage in which you threaten not to pay me until you 
have received my "reply". 2 That would be downright 
dishonesty, and you would be committing a grave in 
justice, as you will realise if, that is, you are capable of 
such a thing. But I cannot believe that you are. No, it is 

1 Of the method of describing the fragments. This description occurs 
word for word in the Abb6 Stadler's catalogue of the Mozart fragments 
printed by Nissen (App. pp. 18, 19). It is thus safe to regard him as the 
"musical adviser" to whom Constanze so often refers. 

2 To a statement by Breitkopf and Hartel published in the AMZ for 
March 5th, 1800 (Int. Blatt IX), in which they sought to minimise the 
importance of Andre's purchase. 



merely an excuse to gain more time, to save more "per 

As you see, I am very candid. But you will also see 
from the enclosed statement 1 how I deal with people who 
threaten me with injustice, and whom I can force to act 
honestly by the aid of "justice". I have need of my 
money. I have counted upon it, and God knows that I 
shall lose once more through this, your third postpone 
ment, as I am so precise in my calculations. Don't keep 
me waiting. 

Your request is perfectly just and reasonable. I myself 
was much annoyed when I read the advertisement, 2 and I 
have been able to make use of all your remarks with the 
exception of that which refers to the plates of the con 
certo. 3 These Breitkopf actually did purchase from me 
early in 1799. If I didn't mention the fact to you it was 
because it didn't occur to me. But why didn't you ask 
about them? You were well aware that there had been 
plates, and that they can't disappear. However, this is a 
mere trifle and only of secondary importance. I sold you 
the copies, as you know, simply as copies; and sold them 
to you as a dealer in music not as a music- engraver 
quite apart from and prior to our main transaction. 

I am happy in the conviction that you will find my 
statement eminently satisfactory as it stands, but readily 
admit that I have only made it from a sense of duty. I 
should, of course, have preferred to dispense with this 
publicity not to mention the considerable damage done 
to my reputation with the other party. 

1 Not preserved. 

* See p. 1467, n. 2. Constanze's reply to this "advertisement" was pub 
lished in the Frankfurter Staats-Ristretto for April 4th, 1 800. 

3 The piano concerto in C (K. 503), which Constanze had published in 
1798 at her own expense. The engraving was carried out by Breitkopf and 
Hartel to whom Constanze subsequently sold the plates. Andre ultimately 
purchased from her the whole of the copies that remained unsold. 



I have nothing more to tell you, and so conclude, in 
order that the answer to your letter, which reached me an 
hour ago, may not be delayed a single moment through 
any fault of mine. 

I could wish most sincerely that you should make no 
statement at all. I also hope that this statement of mine, 
which you may now make known wherever you can, will 
satisfy you. It is so unpleasant to be always quarrelling 
and squabbling, and, in my opinion, my statement knocks 
the bottom out of the whole business. And don't you agree 
that it is more to your credit if I am the only one to say 




VIENNA, March 29^, 1800 

Further useful notes for Herr Andre 

I see from a statement in no. 18 of the "Musicalische 
Zeitung" for 1800, under the heading "Anecdotes' 1 on 
page 316, that in some previous number the authenticity 
of a violin concerto ascribed to Mozart has been ques 
tioned. 1 I don't know which one is referred to and so can 

1 This is the Concerto in E^ (K. 268), the authenticity of which has so often 
been debated. As Constanze herself mentions later in the course of this letter, 
it was first published (in 1799, as Op. 76) by Andre himself, or, at any rate, by 
his father, who was head of the firm till his death in June 1799. It was re * 
viewed in the AMZ for October 1799 and curtly dismissed as an incom 
petent piece of work, which could not possibly be by Mozart. In January 
1800 there appeared an answer to this review, in the course of a communica 
tion from F. A. Ernst (1745-1805), Konzertmeister to the King of Saxony. 
It is this to which Constanze here refers. On the strength of Ernst's testimony, 
which is far from unambiguous but clearly associates the work with Munich 
and with the Munich violinist Johann Friedrich Eck, the present writer has 
argued that in the form in which it now survives it represents Eck's working 
over of Mozartian material, and has suggested 1780-1781 as the date of its 
composition. See Music and Letters, April 1931, and cp. Kochel, pp. 435, 



give no opinion on the matter. It may be a work of 
Mozart's, even though it is not in Herr Andre's posses 
sion. But if it is some fifteen years old, as is stated on 
page 3 1 6, it is bound to be mentioned in Mozart's thematic 
catalogue, which starts early in I784. 1 From this its date 
and age, at any rate, can be fixed exactly for I may 
remark here, what will hold good of all other such cases, 
that the catalogue in question was from its very beginning 
drawn up by Mozart in such detail that even trifles that 
he composed while travelling, like the little Gigue which he 
wrote, I think, in Leipzig in 1789 2 are carefully recorded. 

I am curious to know what are the "unknown quartets" 
which Herr Breitkopf announces in his February adver 
tisement. The "catalogue" will at least enable Herr Andre 
to tell whether they were written after 1784. They may, of 
course, be still older and yet genuine. But it is improbable, 
though quite possible, that there are quartets written by 
Mozart before 1784, which have never seen the light and 
yet deserve to do so. If they don't deserve it, Herr Breit 
kopf ought not, of course, to publish them. 

I now see from an earlier number of the "Musicalische 
Zeitung" that the violin concerto of which mention was 
made at the beginning of these notes, has been published 
by Herr Andre himself. It is therefore to his own advan 
tage to make sure that it is among the original manu 

In the 6th volume of the Breitkopf edition 3 there are no 
less than two whole pieces which have been sold to the 
public as Mozart's work, but which are undoubtedly noth 
ing of the kind. The theme with variations, no. 9, on p. 59, 4 

1 Mozart's catalogue is not, however, complete. See O, E. Deutsch, 
Mozarts Werkverzeichnis t Vienna, 1938, pp. 10-12. 

2 K. 574- 

3 Of the "(Euvres complettes de W. A. Mozart". Cahier 6 consisted of "14 
differentes pieces pour le pianoforte". 

4 K. App. 289. Emanuel Aloys Forster (1748-1823). 



is by Herr Forster, who, I know for certain, has himself 
written to Breitkopf and Hartel complaining of its inclu 
sion; and another theme with variations, no. u, on p. 74,* 
is by Herr Eberl, who told me so himself and at the same 
time advertised the fact in the supplement to no. 118 of 
the "Hamburger Correspondent" of the 2 5th of July, 1798, 
in which he informed the public that various pieces had 
been published as Mozart's work which were really his, 
and mentioned particularly the variations for piano on the 
theme " Freundin sanfter Herzenstriebe " from Ditters- 
dorf s "Gutsherr". 2 It is, of course, unfortunate that Herr 
Andre himself has already published these variations (if 
nothing else) as by Mozart, and it is true that Breitkopf 
and Hartel can always make shift to excuse themselves 
by urging that both these works had been accepted as 
Mozart's. Nevertheless, when preparing their edition-de 
luxe they should have obtained definite' information and 
have made themselves acquainted with the advertise 
ment I have just mentioned, the more so as one at least 
of these two pieces is marked by faults of composition and 
is, in general, unworthy of Mozart. Apart from this it is 
most revolting to hear these gentlemen talking of the great 
expense they have not shrunk from incurring to honour 
Mozart in his grave, when one remembers that most of the 
pieces they have published so far have not been copied 
from the original manuscript, but are only reprints which 
haven't cost them a penny, whilst the few works they 
have so copied have cost the merest trifle. Moreover, they 
did not even trouble to enquire into their authenticity. 

1 K. App. 287. Anton Eberl (1766-1807), a friend and pupil of Mozart's. 
His Op. i, a piano sonata in C min., was also published under Mozart's 
name (see K. App. 284 a ). 

2 K. App. 287. 




VIENNA, May 31^, 1800 

You must forgive me for saying so, but you have 
gained and I have lost over your remittance. You paid 
me in bank-notes which are cheap in Germany, but I have 
had to buy bonds from the bank here at a dearer rate than 
I should have had to pay if I had been able to purchase 
them at the exact time fixed for your settlement. This is 
the plain truth. N[issen] is content to acquiesce in the 
injustice merely to avoid a squabble. 

I have at length read Breitkopf s reply. 1 Thanks for 
telling me about it. I am glad that you think it solely my 
business to answer it. After mature consideration, how 
ever, I have decided to say nothing; otherwise there would 
be no end to the squabble. Breitkopf is quite right when 
he says towards the end of his announcement that the 
future, that is, a comparison of the two editions, will show 
where the truth lies. Quite so but the advantage will be 
with you. Apart from this, in the case of anything pub 
lished by you, he will be at the obvious disadvantage of 
having to issue mere reprints; for, as he will be unable to 
copy the original manuscript, he will be forced to do the 
next best thing copy from the edition which has been 
made from it. But for heaven's sake see that your editions 
are as correct as it is possible to make them! 

The fragments in my possession do not belong to you. 
All that I sold you was the fifteen parcels which you your 
self sealed, although I promised to let you have anything 
else that came into my hands. Accordingly I have already 

1 To Constanze's statement (see p. 1468, n. 2). Published in the AMZ 
for April 1800 (Int. Blatt XII). 



sent you a sixteenth parcel, and here is no. 17. If I can get 
hold of anything more I shall be sincerely pleased. For my 
part I have nothing more to sell you. But I am eager that 
everything that my husband wrote should be published; 
and that is the guarantee for my promise, if guaran 
tee it needs. Now when you bought those fifteen parcels 
from me, you saw also a number of fragments and sketches 
which I told you I was not giving you. Indeed, far from 
laying claim to them or expressing any desire to have 
them, you simply exclaimed: "Many people would be glad 
enough to have things like these. What a fraud could be 
perpetrated with them! Why, they would set a man up in 
fine themes for the rest of his life!" Well, I am carefully 
preserving them, and if my son does not make use of them 
some day, 1 sooner or later someone certainly will per 
haps somebody may care to publish them as a collection, 
just as they are, simply for their interest as relics. If that 
happened, no one would ever be able to flaunt himself in 
borrowed plumes, and Mozart would get the credit that is 
his alone. What I have just said naturally holds good of all 
fragments which I have not made over to you. The four 
which I pointed out to you as having been completed 
you have sufficient particulars to know which ones I mean 
also belong to me. It is a pure chance, which has in no 
way altered their character, that a friend of mine, 2 actuated 
by no desire for personal gain but simply by a love for 

1 These fragments passed into the possession of Karl Mozart on his mother's 
death and were bequeathed by him to the Mozarteum at Salzburg, where they 
are still preserved. The themes of most of them are quoted in the new 

2 The Abbe Stadler. He is known to have completed: 2 Kyries (K. 322, 
323), the Allegro for PF. and violin in B^ (K. 372), the PF. Fantasia in C min. 
(K. 396), the Allegro for PF. in & (K. 400), the Fugue for PF. in G min. 
(K. 401), the sonatas in A and C for PF. and violin (K. 402, 403), the 
PF. Trio in D min. (really three unrelated fragments, K 442), and the 
Fugue in G (K. 443). What particular works Constanze refers to, here 
and elsewhere, as "the four completed fragments" it is not possible to 

VOL. Ill 1473 2 E 


Mozart and his art and by a kind desire to help me to get 
some slight additional profit from them, completed them 
for me. I am not under a shadow of obligation to give them 
to you. If I were, you would have a claim on all fragments 
whatsoever. However, if you fail to appreciate my zealous 
attention to your interests, it is not my fault. I should have 
expected you to make me a favourable offer. That you 
are as well equipped as any man for the task of complet 
ing the pieces in question I am quite convinced. But I 
could not recompense my friend so poorly for his work as 
to allow him to have laboured in vain. After writing 
this, I am willing to modify my terms as follows: I will 
give you the four fragments, if you will undertake to pub 
lish them with my friend's additions and with an indica 
tion of how much is Mozart's own work, and to give me 
by way of payment either twenty-five copies of your 
edition, or the equivalent of twenty-five copies in cash. I 
am even willing to let you have them for four copies, if 
you will make me a present of the piano scores of 
"Figaro", "Die Zauberflote", "Cosi fan tutte", and 
"Die Entfuhrung", which have already been published, 1 
and will send them to me at your own expense. I should 
have said above that you need not adhere to my friend's 
work in every particular. 2 

How can you imagine that N[issen] can undertake the 
task of searching for the missing portions and procuring 
them for you? Do you think he has nothing else to do? As 
it is, he is constantly on the alert for any good thing that 
may come along. Whenever he finds anything he will 

1 Not by Andre. Constanze is probably referring to the piano scores 
published by Simrock of Bonn ("Die Zauberflote", 1793 J "Figaro", 1796; 
"Die Entfiihrung" and "Cosi fan tutte", in 1799). The first of these was 
arranged by Fr. Eunicke, the remainder by Beethoven's teacher, Christian 
Gottlob Neefe. 

a In a marginal note Constanze has added: "If you do not accept 
either of these proposals, I will sell the fragments or publish them myself". 



always let you know of it. Wranizky 1 is hard to get hold 
of, and he is under no obligation to me. It is surely up to 
you to make use of your friendship with him. You cannot 
possibly expect me to act as a sort of agent for you. If 
Wranizky can do nothing you must pay somebody to give 
you his time and labour. 

If there are to be many letters passing between us as 
bulky as yours of the 2nd of May, it would be really unfair 
that I should have to bear the cost of their postage. Our 
correspondence is solely to your advantage. Why, you 
might just as well expect me to pay the carriage on the 
music I send you! The spirit of our agreement is that 
throughout I should be spared all expense. I made Breit- 
kopf pay for the whole of my correspondence with him. 
Now for a friendly word of advice. Don't be in too great a 
hurry to make accusations against Breitkopf at least in 
public. You say in your last letter: "So Breitkopf is trying 
to make out that he too possesses original manuscripts of 
the concertos in A maj., Eb, and C min.!" 2 But in his 
latest statement he doesn't claim to possess the originals. 
It is true that in his February announcement he said that 
after the concerto which I had sent him (and the one 
which I got him to publish for me) he would bring out two 
further concertos, "also from the original manuscripts". 
Now it is quite likely that he does possess copies of the 
works in question. How good his copies are time will show. 
Meanwhile you have always one great advantage over 
him: you will be able to exercise control over his publica 
tions; a control that will extend to all his copies, and to 
those works published "from the original manuscript", of 
which you yourself possess the autographs. 

1 Paul Wranizky (1756-1808), from 1785 till his death Kapellmeister to 
the Court Opera at Vienna. 

3 K. 488, 482 and 491, which were published by Breitkopf and Hartel 
in 1800, 1 80 1 and 1802 respectively. 



Your letter of the 2nd of May has meant much labour 
for me twice as much as there need have been. I can see 
that you have not so much as looked at my notes, in which 
many of your questions are answered. However, I will go 
through the points once more so far as my memory serves 
me: for the rest, I must refer you to my notes. What 
follows is all that I can tell you and the only information 
that I have. I will, of course, honourably keep my promise 
to let you have anything else that I may happen to run 
across, and to let you know if I hear of anything that 
is to be found elsewhere. I have already given myself 
trouble enough to no purpose, and asked for information 
in several journals and in private letters. By the way, if 
you send any copies of music from your edition to Traeg 
or anyone else for forwarding to me, please give him 
orders to get them sent to me at once, so that I need not 
have to wait for them. 

The carriage on the music which I am posting to you 
to-day is 40 kreutzers. Please let me have this sum with 
your payment for the music from Berlin. 

I send you my best regards, and remain, 
most sincerely, 

your devoted servant 


You send me a list at the head of which you say: "Of 
the following works which are all mentioned in Mozart's 
own catalogue, I possess neither score nor parts, and 
therefore ask for further details as to where I may be 
able to get them". Let me deal with this first. 

2. Piano quintet. 1 The original MS. of this, with an 
alternative version of the finale, is in the possession of 

1 The Quintet in Eb for PF. and wind (K. 452). The "alternative version" 
of the finale, really a rough sketch, is now preserved, with similar sketches for 
the other movements, in the library of the Paris Conservatoire. Nicolaus von 
Zmeskall is now best remembered as Beethoven's friend and correspondent. 



Herr von Zmeskall, Court Secretary in the Hungarian 
Chancellor's Office here. 

3. Piano concerto. 1 The MS. is in the possession of the 
Abbe von Stadler here. 

8. Rondo for piano solo. 2 This is part of 

1 8. Allegro and Andante. The whole sonata has been 
published by Artaria. 

9. This 3 is not in Leutgeb's possession, as I have asked 
him about it. 

10. Twelve variations for piano solo. 4 These are 
probably in the possession of Herr Hoffmeister. At any 
rate they were written for him or for his "albums". 

11. A manuscript symphony 5 by Mozart whether it 
is this actual one I don't know is said to be in the posses 
sion of Herr Stoll, choir-master at Baden, not far from 
Vienna. The Grand Duke of Tuscany, 6 before whom 
Wranizky often plays, is said to possess two symphonies 
by Mozart that are quite unknown. 

14. I have now sent you a few fragments of the quintet. 7 
17. Scena written for Madame Duschek in Prague. 8 I 
must refer you to the lady herself. 

1 Of the six piano concertos entered in Mozart's catalogue after the Wind 
quintet and before the Piano rondo, one only, that in D min. (K. 466), was 
not in Andre's possession when he published his catalogue of his Mozart MSS. 
in 1841. Possibly this is the concerto referred to here. 

2 The Rondo (K. 494) was composed in 1786, the Allegro and Andante 
(K. 533) two years later. In or about 1790 Mozart himself sanctioned their 
publication together as a sonata. The publisher was, however, Hofrmeister, 
not Artaria. 

3 The horn concerto in E^ (K. 495)- O Q Leutgeb see p. 1068, n. 4- 

+ K. 500, published by Hoffmeister about 1786. The autograph has never 
come to light. 

* Andre's enquiry evidently related to the "Prague" symphony (K. 504). 
On Stoll, for whom Mozart wrote the "Ave, verum", see p. 1413, *. 2. 

6 Ferdinand III (1769-1824) was Grand Duke of Tuscany at this time. He 
was renowned for his patronage of the arts, but is not known to have come 
into personal contact with Mozart. 

' The quintet in G min. (K. 516). See p. 1464* n. 3. 

8 "Bella mia fiamma" (K. 528). On Josephine Duschek see p. 408, 
n. 2. 



22. Duet for Madame Mombelli and Signer Benucci. 1 
Here again I must refer you to these two singers. Signor 
Benucci is in Tuscany. 

25. This symphony 2 was composed in Prague, and you 
should make enquiries there. 

31, 32. The majority of these canons, 3 at any rate, are 
in Breitkopf s hands. 

33. A manuscript divertimento 4 whether it is this 
actual one, I don't know is in Traeg's possession. 5 
Some of the dance music you mention is in the posses 
sion of Herr von Lipawsky here. 6 

44. Madame Hofer asserts that she never had this aria. 7 

45. A quintet whether it is this actual one, 8 I don't 
know is in the possession of Herr von Puchberg, a mer- 

1 K. 540 13 . A duet for Zerlina (Signora Mombelli) and Leporello (Signor 
Benucci), which took the place of Don Ottavio's aria "II mio tesoro" in the 
Vienna performance of "Don Giovanni" in 1788. The autograph is still 

2 Possibly the E^ symphony (K. 543), although this was actually written in 
Vienna. Constanze may have been misled by the fact that a PF. arrangement 
of the work was published in Prague in 1794. Mozart is not known to have 
written any symphony during his visits to Prague. The so-called "Prague" 
symphony (K. 504) derives its name from the fact that it was performed by 
Mozart at a concert in Prague in January 1787. Andre had, however, already 
enquired about this symphony in his question no. n. 

3 K. 553-562. ^ 

4 Andre's enquiry was about the great Eb trio or divertimento (K. 563), the 
autograph of which, now lost, was at one time in the possession of E. W. Pole 
in London. 

5 Later Constanze has added a note : "No, this is not the divertimento 
that Traeg has." 

6 Josef Lipawsky (c. 1772-^:. 1810), pianist and composer, was a friend 
and pupil of Mozart's. 

7 "Schon lacht der holde Friihling" (K. 580), composed for Mme Hofer, 
Mozart's sister-in-law and the original Queen of the Night in the 
"Zauberflote", to sing in a German adaptation of Paisiello's "Barbiere di 
Siviglia". The autograph ultimately came into Andre's possession. 

8 The clarinet quintet (K. 581). On Puchberg see p. 1360, n. 2. On Anton 
Stadler, for whom this quintet and the clarinet concerto were written, and 
who is not to be confused with the Abbe Maximilian Stadler, see p. 409, n. 2. 
The unknown trios (p. 1479) are probably the five divertimenti for two 
basset-horns and bassoon (K. App. 229 and 229 a ). 



chant here. For information about works of this kind you 
should apply to the elder Stadler, the clarinettist, who 
used to possess the original MSS. of several, and has 
copies of some trios for basset-horns that are still un 
known. Stadler declares that while he was in Germany 
his portmanteau, with these pieces in it, was stolen. 
Others, however, assure me that the said portmanteau 
was pawned there for 73 ducats; but there were, I believe, 
instruments and other things in it as well. 

57. Piece for an organ in a clock. 1 This should be in 
the possession of Count von Deym, the present Royal 
Chamberlain, and owner of what he used to call "Miiller's 
Art Gallery". 

59. The MS. of this air for bass voice 2 with double 
bass obbligato, is in Traeg's possession. 

63. Short masonic cantata. 3 Possibly Hoffmeister has 
this. At any rate he printed it. 

Parts for three basset-horns in score, consisting of five 
numbers. The voice parts to these "notturni" 4 are by 

1 K. 608. Count Josef Deym (1750-1804), alias Miiller, was the proprietor 
of a collection of wax- works, casts from the antique and miscellaneous attrac 
tions, which from 1797 onwards was housed in a special building, and became 
one of the ' 'sights" of Vienna. According to Nohl (Mozart nach den Schilde- 
rungen seiner Zeitgenossen, p. 393), the Adagio and Allegro (K. 594) were 
specially composed for performance at the first exhibition there of the effigy of 
Field- Marshal Laudon. Mozart wrote at least one other composition for Deym, 
the Andante (K. 616). Deym took a cast of Mozart's features as he lay on his 
death-bed, and appears to have constructed a figure of the dead composer 
dressed with his own clothes (see p. 1450, and Schurig, Constanze Mozart \ p. 26). 

2 K. 612. 

3 "Die ihr des unermesslichen Weltalls" (K. 619), first printed in 1792 as a 
supplement to F. H. Ziegenhagen's Lehre vom richtigen Verhaltnis zu den 
Schopfungsuuerken. There is no trace of an edition by Hoffmeister. The auto 
graph, now in the Library of the University of Upsala, was acquired by a 
Herr von Silfverstolpe during his residence in Vienna as Swedish plenipo 
tentiary (17961802). If, as seems orobable, he got it from Constanze, she was 
for once disingenuous in her dealings with Andre. 

4 K. 346, 436-439. These trios for two sopranos and bass, with an accompani 
ment for three basset-horns (or two clarinets and basset-horn), were composed 
for Gottfried von Jacquin (see p. 1343, n. 3) and passed under his name. But in 



Jacquin, and are in Traeg's possession. They are, in fact, 
common property. However, I don't think they have ever 
been published. 

For the mass 1 that was afterwards used for "Davidde 
penitente" you should make enquiries in Salzburg, where 
it was composed, or at any rate performed. Mozart cer 
tainly did not make use of the concluding section of this 
mass in his " Requiem' 1 . When he was composing the 
"mass", there was no question of the "Requiem", which 
is a much later work. 

No one knows anything of the theme from a Mozartian 
piano concerto which has been communicated to you. 

P.S. I called on Leutgeb once in person he lives in 
the furthest part of the suburbs and have written to him 
twice, but got no reply. I have therefore decided to send 
you this letter and the parcel. There can hardly be any 
doubt that he never had the piece. 

Now for the section of pieces that require completing. 
Of "Figaro" and "Die Entftihrung" 2 I have never had 
anything more, as I have already told you by word of 
mouth. You may be able to get the other portions from 
the theatre here, through Wranizky. The little that is 

spite of Constanze's statement and of the appearance of Jacquin's name as 
composer on a transcript of them now in the library of the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde in Vienna, there can be no doubt that they are wholly Mozart's 
work. The accompaniments were written by him in a separate score. 

1 The unfinished mass in C min. (K. 427). It was first performed, prob 
ably supplemented by movements from earlier masses, at St. Peter's 
Church in Salzburg on Aug. 25, 1783. On this occasion Constanze herself 
sang the part for soprano solo. Cp. p. 1244, n. I. 

2 In the autograph scoreof "Figaro", now in the Prussian State Library, the 
recitative to Figaro's aria no. 26 is preserved in copy only. It was the original 
of this, no doubt, that Andre was endeavouring to acquire. He was ultimately 
successful, but unfortunately did not insert the autograph fragment in its 
proper place in the score. It is now in the possession of a Berlin dealer. The 
portions missing from "Die Entfuhrung" were a few parts for percussion and 
wind, written on separate leaves. These too Andre finally recovered. On "Don 
Giovanni" see p. 1465, n. 4. 



wanting in "Don Juan" I have been unable to discover, 
but as it is such a trifle it is of no consequence. Traeg has 
copies of the missing portions that he can let you have. 
The "Schauspieldirektor" consists of an overture and five 
numbers 1 see the piano score by Siegfried Schmidt, 
which bears no date but was published by Breitkopf 
several years ago. The majority of the remaining frag 
ments probably never were completed. However 

As regards i. Sonata for four hands in G maj. 2 The 
theme of this sonata, as given by you, seems to have 
been taken from the middle of the variations for four 
hands which Hoffmeister engraved. 

4. Piano rondo, with orchestral accompaniment. 3 This 
will be in the hands of Madame Bojanowich, formerly 
Fraulein Ployer, who is living not far from Kreuz in 
Croatia. Her father-in-law is Hungarian Ambassador 
here. I have already caused enquiry to be made of her, 
but to no effect. 

5. Aria for tenor. 4 I have already sent you the con 
cluding section of this. 

9. Breitkopf did not get this sonata from me. It must 
once have been complete. 

n. Aria for Madame Hofer. 5 This, she says, never was 

13. You go too far when you conclude that this con- 

1 There are four numbers only. Schmidt's piano score was published in 

2 K. 357. See p. 1463. K. 357, however, nowhere shows any thematic 
resemblance to the variations (K. 501). Curiously enough the second 
variation of K. 501 is thematically similar to that of the opening Andante of 
an unfinished sonata for PF. and violin written for Constanze (K. 404). 

3 Presumably K. 386, of which two leaves only now survive, but which was 
originally complete except for the last leaf. This is the Rondo recently recon 
structed by Dr. Alfred Einstein, with the help of the surviving fragments and 
of a piano version made by Cipriani Potter at a time when the autograph, 
then in this country, was still more or less intact. 

4 Probably the tenor aria from the cantata "Dir, Seele des Weltalls" 
(K. 429). See p. 1467. s K. 580. See p. 1478, n. 7. 



certo 1 must be in my possession just because Traeg has a 
copy of it, though that does prove that it must once have 
existed. Leutgeb hasn't got it. 

17. As you set so much store by this cadenza 2 I have 
tried to get you a copy of it. Gelinek, who collects things 
of that sort, hasn't got it, nor has Stadler nor Kutschera, 
the piano-tuner. The latter, however, has promised to 
keep an eye open for it. I myself have no more cadenzas 
in fact I have nothing more. 

6. 10. Rondo for horn, with a jocular superscription. 3 
Leutgeb has promised me a copy of this. I don't think 
that any of these horn pieces have yet been published. 

12. Rondo for horn and orchestra. 4 Leutgeb knows 
nothing of this, and concludes that no complete score 
of it exists. 

14. Draft of an introductory Allegro. 5 Leutgeb is of 
the same opinion here, as also in the case of 

15. Draft of a horn concerto. 6 

Leutgeb has nothing more even in copy beyond a 
quintet in D# (E^) for solo horn, violin, 2 violas, and 
'cello, 7 of which you probably possess the original. You 
can probably get information about any music for wind- 
instruments that you haven't got through Wranizky, 
the elder and younger Stadler, or Herr Wendt here. 8 
Madame Eissen, Eizen, or something of the sort, who is 
the widow of the late horn-player at the National Theatre 

1 A horn concerto, possibly K. 417. 

2 To one of the PF. concertos. On Gelinek see p. 1466, n. 3. Artaria's 
edition of the cadenzas (see K. 624) was dedicated to him. 

3 The rondo of the concerto in D (K. 412). Kochel quotes examples of 
Mozart's jocular notes. 

4 Possibly K. 371. 5 Possibly K. App. 98 b . 6 Possibly K. App. 98 a . 
? K. 407- 

8 On Wranitzky see p. 1475, n. I. On the elder Stadler see p. 409, n. 2. 
His younger brother Johann (1756-1804) also played the clarinet and was 
also a member of the orchestra of the National Theatre. Johann Wend 
(1745-1801), oboist and composer, was attached to the Hofkapelle at 
Vienna from 1787. 



here, 1 is said to have one or two manuscript scores of horn 
pieces. Wranizky is sure to know her. Mozart himself gave 
several MSS. to her husband. 

The catalogue of the whole of Mozart's works that you 
have promised me, which is to include works not in your 
possession as well as those that are, you cannot, of course, 
let me have for the present. It will take a good deal of 
time before a list of that sort can lay claim to complete 
ness. The biographies of Mozart 2 may also supplement it. 



VIENNA, September lotk, 1800 

Thanks for your letter of the ist of September, which 
gave me great pleasure. You are, however, in error on 
one small point. You say that the Mozart fragments 
should be your property if they are published, whoever 
may have completed them. If that were so, even my own 
son could not undertake to finish them. However, I still 
feel strongly inclined to publish them, or get them pub 
lished, just as they are, and so make them generally 
available. Through my death or some other chance they 
might easily fall into strange hands and be put to a wrong 
use. Printing would be a sure safeguard against that. If 
anyone then wished to venture on the task of completing 
them, nobody could stop him. 

The four completed fragments I have sent to-day under 

1 Jakob Eisen (1756-1796). 

2 The biographies of Mozart published at this date were: i. the article 
inE. L. Gerber's Historisch-biograpMschesLexikon der Tonkunstler (1790); 
2. the obituary notice in F. Schlichtegroll's Nekrolog auf das Jahr J7pr 
(1793), reprinted separately at Graz in 1794; 3. a brief life in No. I of 
Bossier' s Musikalische Korrespondenz^^\ and 4. F. Niemetschek's Leben 
des K. K. Kapellmeisters Wolfgang Gottlieb Mozart (1798). 


the usual seal Z 1 to Fischer, Singer to the Imperial House 
hold in Berlin, 2 from whom your agent can get them on 
production of a letter from you authorising him to receive 
"a parcel in Herr Fischer's possession" (Fischer has no 
idea what is in it), and on payment of the cost of postage. 
I adopted this course because I wanted you to get them 
without delay, as you desired, and at the same time to 
run no risks. 

From Breitkopf and H artel I have had nothing. They 
have orders to send everything to you. 3 The only pieces 
that they should still have in their possession are: 
thirteen canons in the original MSS. (they have had 
several more in copy), "Caro mio Druck und Schluck' V 
one sonata and a fragment, a fugue, the last eight bars of 
which are not by Mozart, 5 an unfinished violin sonata, 6 
the "Ouverture" published in Heft 6 of their edition, 7 
two songs for opening and closing ceremonies at 
Mozart's lodge, 8 a fragment "V amo di core", 9 which, 
however, is my property if they make no use of it, and 
also, I believe, the song "Die Trennung". 10 The 
"Ouverture" you may have received already. I will not, 
of course, swear that the above list is absolutely accurate. 

Well, good-bye! May you profit by your speculation! 
N[issen] and I send you our best regards. 


1 An attempt to reproduce Nissen's seal, which has been preserved on 
many of these letters. 

2 On Ludwig Fischer, the original Osmin in "Die Entfiihrung", see 
p. 1123, n. 7. 

3 In the margin Constanze has written: "Please let me know from time 
to time what manuscripts you get back from Leipzig, so that I can keep 
account of them, and strike the items off my list." 

4 A jocular quartet for soprano, two tenors and bass, with PF. accompani 
ment (K. App. 5). s K. 401. 6 Possibly K. 402. 

7 The PF. Suite (K. 399), written in the Handelian style and consisting of 
Ouverture, Allemande, Courante. A Sarabandewas to have followed, but six 
bars only were completed, 8 K. 483 and 484. 

9 This curious work (K. 348), more fully described in Letter VII, is a canon 
for three choirs, each of four voices. I0 K. 519. 





VIENNA, October qth, 1800 

I have just this moment read your August announce 
ment in the Frankfurter Staats-Ristretto for the i8th 
of September, 1800. The interest that I feel in your edition, 
as indeed in everything connected with the name of 
Mozart, and the thought of the quite exceptional pleasure 
with which I shall welcome the appearance of your 
thematic catalogue, impel me to make a few friendly 
remarks upon it, and for your own sake as well as for my 
husband's, to offer you a few trifling suggestions. 

What do you really propose to do in the matter of the 
catalogue? Do you merely mean to publish a list of all the 
works which you bought from me? I am almost compelled 
to think so, since you say: "as far as the manuscripts 
which I have purchased enable me to do so". But accord 
ing to your letters it was to be a list of "all works known" 
to you. This would not only please me more, but would 
also be more interesting to the general public. You could 
then, if you thought fit, put a cross or some other mark 
against all those pieces of which you yourself possess the 
originals. Even then it is, in my opinion, imperative that 
you should describe the work as "vol. i". It is so easy to 
make mistakes and to overlook things. And then the 
critics come along and gleefully declare that they "could 
make considerable additions to the list", that "it is far 
from being exhaustive", that "it is a mystery how such a 
work could ever be put before the public as complete", 
and so forth. And I cannot reconcile myself to the thought 
that you might easily forget to mention one of Mozart's 
masterpieces, I mean the great "Requiem", just because 



it is not to be found in his thematic catalogue. Whereas, if 
you include it, you need only add a note to the effect that 
as it was Mozart's last work and was not quite finished, it 
was not and could not be entered in his catalogue. 

I hope that you will note against each number the year 
and month of its composition. 1 The biography 2 will help 
you here, to say nothing of the notes which are to be found 
on many of the pieces, and my own lists. Where no date 
at all is recorded, your own knowledge is fully equal to 
the task of fixing an approximate date from the intrinsic 
qualities of the composition and from the character of the 
handwriting. 3 I am quite convinced, you see, that your 
catalogue will be arranged chronologically. You can, of 
course, take your choice whether you adhere to one 
chronological order throughout, or take each class of 
composition one after the other and adopt a separate 
chronological arrangement for each of them. I have, by 
the way, a little book with the title "Capricci", 4 which I 
can lend you if you wish. It contains what are perhaps 

1 This passage is the first of many which show that Constanze, or her 
musical adviser the Abbe Stadler, had planned even at this early date a 
scientific catalogue of Mozart's compositions, which, if it had materialised, 
would have anticipated Kochel's great work by more than sixty years. 

2 Cp. p. 1483, n. 2. Probably Niemetschek's Leben desK. K. Kapellmeisters 
Wolfgang Gottlieb Mozart (Prague, 1798) is referred to here, although in 
Letter X Constanze speaks as though Andre were not likely to have a 
copy of it. 

3 In Andre's MS. catalogue many works were dated by him either from 
considerations of style or from the character of the handwriting, and his dates 
were accepted by Kochel almost without question. See the translation of 
Andre's preface to his catalogue published in Music and Letters, April 1924. 

4 This appears to have been a companion volume to the so-called "London 
Music Book" published by Breitkopf and Hartel in 1908 under the title of 
Mozart als achtjdhriger Komponist. Leopold Mozart's catalogue of works 
composed by his son from his seventh to his twelfth year mentions "two MS. 
books containing piano pieces composed by him in London, Holland, etc. at 
various times", and that the second book bore the title "Capricci" seems 
probable in view of the wording of the advertisement of Mozart's second 
concert in Amsterdam (February 26th, 1766), which contains the announce 
ment that "Le fils jouera a la fin sur 1'orgue de ses propres caprices" (see 
MMB, March 1899, p. 218). 



Mozart's very earliest compositions, or at any rate com 
positions which date from the same period as his first 
efforts in 1765 or 1766. I still think advantage could be 
taken of the opportunity to publish a catalogue of Mozart 
fragments, which might, for example, form a preface to 
the main catalogue. If, without my knowing it, one or 
another of the fragments should have been already com 
pleted by Mozart himself, a glance at the complete list of 
his works will best enable you to detect the fact, and to 
cancel the piece from the list of fragments. The "Ouver- 
ture" which is to be found in one of the last volumes 
of Breitkopf s edition 1 and the original of which is in 
your possession, is followed by the first few bars of a 
Sarabande. I forgot to make a note of this, but you must 
mention it. 

On your title-pages I still think that "Edition faite 
d'apres le manuscrit original de 1'auteur" will read better 
than "[Edition faite d'apres] la partition en manuscrit". 
A critic out to pick holes might well ask "Whose manu 
script"? And in the case of works of which you do not 
possess the originals, is it a sufficient recommendation for 
your edition to say that you have had a correct score 
copied out? Even if it is correct, does it follow that it 
is as Mozart composed it? (The present writer 2 is no 
musician.) Moreover, that fact would not distinguish 
your edition from others, for it is the duty of every editor 
to see that what he publishes is correct. As, however, I 
myself have given you copies of many pieces, especially 
vocal works, wouldn't it be better to say that the edition 
has been prepared from a copy found among Mozart's 

I have the honour to be, most faithfully, 

your devoted servant 


1 See p. 1484, n. 7. 2 i.e. Nissen. 




VIENNA, October 22nd, 1800 

I have great pleasure in sending you the two pieces 
of music which I enclose. The variations l are a fragment. 
It is for you to make what use of them you can, provided 
that you state that they are fragmentary. The other, 
"V amo di core/' 2 looked like a fragment, but, N.N. 3 
tells me, is not so. The latter has himself added the remain 
ing portion, which, he says, Mozart would have written and 
could not possibly have written otherwise, and so made 
the piece complete. About a year ago I showed it to some 
one who told me that it was "not complete and so of no 
use", both of which statements N.N. declares to be un 
true; further, that it was "not really a canon at all, but 
merely a composition for two voices", and was "not by 
Mozart and still less in the Mozartian manner". N.N. 
declares, however, that it is certainly a canon, and, what 
is more, a canon for twelve voices and a very skilful one 
at that. It is possible that the theme is not by Mozart, but 
the setting is certainly his, as it is in his handwriting and 
shows corrections from his pen. That, at any rate, is 
N.N/s view and mine. I was also told that "the piece 
seemed besides to be not altogether unknown". I am con 
fident, however, that no one knows of its existence except 
N.N., one other person who had it in his possession about 
a year ago, and the latter's friend; all of whom only know 
of it through me. 

1 Possibly the PF. variations in F (K. App. I38 a ). 

2 See p. 1484, n. 9. 

3 The letters N.N. ( = nomen nescio), frequently employed by writers wish 
ing to remain anonymous, are here a transparent disguise of the Abbe Stadler. 
It is curious that in his biography of Mozart (App., p. 19, no. 14), Nissen 
should refer to this composition as though it were an aria. 



I hope that by this time you have received the things 
from Berlin, I mean the four completed fragments. I paid 
49 kreutzers for their postage, and this letter will cost me 
another 24. 

With my most sincere regards, I am, 

yours faithfully, 




VIENNA, ^November \2th> iSoo] 1 


For the first parcel of works by Mozart that you have 
so kindly sent me through Herr Eder, 2 I think I have 
had to pay 2 florins 24 kreutzers in postage. As, in accord 
ance with our agreement, I should receive everything free 
of charge, I must ask you to be so good as to refund me 
this amount at your earliest opportunity. One further 
point. I admit that by the strict letter of our agreement I 
am to receive four copies only of each of these first pieces 
published by you, that is, of the piano concertos, the 
rondo for violin, 3 the quartets, the quintets, and one 
sonata. 4 I have an idea, however, that you made me a 
verbal promise that of these works > at any rate, you would 
let me have five copies. However, if you don't remember 
making any such promise, you are free to do just as you 
think fit. You will, however, do me a real service if you 
can let me have a copy in score of a piece that is still little 
known although I have twice sung it in public I mean 

1 This is the date noted by Andre on the back of the letter. 

2 Josef Eder, a well-known Viennese bookseller. 

3 K. 373. Published by Andre in 1800 as "(Euvre 85. Edition faite d'apres 
la partition en manuscrit". 

4 K. 545, though Andre did not in fact publish this sonata till 1805 (as 
Op. 112). 

VOL. Ill 1489 2 F 


the heavenly trio from an unfinished opera (a finale, I 
believe) beginning with the words "Che accidenti, che 
tragedia". 1 I used to have copies of the voice parts, and 
these must have come into your hands with the numerous 
copies which were packed up with the original manuscripts 
in error, as a result of our haste and the fact that evening 
came on as we were sealing up the parcels. As some slight 
return please let me have this copy at your convenience. 
Breitkopf, I see, has now brought out an edition of the 
"Requiem". It contains just a few actual errors, and 
several, though not many, inaccuracies such as are always 
a blemish in the eyes of a connoisseur. 2 I have recently 
had the original manuscript in my possession and had 
this edition carefully compared with it, getting a skilled 
musician you know whom to correct the above-men 
tioned errors in my copy and to add the complete figured 
bass. If a copy of this sort would be of any use to you it 
is at your disposal for a consideration. You could then 
describe your edition as "With the figured bass and cPapres 
une copie corrigee sur V original avec grand soiri\ More 
over, in the copy retained by Siissmayr, who, as you no 
doubt know, finished off the work, the middle parts which 
are largely his, are quite different from those given in 
Breitkopf s edition. 3 A copy of this is also at your dis 
posal for a consideration. 

1 The last number written by Mozart in his unfinished opera "Lo sposo 
deluso" (K. 430). 

2 Constanze's criticism of Breitkopf's edition had very little justification, 
as she afterwards had the grace to admit (see her letter to Breitkopf of 13th 
August 1800, MJ, vol. iii. p. 202). The edition was, indeed, mainly if not 
entirely based on a copy which she herself had sent him. But she was 
naturally anxious to persuade Andre that the field was still open for him to 
bring out a fresh edition of the work. 

3 If Constanze means, as her words seem to imply, a transcript of the com 
pleted Requiem (i.e. of the work as it was delivered to Count Walsegg) which 
was in Siissmayr's possession, it is difficult to see what important divergences 
from Breitkopf s edition it can have exhibited. But she is probably referring 
here, as in Letter I (see p. 1462, n. i), to Mozart's original MSS. of the 



I have seen some of Pleyel's r compositions, published 
by a certain Sieber, 2 which bear upon their title page the 
words "grave d'apres le manuscrit original de 1'auteur". 
This is, in my opinion, slightly more definite and explicit 
than the phrase employed by you in your editions of 

Your most devoted servant 




VIENNA, November i6th, 1800 

You will not have forgotten that among Mozart's 
papers were found transcripts of six sonatas, 3 which I took 

"Dies irae", "Tuba minim", "Rex tremendae", "Reeordare" and "Con- 
futatis", which were undoubtedly in Sussmayr's possession for a time (see her 
letter to Breitkopf dated June 2nd, 1802, Abert, vol. ii. p. 1020), These MSS. 
had previously been in the hands of Joseph Eybler, the musician to whom 
Constanze first entrusted the task of finishing the work, and now bore upon 
them his attempts at completion. How much more extensive these were than 
has generally been supposed maybe seen from an examination of the facsimile 
of the Requiem published by Alfred Schnerich in 1914. When Siissmayr took 
up the task after Eybler had abandoned it, he naturally preferred to ignore for 
the most part the latter's contributions and composed "quite different" middle 
parts, which were of course the ones reproduced in Breitkopf s edition. In a 
later letter (no. 12) Constanze says nothing about "Siissmayr's copy" of the 
Requiem, but offers Andre* Mozart's original MSS. of the numbers from the 
"Dies irae" to the "Confutatis" and again remarks that "the middle parts of 
these pieces . . . are different from those in Breitkopf 's edition". It is extra 
ordinary that she should have forgotten all about Eybler's work on the MSS. 
and should speak as though these parts were an alternative version from 
Sussmayr's pen. 

1 On Ignaz Pleyel see p. 1304, n. 5. 

2 Jean Georges Sieber (c. 1734-^. 1815), the famous Paris publisher. 

3 Undoubtedly the six violin sonatas (K. 5560), of which so much is made 
by MM. Wyzewa and St. Foix in their elaborate study of Mozart's musical 
development. (See WSF, vol. i. pp. 502-519, vol. ii. pp. 14-16). Constanze's 
statements fully justify those few critics who have ventured to question the 
authenticity of these works on internal grounds. 



to be his work. As I told you, I sold them to Breitkopf 
and Hartel, who agreed with you in pronouncing them 
very poor stuff. However, as you kept pressing me, I 
finally gave you copies of them, on your giving me your 
word of honour that, as you were aware of their sale to 
Breitkopf, you would make no improper use of them. I 
am now filled with grave misgivings as to whether the 
pieces are by Mozart. The fact that I have actually sold 
them to B. and H., who are at liberty to publish them, if 
they wish, without making any mention of Mozart '$ name 
though I have written to them and told them of my mis 
givings makes no difference, and does not relieve you of 
your obligation. I mention this matter to you now mainly 
to induce you not to cite the themes of these pieces in your 
thematic catalogue of Mozart's works. For the present I 
am unable to acknowledge them as his, and should object 
to their beitig published as such either in their entirety or 
even if the themes only were quoted. I have, however, 
left Breitkopf and Hartel to reconsider them and to value 
them according to their intrinsic merits. My point is that 
I now decline to vouch for their authenticity in any way. 
In this connection a further doubt has suggested itself 
to me: namely, whether the unnamed opera 1 with accom 
panied dialogue in the place of recitative, which appears 
to be unfinished, or, at any rate, has never been reckoned 
by me among the finished works, is really by Mozart. 
The text of the opera seems to me to be either in Mozart's 
own hand, or in a hand deceptively like his. As for the 
music, you yourself should best be able to pass an opinion 
on the style of the handwriting. Here too, of course, 
Mozart's hand changed as time went on, but you should 
be able to find other manuscripts which display a similar 
style. Moreover, at the end of everything he wrote of 
all important compositions, at any rate Mozart made a 

1 "Zaide." See p. 1463, n. 8. 


characteristic flourish, neater and more delicate than any 
thing I have ever seen elsewhere, which went something 
like this 1 

no, it's no use I can't reproduce it, but you must have 
noticed it already and will know what I mean. If the 
flourishes in this opera are undoubtedly Mozartian, then, 
of course, the opera must be so too. All the same nobody 
no, not a soul has heard of it, and both the text and 
the music are written in a hand that bears a deceptive 
resemblance to Michael Haydn's, or at least to that of his 
regular copyist. 2 

To my suggestion about quoting the themes of all the 
fragments, you have, I am sorry to say, not replied. Their 
publication in the manner I proposed would delight me 
beyond measure. The end of your catalogue would be the 
right place for them. I am not seeking any personal ad 
vantage in this matter, but there is no one else who can 
publish this catalogue in so complete a form as you can, 
since you have one or two pieces almost but not quite 
finished, of which I have no notes. It is also possible that 
my list contains one or two pieces which were completed 
later and so cannot be reckoned as fragments. In a word, 
view the matter how you will, there could be nobody so 
well qualified to bring out the catalogue; which is, more 
over, a work that will not only be very welcome to all 
connoisseurs, but will afford you too the satisfaction of 
knowing that no one in future will be able to elaborate 
these themes and bring them out as compositions by 

1 Here follow four attempts to reproduce the flourish, which, as Constanze 
says, is to be found at the end (generally under the final pause-marks) of most 
compositions or movements of compositions by Mozart. Andre himself thought 
this peculiarity worth mentioning in the preface to his MS. catalogue of 
Mozart's compositions to the year 1784. (See Music and Letters, April 1924.) 

2 The Benedictine Abbey at Salzburg possesses MS. copies of several sets 
of dances by Mozart and also of a number of works by Michael Haydn in the 
hand of the same copyist, who was evidently a contemporary of the two 
composers. (See MJ, i. 1923, p. 25). 



Mozart, to the prejudice of your edition of the works, of 
which you will thus remain the sole authentic publisher. 
N[issen] sends his regards. 

I remain, your most devoted servant, 




VIENNA, November 2,6th, 1800 

Your letter of the I3th of November has given me 
much satisfaction, and you will find here a full answ r erto it. 
I shall wait for the trio 1 then. Of the aria 2 which you 
are anxious to secure I can give you nothing more, as I 
have nothing more to give. So far as I can remember, it 
was written for my sister Madame Lange. You must apply 
to her, if you know where she is to be found. Fm afraid I 
don't. However, I will ask Traeg about it, and buy it for 
you if it is to be had. And that reminds me. The parts of 
this work, as of several others, came into your hands 
purely by accident, without my consent and quite apart 
from our agreement, and it is therefore your duty in the 
eyes of the world and of God above to make me some 
recompense for them. 

It is quite impossible either for you or for me to pro 
cure the original score of the "Requiem" in its entirety. 3 

1 See p. 1490, n. i. 

2 Apparently the same aria as that referred to later in this letter as " Ah, non 
sai, qual pena sia", viz. the recitative and rondo for soprano with orchestral 
accompaniment (K. 416). See Mozart's letter of January 8th, 1783 (p. 1246). 

3 The paragraph relating to the "Requiem" which follows in the text, was 
published, with some slight omissions, in Andre's preface to the edition of the 
full score of the work which he brought out in 1826. It was reprinted by 
Gottfried Weber in Bd. 6 of his periodical Caecilia, and will be found in an 
English version in William Pole's admirable little book The Story of Mozart's 
Requiem. Doctor Sortschen was the Viennese advocate whom Count Walsegg 
appointed to act for him when rumours that the work was not entirely by 
Mozart at last reached his ears. 



Doctor Sortschen, the advocate, who lives here "unter 
den Tuchlauben", has returned it to its unknown owner, 
and it was only in Sortschen's house that St[adler] was 
able to inspect it for me and compare it with my copy or 
with Breitkopfs edition. 1 However, as things are, my 
copy of the Breitkopf edition has been made not merely 
more correct than that edition as published, but, embody 
ing as it does further corrections from the hand of a 
master, actually more correct than the original manu 
script itself. The entering of these alterations in my copy, 
and the addition of the figured bass throughout, have 
cost me money. However, I will let you have the copy, 
with these corrections, for [7 florins] 2 and you will then 
be able to announce in all truth that your piano arrange 
ment of which also, by the way, I shall naturally receive 
four copies has been made from a copy collated with, 
and most carefully corrected from, the original. I said just 
now that my copy is better than the original. You know, 
of course between ourselves that it is not all Mozart's 
work, particularly many of the middle parts, and with my 
copy before you, you will thus be saved from the discredit 
of reproducing the mistakes which appear in the original 
under Mozart's name. But I will do even more to help 
you. I will procure for you the Dies irae, Tuba minim, 
Rex tremendae, Recordare, Confutatis, and Sanctus, and 
will confide to you the following secret. The original of all 
that precedes the Dies irae 3 is in the possessionof "the Un 
known". From that point Mozart had written out all the 
main parts of the Dies irae, Tuba minim, Rex tremendae, 

1 Andre explains in his preface that one copy only is indicated here, namely 
a copy of Breitkopfs printed score corrected by the Abbe Stadler. "Or" thus 

equals "i.e.". 

2 The price has been deleted here and in another passage in this letter, but 
has been allowed to stand in a passage in Letter XI (p. 1501). 

3 The Dies irae is preceded by the "Requiem and Kyrie", the first 
number in the score and the only one completed by Mozart. The 
"Unknown" was Count Walsegg of Stuppach who commissioned the work. 



Recordare, and Confutatis, 1 but little or nothing of the 
middle parts, which were written by another. In order 
that two different handwritings should not appear together 
in the same work, 2 this person also copied out all that 
Mozart had written. Now you know exactly how much of 
the "Requiem" Mozart composed. Anything more that I 
could say after what I have told you would be sheer re 
petition. The Sanctus which I will get for you is in the 
autograph of the person who wrote this piece together 
with the rest of the work. 3 A further point is that the middle 
parts of these pieces which I am getting for you are 
different from those in Breitkopf s edition. In fact, with 
the exception of the small improvements to which I have 
referred, they stand in the latter just as they appear in the 
original in "the Unknown's" possession. The person who 
completed the work must thus have copied them twice 
over, and you can, if you think fit, make your choice 
between the two versions. 4 The Sanctus is thus entirely 
by the completer, but of the other pieces only those parts 
that are ringed round in pencil. You would thus be 

1 Constanze seems to have been unaware at this time that Mozart had also 
composed portions of the three following movements, viz. the "Lacrimosa", 
"Domine" and "Hostias", and that the original MSS. were still in Eybler's 
possession. It is difficult to explain her ignorance of them, as Siissmayr had of 
course made use of them, or of copies from them, in completing the work. 

2 This explanation has been generally accepted. But the Mozartian 
originals already bore upon them Eybler's attempts at completion (see 
p. 1490, n. 3) and could not have been used by Siissmayr unless he had 
been willing to accept the latter's contributions more or less as they stood. 
It is curious that the extent of Eybler's additions has escaped the notice 
of almost all writers on the Requiem. All the parts ringed round in 
pencil on the Mozart originals are by Eybler unless we are to suppose 
that some third completer had also tried his hand. 

3 i.e. the two concluding movements, the "Benedictus" and the "Agnus 

4 See p. 1490, n. 3. It would certainly appear from this passage 
that Constanze believed the additions on Mozart's original MSS. to be 
from Siissmayr's hand, and to provide a series of variant readings which 
could be adopted in preference to the parts furnished by him for the Walsegg 
copy and reproduced in Breitkopf J s printed score. 



able to claim with truth that your piano arrangement has 
been made directly from the originals in the case of six of 
the numbers and there are only twelve in all. 

I have again inspected the fragments, or at least had 
them inspected. Anything that could possibly be of any 
use to you I will gladly send you. There are, however, only 
four such pieces: namely, three finales, with which belongs 
a middle section which is bound up with one of them, and 
an opening movement of some length. 1 I will send you 
these on your own terms, but the other fragments I cannot 
and do not intend to make public. They are only rough 
drafts of opening bars and would not, as you imagined, 
help you to complete anything. Further illustrations of 
Mozart's productivity and fertility of invention you could, 
of course, easily procure, but that is a matter quite dis 
tinct from your avowed object. Nevertheless, I also cater 
for your laudable curiosity in my catalogue of the frag 
ments with the opening bars of each. And here I have a 
bone to pick with you. You have never told me whether 
your catalogue will also include a complete list of the 
fragments, with their themes, which is what I most 
earnestly desire. First, it will be a novel and attractive 
feature, and secondly, as you and indeed the whole world 
would know what Mozart had left unfinished, it would 
make it impossible for any stranger into whose hands the 
themes might fall, to elaborate them and publish them as 
Mozart's work. You are also in a position to make this 
list of mine still more complete by the addition of the 
larger fragments which you already possess. I shall send 
you the list then, and should like ten copies of the printed 
work in return. 

For the aria "Ah, non sai, qual pena sia" I shall get my 
secretary to write to Amsterdam, where my sister may be 
staying. But it might perhaps be simpler for you yourself to 

1 See p. 1499, n. 2. 


apply to Bertuch in Weimar, whose Journal des Luxus' 1 
often contains theatrical intelligence from Amsterdam. 

Your system of classification is pronounced to be ex 
cellent. But don't forget to include the "Requiem" among 
the masses. 

Have you received the two litanies "de corpore Christi" 2 
from Baron Jacobi? I have been told that Traeg recently 
acquired a mass by Mozart of which he had never heard 

Wouldn't songs and canons be better classed as chamber 

On the analogy of my agreement with H [artel] I ex 
pect five copies of the cadenzas. 

The fragments you have had from Berlin are rightly 
described as arranged. 

The quintet in E*V published by Artaria as no. 8, was 
written by my husband for horn and strings, and the new 
editor has simply substituted an additional 'cello for the 
horn, which is a comparatively rare instrument. I shall be 
delighted to send you an absolutely authentic transcript 
of it, nothing less than Leutgeb's own copy which he has 
given me. 

A certain Herr von Tost, 4 who lives in the Singer- 

1 The Journal des Luxus und der Moden, published at Weimar under the 
editorship of C. Bertuch. On Aloysia Lange's stay in Amsterdam, which 
lasted from 1798 to 1801, see D. F. Scheurleer's Het Muziekleven in Nederland 
in de i8 e eeuw, 1909, pp. 271 fT. 

2 K. 125 and 243. Constans Philipp Wilhelm, Freiherr von Jacobi-Klost 
(i745-?i8i7), was Prussian Ambassador in London from 1792 to 1816. In 
the former year, while still in Vienna, he had made Constanze's acquaintance 
in connection with the sale of eight Mozart autographs to the King of Prussia 
(seep. 1454). From letters not here translated it appears that he was under some 
agreement to procure for Constanze the MSS. of these two Litanies and that 
Constanze had transferred her rights to Andre. 

3 K. 407. Artaria's edition, published in 1800, was not only a transcription, 
but incorporated a minuet (from K. 375) which did not belong to the work. 

4 Johann Tost, a rich cloth merchant and patron of the arts, to whom Haydn 
dedicated three series of string quartets, Op. 54, 55 and 66. Constanze's state 
ment is the only evidence that Mozart also wrote for him, but it is possible 



strasse here, claims to possess original scores by Mozart, 
and it is quite true that Mozart did some work for him. 
He has promised me the themes. 

I have been told by some Spaniards that Mozart's 
music is highly esteemed and very popular in Spain. You 
should try to find an agent there. 

Neither Eder nor Traeg nor anyone else has made any 
announcement in our journal here of the works of Mozart 
you have already published. Wranizky has announced 
your "Don Juan" and that is all. Am I to understand that 
you have now secured the instrumental parts which were 
wanting in my copy of that opera? 

If you look at the 8th volume of Breitkopf s edition you 
will find on page 16 a Fantasia for four hands. 1 This work, 
however, was not written by Mozart in this form, but is an 
arrangement by Gallus for Traeg or Mollo of the piece 
written for a clock, which you will find in his catalogue. 

Look what a fine collection of things you are getting! 

1. The book "Capricci", which is to be returned to me. 

2. The corrected and collated copy of the "Requiem", 
for which I am to get [7 florins], but which becomes 
your property. 

3. The original manuscript of the said numbers of the 
" Requiem", which are to be sent back to me. 

4. The concluding portion of a long piece of music 
(paged E). 2 

that he is to be identified with the " Hungarian amateur " for whom, 
according to a statement on the title-pages of Artaria's editions, the string 
quintets K. 593 and 614 were written. The name is certainly Hungarian. 

1 The Fantasia in F min. (K. 608 = K. App. I45 a ) no. 131 in Mozart's 
catalogue, where it is described as "Ein Orgelstuck fur eine Uhr". Kochel 
records a PF. arrangement published by Traeg in 1799. It is interesting to 
learn on Constanze's authority that this arrangement was made not by 
Mozart himself, but by Johann Mederitsch, known as Gallus (i755- l8 35)- 

2 Nos. 4-7 of this list are no doubt the three finales (one preceded by a 
middle section) and the opening movement to which Constanze refers above 
(p. 1497). Nos. 4, 5, and 7 cannot be identified. No. 6 is K. 495, as is 
clear from Kochel's note on the autograph (see Kochel, p. 628). 



5. Pp. 25, 26, 27, 28 of the same. 

6. The middle (pp. 13, 14) and the concluding (pp. 21, 
22, 23) sections of a piece in Eb for the horn. 

7. The opening movement of a quintet, of considerable 
extent. 1 

8. An original fugue for piano, 2 which becomes your 
property. It is the one on pp. 12 sqq. of the 8th 
volume of Breitkopf s edition. 

9. An authentic transcript of the quintet 3 about which 
you have asked me Leutgeb's own copy, given him 
by Mozart. 

10. Niemetschek's biography of Mozart, 4 if you haven't 
got it. I don't think the work has reached Germany. 
It has a good deal about Mozart's works, although I 
can't promise that it will tell you anything fresh. For 
this and the other things which I have not written 
down you will make me a proper recompense. Won't 

- It has just occurred to me that you may probably be 
able to get the aria "Ah, non sai, qual pena sia" 5 from 
Mademoiselle Wilhelmine (I think it is Wilhelmine) Wei- 
mann (or Weinmann) in Halle. As she is a very capable 
pianist and a professional at that, you ought easily to be 
able to trace her. She used to have one or two arias which 
I myself hadn't got. 

Well, good-bye. Please send me your answer at once. 


The writer sends you his regards. 

If I should not succeed in getting Niemetschek to send 

1 Possibly K. App. 79. * K. 394. 3 K. 407. 

4 See p. 1486, n. 2. 

5 See p. 1494, n. 2. The AMZ for January 6th, 1802, records a per 
formance of Haydn's "Seasons" in which a certain "Dem. Weimann aus 
Halle' 1 took the soprano part. This is probably the person to whom Constanze 
here refers. 



me a copy of the biography, I must withdraw the offer I 
have made above. Remember, you defray all expenses. 



VIENNA, January 26tk, 1801 

I have had the pleasure of receiving your letter of the 
1 2th of January, and sit down to answer it. 

I am delighted beyond measure that after careful in 
vestigation you recognise the unnamed opera 1 to be 
Mozart's work. 

You are half inclined to complain at my having asked 
seven florins for the revised copy of the " Requiem", but it 
cost me more than a florin to get it corrected by my 
copyist, and to get the complete figured bass added. 

You say that I shall receive no more copies of your 
piano arrangements than you think fit to make me a 
present of, as you consider that the terms of our agreement 
are in no way applicable to them. I can't see that; in fact, 
I think the truth is rather the other way round. However, 
you give me to understand that I shall receive some copies, 
and that is the main point. I am convinced that I can 
rely on your friendship. 

You have never yet told me whether you are willing to 
publish the themes of the fragments together with (that is, 
at the same time as) the themes of the completed works. 
That is the condition I lay down. You do not appear to 
attach nearly enough importance to their publication, cer 
tainly nothing like as much as I do. I am convinced that 
the public will greatly prize such a catalogue, and its 
publication would also ensure that, in any criticisms, full 
1 "Zaide." See p. H9 2 - 


justice would be done to your unexampled industry and 
your exhaustive knowledge of all Mozart's works. One 
copy of your list you have always promised me, and now 
you want to give me only four copies in all. However, 
that will certainly not keep me from giving you my lists. 

You seem to have been generally rather out of humour 
when you wrote to me. I can surely be pardoned for be 
lieving my transcripts, most of which were made under 
my husband's own eyes, to be authentic. In any case I 
can certainly make that claim for the transcript which 
Leutgeb gave me, and which I am sending you herewith. 
Try to recall the circumstances which led me to talk of 
those pieces the pieces I called authentic copies and be 
lieved to be so. I wished in fairness to you to indicate a 
mode of procedure by which you could ensure that the 
publication of such works as you had received from me 
only in copy should redound to your credit. Thus my 
intentions were good. 

I was much distressed on your account to read in the 
Ristretto* an advertisement which contained the state 
ment quite true, I admit that " Don Juan " exists only 
in an imperfect manuscript. 2 Some years ago, when I gave 
Breitkopf and Hartel a list of all Mozart's larger works, I 
myself made this remark about "Don Juan". This is a new 
warning to me never to tell anyone more than they actu 
ally need to know. However, what a trifling disadvantage 
to your edition it will be that in the original manuscript 
the last finale is not complete, 3 and that in two places the 
parts for the wind-instruments are wanting for that is all 
that is lacking. You will, I suppose, find some suitable 
opportunity for making the fact known, and can then 

1 The Frankfurter Staats-Ristretto. 

2 On the imperfections in "Don Giovanni" cp. p. 1465, n. 4. 

3 The autograph score, now in the library of the Paris Conservatoire, still 
lacks the last leaf. 



offer to allow anyone who so desires, to satisfy himself by 
inspecting the original in your possession. 
I am, then, sending you herewith 
The " Requiem," 

The book "Capricci", which is to be returned to me, 
Several numbers of the " Requiem " in the original, 

from p. ii to p. 32, to be returned to me. 
An Andantino for piano, 1 

Two fragments, which you may be able to make use 
of in your collection, viz. a couple of fragments 
from the horn concerto, 2 which Leutgeb will only 
sell at a high figure, 

Several trifles, and a fugue 3 which Breitkopf and 
Hartel have published, and which they retained 
for as long as eighteen months. 

Your most devoted friend 




VIENNA [? "February i8tA, i8oi] 4 

Herr Hartel is making rapid progress. Yesterday I 
received no less than three of the piano concertos; the 3rd, 
4th and 5th. 5 And, what is more, he has been so obliging 
as to send me in every case five copies on ordinary and 
one on fine paper (or at least on better paper), carriage 
paid, which is more than I had any right to expect. 
Recently, in addition to the ten copies of the Requiem, 
which were the very utmost to which I was entitled by the 

1 K. 236. This was first published in Cocks' s Musical Miscellany for May 
ist, 1852, from a MS. provided by Czerny, who stated that the piece had been 
written by Mozart in 1790 as a contribution to an autograph album. 

2 See p. 1499, n. 2. 3 K. 401. 

4 This is the date noted by Andre on the back of the letter. 

5 K. 459, 450, 415. 



terms of our agreement, he sent me a further six copies to 
cover payment for postage, as he had twice forgotten to 
have the postage on things which he sent me charged to 
him. I merely tell you the facts and point no moral It is 
true of course that he got his things cheap, indeed practic 
ally for nothing, and that I am Mozart's widow; but you 
will understand that I could not expect such courtesy and 
that he is under no obligation to me. 

I keep searching the Frankfurt journals to see whether 
you won't soon publish something further. I thought from 
your catalogue that the quartets, the quintets, and one 
sonata were at length out, but I see that I was mistaken. 

The writer sends you his best regards. 

I remain, ever your most devoted servant and friend, 




VIENNA, March ^th, 1801 

It is possible that Herr von Puchberg has no con 
certo and that I meant to say merely that he had the 
quintet. 1 You know that my secretary is no musician 
although he is very eager to make a note at once of any 
thing that seems worth recording and likely to be of use 
to you and may of course easily make mistakes through 
lack of knowledge. 

I have never claimed that the ' ' Requiem " contains any 
extensive and important "improvements" beyond certain 
corrections, but I still maintain that every correction is an 
improvement, and that one great advantage of my copy 
is that it has the figured bass added, and for the most 
part from the original. 

1 See p. 1478, where, however, the quintet only is referred to and no 
mention is made of a concerto. 



I am very eager to get the piano arrangements of the 
operas which you are due to give me as a return for the 
completed fragments. Appease my hunger quickly, I 
implore you. 

If I am sorry that you already possess the horn quintet, 
it is simply because my zeal to serve you, which, as I keep 
finding, you do not properly appreciate, has in this case 
been in vain. 

You yourself wanted to see the "Capricci", otherwise I 
should never have sent them to you. Please let me have 
them back, together with the fragment of the ". Requiem/' 
which is not mine to dispose of. 1 

I solemnly assure you that the fragments which I have 
cannot help to complete a single bar of music in your 
collection. Compared with those you have received these 
are merely beginnings of pieces. I am willing to allow 
Wranizky to inspect them, if you still don't believe me. 
If I do find any other fragments you shall have them. 

N[issen] sends his regards, and I am, 

yours sincerely, 




VIENNA, March 22^, 1801 


Yesterday I had the pleasure of receiving from you, 
through Herr Sauer: 2 

Four copies of the Adagio and Rondo for violin, op. 99. 3 
Four copies of the three quartets for two violins, viola, 
and 'cello, op. 94, no I, 4 

1 Possibly the fragments were still Sussmayr's property, although in her 
letter to Breitkopf of June 2nd, 1802, Constanze says that Siissmayr had been 
so good as to give them to her "some time ago" (see Abert, vol. ii. p. 1021). 

2 Ignaz Sauer, a Viennese music-publisher. 

3 K. 261 and 269. 4 K. 168-170. 

VOL. Ill IS05 2 & 


Four copies of the same, no. 2, 1 

Four copies of the oboe quartet, op. ioi, 2 

Four copies of the first horn concerto, op. g2; 3 and 

one copy of nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5 of the piano concertos 
you have published; 4 being the fifth copy of each due to 
me under our special agreement. Allow me to lighten your 
task for you this time. The following is a list of the pieces 
of which I have still to receive a fifth copy in accordance 
with the supplementary clause of our agreement, viz. 

no. 6 of your six grand concertos, 5 

the concerto for two pianos, 6 

the rondo for violin, 7 

the quartets for two violins, viola, and 'cello, 

ist number 

ditto 2nd number. 

I have only received four copies of these pieces so far. 

By the terms of the said clause I am also to receive: 

Five copies of the five quintets, 

Five copies of seven quartets, yet to be published, 

Five copies of the piano sonata in C; 8 and, lastly, 

Five copies of no. i of your six grand piano con 
certos. 9 

The last item will probably surprise you. But you have 
only to run your eyes over the addendum to our agree 
ment to recognise your obligation to send me these copies. 
I am driven to suppose that you didn't get any copies of 
the concerto engraved yourself, but contented yourself 
with your stock of copies from my edition, although this 

1 K. 171-173- 2 K. 370. 3 K. 447. 

4 The series of "Six grands Concertos dedies au Prince Louis Ferdinand de 
Prusse par 1'editeur. Op. 82" was made up as follows: no. I, K. 503; no. 2, 
K. 595; no. 3, K. 491; no. 4, K. 482; no. 5, K. 488; no. 6, K. 467. These were 
the first works published by Andre after his purchase of the Mozart MSS. 
from Constanze. s K. 467. 6 K. 365. 7 K. 373. 8 K. 545. 

9 K. 503, first published by Constanze herself. 



seems very hard to believe, as you have had more than 
230 J copies of the other concertos engraved and are sure 
to have an equal number of each of them. However, I am 
quite ready to accept your explanation, as indeed I must. 

N[issen] in his ignorance now wants you to tell him 
how your numeration by opus numbers hangs together. 
If he is right in his opinion, I should, he thinks, as your 
first edition from the original MS. is numbered 82, 
already have to my credit nos. 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 
9 I > 93> 95> 96, 97, 98, ioo. 2 But perhaps one of these 
numbers must be deducted for the violin rondo? 3 How 
ever, don't attach too much importance to his fussiness 
and preciseness. 

See that you preserve your present goodwill, which 
indeed I merit in return for what I feel as your 

most devoted friend and servant, 




SALZBURG, 4 October 2%tk, 1825 

Permit me and my partner, who is well known to you 
and also ventures to ask for your favourable regard, to 

1 Approximately the number of copies of this concerto which Andr had 
received from Constanze when she made over her remaining stock to him. 

2 Nissen's suspicions were aroused because Constanze had received Andre's 
Op. 82 (the PF. concertos) and also his Op. 101 (the oboe quartet), but of the 
intermediate numbers only Op. 83 (the concerto for 2 PFs.), Op. 92 (the horn 
concerto, K. 447), Op. 94 (6 quartets, K. 168-173) and Op. 99 (the Adagio 
and Rondo for violin). 

3 K. 373. This was in fact published by Andre as Op. 85. 

4 In September 1810 Nissen moved to Copenhagen to take up an official 
appointment under the Danish Government, and his wife accompanied him. 
They remained there until Nissen 7 s retirement in 1820, when they returned to 
Austria and made a new home in Salzburg. 



open a friendly correspondence with you, although even 
assuming that you have the time, as you certainly have 
the inclination to oblige me it is admittedly one from 
which I alone draw any certain profit. Nevertheless, the 
course of my letter may perhaps convince you that I am 
doing my best, so far as circumstances permit, to provide 
you with your little tit-bit as well. And I should do so, 
believe me, whenever I had the opportunity, even though 
I wanted nothing in return. 

First, I should like to ask you to send the four copies of 
works published by you from Mozart's original manu 
scripts to a different address from that originally fixed. I 
have been away from home for five years, and do not know 
where or when I shall settle down again. Your promise to 
send me the things postage paid only held good for Ham 
burg or Vienna, and would never have covered forward 
ing them for a while to Copenhagen, at least unless I had 
first asked you to make the change. You consented, how 
ever, and I was duly grateful. I am now prompted to ask 
another favour of you by which you can once more earn 
my gratitude. 

When you are sending your next consignment will you 
get two of the copies forwarded to Meiners * (or any one else 
you may prefer) in Milan, addressed to my son Karl, 2 
who is well known to everyone there, and also 

two copies to your agent in Lemberg (or to Steiner and 
Company in Vienna, although I prefer the more direct 
method), addressed to my son Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 3 
in Lemberg, who is also easily to be found. 

1 J. Meiners, a Milanese composer. 

2 Karl Thomas Mozart (1784-1858), at this time a minor government 
official in Milan. 

3 Franz Xaver Wolfgang (Amadeus) Mozart (1791-1844). From 1808 to 
1838, with the exception of a year or so of touring and a visit to Salzburg in 
1826, whither he was summoned l>y Constanze to attend Nissen's funeral, he 
resided in Lemberg, where he gained a fairly comfortable livelihood as a 
teacher of music. 



The little that I can have the pleasure of offering to 
you is as follows. (I hoped that in my late husband's 
native town, with access to his sister, I should find all 
kinds of things. But the most untiring investigations have 
failed to procure me anything further.) 
In copy. 

i. A cradle-song, "Schlafe, mein Prinzchen/' Andante, 
in F maj. 1 It is quite a delightful thing, naive and 
whimsical, with many obvious signs of Mozart's hand. 
I must, however, add that his sister knows nothing of 
the song. But in Salzburg it has passed for Mozart's 

1 K. App. 284 f . The authorship of this very popular song has been the 
subject of much discussion. In 1896 Dr. Max Friedlaender announced in the 
Jahrb. der Mwikbibliothek Peters that he had discovered in the Hamburg 
Library a printed copy of the song, dating from 1 795 or 1796, on the title-page 
of which it was described as "Wiegenlied von Cotter, gesetzt von Flies" 
(Flies = Bernard Flies, an obscure Berlin composer of the latter half of the 
eighteenth century). In spite of this evidence the former curator of the 
Mozarteum, J. E. Engl, upheld Mozart's claims to the very last. (See especially 
his amusing onslaught on Dr. Friedlaender in the 35th Jahresberickt of the 
Mozarteum, 1915). The strongest argument that he could produce, however, 
was that it was just as likely that Flies should have appropriated a work by 
Mozart as that Mozart's name should have come to be associated with a work 
by Flies! A transcript of the song was finally sent to Andre on February 28th, 
1 826, accompanied by a note from Nissen of the same non-committal character 
as the remarks in this letter (see Kochel, p. 894). In Constanze's recently 
recovered diary, (ed. Abert, MM, Feb. 1920) there occurs under the date 
27th September, 1828, an entry which records the sending to a certain Dr. 
Feuerstein, who was helping her in the task of editing Nissen's biography of 
Mozart, of a letter in which she had enclosed "instead of the Wiegenlied, 
another composition of my Mozart". This entry by itself might perhaps 
be taken as evidence in favour of Mozart's authorship, although it is more 
probable that it was just because the authenticity of the song had been 
questioned that Constanze preferred to send the Doctor some other com 
position. In any case, the present letter establishes beyond a doubt that 
Constanze had never heard of the song until she found it in Salzburg, and 
did not consider herself in a position to pass an opinion upon it. Dr. Feuerstein 
seems to Tiave been less scrupulous, for the music of the "Wiegenlied" was 
after all printed in the Supplement to Nissen's biography, where it was also 
recorded, quite unjustifiably, among the "fragmentary compositions found 
among Mozart's remains". For a recent attempt to reassert Mozart's 
authorship, see an article by E. Lewicki in the Zeitschrift fur Musik, January 



work for several years, and everyone else accepts it as 
his, in particular Herr Schinn 1 of Munich, who lived 
here some years ago and vouches for its genuineness. 
It must date from his early years, since he did not 
write it in Vienna; but nothing in the song itself points 
to the composer's youth. 

2. An ariabuffa, "Dentro il mio petto, " 2 Allegro maestoso, 
in D maj. throughout. Some of my previous remarks 
apply to this also. It has the Mozartian stamp, neither 
my sister-in-law nor I know anything of it, but it is 
claimed to be genuine here. 

3. A few fragments only of a concerto for three pianos in F. 3 
This work was written by Mozart. He mentions it in his 
letters to his father, stating among other things that he 
had played it in Augsburg. Its date must be about 1777. 

4. The very earliest compositions of Mozart as a child, 
dating from 1762 (January) and 1763, written down by 
his father in a little book belonging to him. 4 Most of 

1 Johann Georg Schinn (1768-1 833), at this time viola-player at the Munich 
court. While a flautist at the court of the Prince Bishop of Eichstadt he had 
visited Salzburg to take lessons in composition from* Michael Haydn. 

2 K. App. 27. "Dentro il mio petto io sento" was the first aria sung by the 
Podesta in the original Italian version of "La finta giardiniera". As already 
pointed out (p. 1465, n. 2), the original Italian score of Act I went astray at 
an early date, and in the later German version this song was replaced by a 
different composition, set to new words. On December 2nd, 1780 (seep. 1009), 
Leopold Mozart informed his son that Schikaneder, then in Salzburg, had 
prevailed upon him to give him a copy of "the aria 'Dentro il mio petto' 
from the opera buffa", and this no doubt explains how the song came to be 
regarded in Salzburg as an independent composition. It is curious that in 
Nissen (App., p. 20), it should be described as unfinished. 

3 K. 242. The "fragments'* referred to were probably the set of parts in 
Leopold Mozart's handwriting, with corrections by Mozart himself, formerly 
in the possession of the late Edward Speyer. The autograph score bears the 
date February 1776. See p. 490, n. 2. 

4 Or rather to Marianne. The "little book", now in the Mozarteum at Salz 
burg, consists in the main of short pieces by various composers, selected and 
written down by Leopold Mozart to form a sort of "piano tutor" for his 
daughter, Wolfgang, however, also learned from it, and later his first efforts 
at composition were entered in it. The two longer pieces here referred to are 
K 6 and 7. 



them only consist of a few lines, but a couple written in 
Brussels and Paris are considerably longer. 

In the original. 

1. Two similar compositions which must be just a little 
later than 1763. 

2. An introduction or prelude written by Mozart for his 
sister 1 in his latter, though not perhaps in his last years. 
This piece, which covers four pages, may becalledalittle 
fantasia. It is in C maj. and begins with an Allegretto 
in C, common time, then goes on to a capriccio, An- 
dantino cantabile, concluding with another capriccio, 
Allegro assai. 

Mozart's sister claims to possess a transcript of another 
prelude which was written for her. 2 But the poor woman is 
now 75 years old and is blind. As was to be expected, she 
will not part with any original manuscripts. But I shall be 
pleased to get copies made for you of the transcripts that 
she has, and to send them with the copy of the original 
prelude which I have just mentioned, to any address you 
wish. There is nothing more to be got from this quarter. 
There may, however, be some early church compositions 
which are unknown to you. A choir-master here of the name 
of Jahndl 3 has made a complete list of these, and is also 
making enquiries round about. If you are likely to be 
interested he will be pleased to enter into a correspondence 
with you on this and similar matters. He is a very amiable 
man. That reminds me. As a refutation of certain state 
ments in the Leipzig A.M.Z. and other papers about 
Mozart's early church compositions, 4 as recently as the 

1 K. 395. A copy, not the original, was finally sent to Andre in February 

1826. ^ . 

2 This may be the prelude which Mozart sent to his sister from Pans on 
July 20th, 1778. See, however, Kochel on K. 395 (pp. 3^7, 9 8 3)- 

3 Anton Jahndl (1783-1861), choir-master at the Nonnberg Cloister. 

* See e.g. the AMZ for 1814, col. 612, where it is stated that Mozart's 
masses were notoriously composed to order and were almost his weakest works. 



1 5th of October 1825 two grand Vespers, 1 which till then 
had remained entirely unnoticed in Vienna, were per 
formed there, one in the Cathedral and the other in the 
Court Chapel, the cathedral performance being directed 
by Kapellmeister Gansbacher, 2 who informs me that both 
works bear throughout the stamp of Mozart's genius. 
They are both in the key of C and written for four solo 
voices, two violins, trumpets, drums, organ and bass. 
Your most devoted servant, 


Signed by me as her partner, husband and so guardian, 
and as your most respectful servant, 




SALZBURG, January ist t 1826 

Please accept, with my wishes for a happy New Year, 
what is honestly the very first Mozart manuscript to come 
into my possession since I made my promise to you. I have 
seen only a few (about six), as there are only a few to be 
seen. Perhaps you would rather have dispensed with this 
one: however, I am following both the letter and the spirit 
of my offer. The facsimile published in Cdcilia* is obvi- 

1 K. 321 and 339, composed respectively in 1779 and 1780. 
z Johann Baptist Gansbacher (1778-1844), appointed Kapellmeister to St. 
Stephen's in Vienna in 1823. 

3 The signature is autograph. 

4 The facsimile published in Caecilia (Bd. I, p. 179) was of the two canons 
" Difficile lectu mini Mars" (K. 559) and "O du eselhafter Martin" (K. 560), 
the latter, however, with the text "0 du eselhafter Peyerl". The MS. sent by 
Constanze to Andre was of a third version, to the words "O du eselhafter 
Jakob". Peierl was a well-known tenor who was singing in Vienna from 
1785 to 1787. Martin and Jakob have not yet been identified with certainty. 



ously from a genuine manuscript. I suppose you have the 
original copy, which was intended for Martin. Mozart 
must have "made use of" this composition on three 

If I were in your place, my dear Andre, I should, I think, 
partially settle the controversy that has arisen about the 
"Requiem", by publishing the work in two different sorts 
of type, one for the parts in Mozart's hand, the other for 
those in Siissmayr's. 1 No one could then question that 
what has been reproduced from Mozart's own handwriting 
is by him; though, whether any of the remainder is by 
him, and, if so, how much, must remain for ever uncertain. 
It is probable and natural that Siissmayr, who was his 
friend and pupil, made use no doubt on Mozart's own 
directions of the ideas the latter communicated to him. 
In his letter to Breitkopf 2 he said that he hoped he had 
left some trace of these ideas. What a tedious business it 
would have been to set them out in detail! And where 
should it have been done? 

Your most devoted servant, 

per procura [sic] 


1 Andre took the hint. In the following year (1827) he brought out an 
edition in which the contributions of Mozart and Siissmayr were distinguished 
respectively by the letters M and S. In his preface he quoted portions of this 

2 Dated February 8th, 1800, and printed in the AMZ, vol. iv. p. 2/1 
(cp. Abert, vol. ii. p. 1020). Siissmayr there says: "I can only hope that I 
have at least succeeded in carrying out my task in such a way that connois 
seurs may recognise here and there a few traces of Mozart's never-to-be- 
forgotten teaching". 



Abaco, Giuseppe Clemens Ferdinand 
DalT, 818 n. 2 

Abel, Karl Friedrich, 68 n. 3, 79 n. 6 

Adamberger, Johann Valentin, 423 n. 3, 
1075 n - 4} II2 3 n - 8, 1124, 1126, 
1140, 1145, 1148, 1183, 1202, 1204, 
1223, 1249, 1257, 1271-1274, 1291, 

Adelaide, Madame, 49 

Adelheit, Mademoiselle, 1003 n. I, 1008 

Adlgasser, Anton Cajetan, 37 n. 2, 39 
n. 4, 82, 93, 115 n. I, 123, 147, 270, 
281, 319, 320, 386, 405 n. 2, 555, 
577, 637, 644, 646, 653, 663, 733, 
776, 805, 808, 809, 819, 820, 832, 
968, 1008 n. 4 

Adlgasser, Frau, 565, 644, 648, 794, 

Adlgasser, Victoria, 405 n. 2, 432, 648, 


Aesop(us), 1018 n. 3, 1033 
Afferi, 154 
Affligio, Giuseppe, 121 n. 2, 129, 130, 

132, 133, 138 

Agricola, Johann Friedrich, 811 n. 5 
Agujari, Lucrezia, 177 n. I, 179, 984 
Aiguillon, Duchesse D*, 63, 697 
Albert, Carl, 437 

Albert, Duke of Saxe-Teschen, 116 n. 4 
Albert, Herr, 397 n. 3, 400, 401, 403, 

411. 413, 423, 428-430, 434, 436, 

437, 449, 451, 468, 484, 598, 613, 

628, 1016 
Albrechtsberger, Johann Georg, 1374 

n. 2, 1413 n. I, 1450 
Alfonso, Frater, 160, 167 n. 2 
Allegranti, Maddalena, I374n. 4 
Allegri, Gregorio, 187 n. I 
Alphen, Eusebius Johann, 302 n. 3 
Alt, Herr von, 1405, 1414 
Alterdinger, Rochus, 127 n. I 
AJtham, Count, 777 

Alxinger, Johann Baptist von, 1140 n. 4 
Amadori, Signor, 215 
Amalia, Princess, of Prussia, 42 
Aman, 845 

Amann, Basilius, 170 n. 5, 171, 173. 
178, 209, 318, 1268 

Amann, Franz Anton von, 170 n. 5 

Amelli, Signor, 154 n. 2 

Amman, 677 

Andre", 1334, 1335, 1350 

Andre", Johann, 1123 n. 3, 1455 

Andre, Johann Anton, 1455-1513 

Andretter, Cajetan, 342 n. 4, 376, 399 
553, 555, 577, 582, 614, 659, 777, 
792, 794, 804, 813, 875, 878, 1171 

Andretter, Fraulein, 382 

Andretter, Johann Ernst von, 342 n. 4, 

794, 945 

Andretter, Sigmund, 777 
Andrino, Herr, 182 
Anfossi, Pasquale, 361 n. 3, 1028 n. 3, 

1270 n. I, 1272, 1273 
Angerbauer, Johann Ulrich, 1065 n. I 
Annamiedl, 282 
Antoine, 1140 

Anton of Saxony, Prince, 1355 n. i 
Aprile, Giuseppe, 163x1. i, 181,2x1 
Arbauer, Herr, 708, 716 
Arbauer, Joseph Felix, 716 
Arco, Count Francesco Eugenio D', 156 
Arco, Count Georg Anton Felix von, 

10 n. 5, 45 n. i, 115 n. 6, 174 n. 4, 

334 n. i, 451 n. 2, 637 n. 5, 645, 646, 

648, 773, 877, 885, 1008, 1064 n. 4, 

1085, 1092, 1093, 1114 
Arco, Count Karl, 1064 n. 4, 1070, 1071, 

1085, 1096-1102, 1105, II 10, mi, 

Arco, Count Leopold, 451 n. 2, 469, 514, 

5i8, 577, 593, 637 ^ 5, 805, 885 
Arco, Countess von, 168 n. 3, 334 n. i 
Arco, Joseph, 653 
Arco, Theresa, 810 

Arnold, Ferdinand, 108 n. 5, 1123 n. 5 
Artaria, 1121, 1197, 1261, 1291, 1296, 

1312, 1320, 1330 n. i, 1331 n.3, 

1335 n. 2, 1384 n. 2, 1477, 1498 
Attems, Count, 149 
Attems, Duca di, 195 
Attwood, Thomas, 1348 n. 3, 1349 
Atzwanger, Raimund Felix, 1162 n. 2 
Auenbrugger, Dr., 343, 1286 n. 2, 1287 



Auer, Sandl, 603, 604, 614, 802 

Augustini, Abbate, 324 

Aurnhammer, Frau von, 1077, 1116, 
1131, 1132, 1158, 1190 

Aurnhammer, Herr von, 1069, 1077, 
IU2, 1113, 1118, 1124 n. 4, 1125, 
1130, 1131, 1148, 1157, 1161, 1177, 

Aurnhammer, Josephine, 1069 n. 2, 1077, 
1092 n. I, IH2, 1113, 1119, 1131- 
1133, 1139, 1147, 1150, 1158, 1162 
n. 6, 1179, 1184 n. i, 1186, 1197, 
1201, 1203, 1227-1230, 1236, 1346 
n. 4> 1374 


Babbius, Baron, 777, 779, 1277 
Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel, 68 n. 2, 
384, 385> 8" n.3, 827 n. 3, 1192, 

Bach, Johann Christian, 23, 68 n. 2, 68 
n. 3, 68 n. 6, 79 n. 6, 80 n. i, 82, 
128 n. i, 364, 366, 543, 557, 711, 
731, 736, 816, 835, 889, 900, 1013, 

Bach, Johann Sebastian, 68 n. 2, 68 n. 3, 

1094 n.4, 1192, 1194, 1285, 1290, 

1374 n. i 

Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann, 1192 n. 4 
Bachmann, Sixtus, 103 n. i 
Bagge, Baron, 473 
Bagge, Baron, 621 n. 3, 697, 744, 745, 

774, 822, 835, 1317 
Baglioni, Signorina, 122, 134 
Ballo, Franziska, 950, 953, 1008, 1049 

n. 2 

Barba, Daniele, 156 
Barbarini, Principessa, 195 
Barducci, Madame Rosa, 147 n. I, 173, 

349, 35o 4*8, 1068, 1088 n. i, i in 
Barisani, Franz, 407 n. 2, 554 n. 2, 648, 

1044, 1049 

Barisani, Joseph, 1317 
Barisani, Sigmund, 407 n. 2, 1044, 

1049, 1316 
Barisani, Dr. Sylvester von, 321 n. 3, 

407 n.2, 517, 567, 577, 1006 n.4, 

Barisani, Therese, 321 n. 3, 1006, 1009, 

1028, 1040 

Bartholomei, Herr, 1153 
Bassano, Gasparo, 223 n. 2 
Bastardina (see Agujari) 
Baudace, Monsieur, 315 

Baumgarten, Count, 994 
Baumgarten, Countess, 981, 982, 991, 

994, 1027, 1068, 1138, 1190, 1199, 


Baumgartner, Johann Baptist, 440 n. 3 
Bayer, Anna Katharina, 430 n. i 
Bayer, Nikolaus, 522 n. 2 
Beaumarchais, 1067 n. 3, 1332 n. i, 

1355 * 2 

Beaumont, Christophe de, 56 n. i 
Becke, Johann Baptist, 98 n. 2, 350, 

401, 402, 414, 422, 658 n. 2, 672, 

907, 936 n. i, 959, 960 n. i, 962, 

964, 967, 977, 980 n. 2, 981, 982, 

986, 990, 1004, 1020, X033, 1034, 

1036, 1113 

Beckford, Alderman William, 190 n. 2 
Beckford, Peter, 190 n. i, 200, 1177 n. 2 
Beckford, William, 190 n. i, 1177 n. 2 
Beckington, Stephen, 84 n. 5 
Bedford, Duke of, 62 
Bedini, 1437 
Beecke, Ignaz von, 445 n. 2, 480, 496, 

497, 504 n. 2, 511, 528, 540, 541, 

559, 609, 644, 667, 668, 676, 703, 

718, 821, 1407 n. r 
Beer, Joseph, 823 n. 4, 838 
Beethoven, 496 n. i, 1028 n. 4, 1066 

n. i, 1123 n.4 
Belardo, Signer, 313 
Bellvall, Herr, 361 n. 2, 364, 401, 402, 

410, 414, 451 

Belmonte, Principessa di, 204 n. 2, 206 
Benda, Georg, 657 n. 2, 937, 1016 n. i 
Benedetti, Pietro, 223 n. i, 252 n. 2 
Benucci, Francesco, 1263 n. i, 1478 
Berantzky, 577, 794, 982 
Berchtold zu Sonnenburg, Johann 

Baptist von, 1314 n. 4, 1316 n. I 
Berchtold zu Sonnenburg, Leopold, 

1342 n. 3 

Berger, Mile, 1201 
Bergheim, Count, 436, 484 
Bergopzoomer, Johann Baptist, 704 n. 

6, 1023, 1108 
Berinet, Mme, 31 

Bernacchi, Antonio, 486 n. i, 816 n. i 
Bernad, 401 
Bernasconi, Andrea, 122 n. 4, 651 n. I, 

983 n. 6 
Bernasconi, Antonia, 122 n. 4, 134, 223, 

651 n. 1,704, 1113, 1133, 1134, 1140 
Bernhard, Dr., 13, 14, 18 
Bertoni, Ferdinando Giuseppe, 731 n. 3, 

789, 810, 882 n. i 



Bertuch, C., 1498 n. I 

Besozzi, Alessandro, 672 n. 4, 799 n. 2 

Besozzi, Antonio, 798 n. I 

Besozzi, Carlo, 798 n. i, 799, 877 

Besozzi, Hieronimo, 672 n. 4, 799 n. 2 

Besson, M., 698 

Betti, Zaccaria, 156 n. 2 

Bianchi, 291 

Bianchi, Madame, 6 n. I 

Biberach, Prince von, 559 

Binder, Baron, 1251 

Binetti, Madame, 287 

Bioley, 397 

Blache, Mile, 287 

Blanchard, 1430 n. 2 

Bohm, Johannes, 970 n. i, 972, 973, 979 

n.5, ioi6n. i, 1049,1171, 1402 n. 4, 

1465 n. 2 
Bonike, Johann Michael, 1064 n. 3, 

1071, 1082, 1093 
Bollongari, Herr, 569 
Bolognetti, Count, 230 
Bondini, Pasquale, 1343 n, 2, 1354 n. 2 
Bonno, Giuseppe, 131 ru i, 345, 352 n. 2, 

1028 n. 4, 1076, 1217 
Bordoni, Faustina, 108 n. i 
Bose, Friedrich Carl De, 29, 61, 62, 


Boudet, Marianne, 1115 n. 4 
Bourbon, Mme la Duchesse de, 695, 696, 

784 n. 2 

Bouts, Dierick, 42 n. 2 
Bracciano, Duca di, 195 
Braganza, Johann Carl, Duca de, 109 

n. 4, 119, 131, 696, 1094 n. 4 
Branca, Frau De, 422 n. i, 424, 425, 


Branca, Fraulein De, 422 n. i 
Branca, Privy Councillor De, 422 n. I, 

Branciforte, Antonio Colonna, Cardinal, 

i8on. i 

Brandes, Johann Christian, 1002 n. i 
Brandl, 1317 

Braun, Court Councillor, 1066, 1068 
Brean, Herr von, 348, 1171 
Breicha, A. D., 1343 n. 2 
Breitkopf, Johann Gottlieb Imanuel, 

306, 384, 983 n, I, 1054, 1129, 1230 
Bretfeld, Baron, 1344 n. 4 
Bretzenheim, Prince von, 530 n. i, 531, 

575, 583, 585, 607, 617, 622, 625 
Bretzner, Christoph Friedrich, 1123 

n. 3, 1 124 n. 3, 1231 
Breuner, Prince, 515, 716, 1093 

Bridi, Giuseppe Antonio, 250 n. 3, 262, 
266, 280, 1357 n. 2 

Brindl, Herr, 312 

Brinsecchi, Giuseppe, 182, 232, 234, 
244, 261, 640 

Brochard, Maria Johanna, 1281 n. 5, 
1286, 1287, 1410 n. 4 

Brockmann, Hieronymus, 1158 

Brosses, Charles De, 97 n. 2 

Brunetti, Gaetano, 399 n. 2, 433, 440, 
5i6, 535, 659, 721, 734, 799, 810, 
834, 838, 877, 902, 1035, 1060, 
1065, 1066, 1068, 1070-1073, 1075, 
1079, 1104, 1335 

Buffa, Baron, 1126, 1127 

Bullinger, Abbe Joseph, 10 n. 5, 15, 18, 
20, 21, 33, 36, 45, 114, 124, 134, 
17411. 4, 395, 396, 397,4^5,407,409, 
415, 432, 437, 450, 451, 462, 469, 
480, 483, 484, 499, 5H, 521, 539, 
557-56o, 565, 567, 573, 577, 582, 
585, 586, 593, 604, 606, 614, 621 n. 3, 
624, 627, 628, 631, 633, 635, 645, 
647, 660, 667, 676, 683, 694, 709, 
713, 719, 723, 724, 726, 730, 739, 
753, 755, 765, 777, 782, 792, 795, 
797, 798, 804-806, 809, 813, 818, 
828-830, 842, 843, 849, 853, 874, 
879-885, 891, 902, 915, 918, 922, 
925, 928-930, 935, 940, 943, 945, 

Buonsolazzi, 329 n. i 

Burgoyne, 631 n. i 

Burney, Charles, 187 n. I, 190 n. I, 
191 n. 2, 192 n. i, 195 n. 2, 233, 
270, 424, 429 n. 1, 672 n. 4, 844 n. 2, 
901 n. 2, 979 n. 4 

Caco, 447 

Caffarelli, Gaetano Majorano, 1251 n. 2 

Caflfaro, Pasquale, 203 n. 2, 1251 n. 2 

Calabritta, Duchessa, 206 

Calderon, 1109 n. I, 1170 n. 7 

CalHgari, Herr, 31, 37 

Calzabigi, Raniero da, 361 n. 3, 704 n. I 

Cambini, Giovanni Giuseppe, 787 n. I, 

Canal von Malabaila, Count Josef 

Emanuel, 1344 n. 3, 1345, 1369 
Canavas, M., 699 n. i 
Cannabich, Christian, 509, 512 n. I, 

513, 520, 521, 529-534, 53 6 , 538, 

541-543, 548, 556, 564, 572, 575, 



576, 584, 586, 587, 592, 601, 604, 
610, 611, 617, 622, 626, 627, 632, 
634, 642, 703, 711, 761-763, 774, 
775, 833, 873, 898, 939, 944, 952, 
953, 958, 959, 964, 965, 980-982, 
986, 990, 991 994-997, 1004, 1007, 
1017, 1019, 1022, 1025, 1027, 1044, 
1052, 1095, 1410 

Cannabich, Elizabeth, 548 

Cannabich, Karl, 1019 n. i, 1323 

Cannabich, Mme, 529, 548, 549, 565, 
610, 763, 833, 936, 942, 945, 952, 
953, 1005, 1022, 1410 

Cannabich, Rosa, 520, 533, 538, 548, 
549, 576, 585, 587, 602, 604, 610, 
634, 660 n. 2, 703, 711, 762, 763, 
952, 1005, 1022 

Cantor, Pater, 230, 231 

Caratoli, 122, 265 n. 3, 267 

Carey, H., 72 n. 3 

Garibaldi, 122, 911 

Carignan, Princesse, 46, 51 

Carlotti, Marchese, 151, 152, 155 

Carmontelle, Louis Carrogis de, 63 n. 2, 
370 n. i 

Caroline, Princess, of Nassau-Weilburg, 
85-88, 94, 576, 597, 598, 641, 660 
n. 3, 665, 666, 675, 678 n. 2, 679, 
708, 838, 1054 n, r 

Caroline, Queen of Naples, 202, 206, 
209-211, 216, 1410 n. i 

Caselli, Vincenzo, 162, 501 n. 2 

Cassel, Josef Thomas, 492 n. 2, 515, 
777, 78o 

Castel, Herr von, 1005 

Castelbarco, Count, 251, 294, 327, 328, 

Castiglione, Frederico, 306 n. i, 323 

Catherine the Great, 355 n. i, 760 n. I, 
1158 n. 5 

Cavalieri, Katharina, 1123 n. 5, 1125, 
1126, 1145, 1148, 1327, 1442 

Ceccarelli, Francesco, 501 n. i, 502, 515, 
516, 518, 618, 636, 775-777, 780, 
792, 793, 798, 809, 810, 883, 884 
945, 949, 950, 958, 961, 979, 983, 
986, 999, 1014, 1060, 1065, 1066, 
1068, 1071-1075, 1077, 1079, iioo, 
1104, 1137, 1138, 1147, 1159, 1161, 
1162, 1170, 1177, 1250, 1259, 1265, 
1407 n. 2 

Cetto, Johann Karl, 1212 

Chabot, Due de, 785 

Chabot, Duchesse de, 784, 785 

Charles, Prince, 1062 n. i 

Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, 

191 n. i, 195 
Charles of Lorraine, Prince, 43 n. i, 


Charles VI, Emperor, 296 n. i 
Charles VII, Emperor, 378 n. i 
Charlotte, Queen, 66 n. 2, 68 n. 3, 76 

n. 3, 78, 82, 641, 1054 n. i 
Chartres, Due de, 60, 696, 784 n. 2 
Chartus, M. de, 766 n. 4 
Cherubini, 827 n. i 
Chiesa, Melchior, 263 n. 2 
Chiusolis, Herr, 7 
Chiusolis, Signer, 302 
Chotek, Count, 6 
Christa, Bartholomaus, 493 n. 2, 524, 

Christiani, 150 
Christiani, Baron, 148 
Christiani, Nicolaus, 151 
Cicognani, Giuseppe, 162, 181, 223 
Cignaroli, Gianbettmo, 152 n. 2 
Cigna-Santi, Vittorio Amadeo, 193 n. 3, 


Clemens, Dowager Duchess, 950 
Clemens, Duke, 28, 29, 30, 35, 98, 

Clemens August, Elector of Bonn, 

486 n. i, 537 
Clement of Saxony, Prince, Elector of 

Trier, 430, 537 
Clement XIV, Pope, 186 n. 2, 187, 191, 

195 n. 2, 201, 218 n. i, 219, 237, 

351, 398 n. 3, 454 
Clementi, Muzio, 1177 n. 2, 1180-1183, 

1200, 1267, 1268, 1335 
Clermont, Madame de, 60 
Clessin von Konigsklee, Johann 

Dominicus, 398 n. 6, 432 
Closset, Dr., 1387, 1450 
Cobenzl, Count, 63 
Cobenzl, Johann Philipp, Count von, 

1066 n. 2, in8, 1119, 1121, 1122, 

1140, 1142, 1150, 1178 
Colla, Giuseppe, 732 n. I 
Collalto, Count, 6, 16 
Colloredo, Hieronymus, Archbishop of 

Mozart applies for his discharge, 

Reappoints Mozart to his service as 

court organist, 903 
Summonses Mozart to Vienna, 1057 
Virtually dismisses Mozart, 1088- 




Colloredo contd. 

Mozart's fear of being arrested, 1275- 

Colloredo, Archbishop of Olmiitz, 792, 

799, 800, 810, 814, 822 
Colloredo, Count, 6 
Colloredo, Count Guntacker, 407 n. I 
Colloredo, Countess Guntacker, 1348 
Colloredo, Prince Rudolf, 327, 343, 344, 

1040, 1069 
Colombo, 257 

Coltellini, Marco, 122 n. I, 130 n. i 
Conde, Prince de, 97, 696 
ConsoH, Tommaso, 400 n. 2, 401, 410 
Conti, Prince de, 53 n. 4, 63, 136, 698 

n. 3, 699, 797 n. 3 
Contrarini, Mme, 1162 
Cordoni, 319 
Con, Herr von, 402 
Gorilla, Signora, 192 n. I, 236 
Cornaro, 272 

Cornaro, Catarina, 269/272 
Cousin, Mr., 65 
Cramer, Herr, 699 
Cramer, J. B., 1177 n. 2 
Cristani, Baron, 312 
Cronemann, Fraulein, 136 
Croner, 246 n. I 
Croner, Johannes Nepomuk von, 402 

n. 2, 484 
Crosa, 267 
Croy, Prince de, 85 
Crux, Marianne, 1346 n. 3, 1405 
Crux, Peter, 1346 n. 3 
Cusetti, 577, 777 
Czernin, Count Johann Rudolf, 418 

n. i, 577, 600, 777, 779, 799, 810, 

812,834, 1028, 1154, 1159 

Dalberg, Baron Heribert von, 562 n. i, 

937,93911. 1,945-947 
D'Alembert, 62 n. 2, 730, 812 n. 5 
Ball* Agata, Michele, 287 n. 2, 464 n. i, 

Dal Prato, Vincenzo, 978 n. 2, 982, 983, 

985, 986, 992, 993, 1035, 1041 
Banner, Christian, 487, 506, 512, 528, 

545, 620, 631, 656 
Banner, Herr (Junior), 511, 513, 520, 

545, 602, 620, 628, 656 
Banzi, Franz, 995 n. i, 1080 n. I, 1410 

n. 2 
Danzi, Franziska (see Le Brun) 

Banzi, Innocenz, 550 n. i, 995 n. I, 

997, 1024, 1410 n. 3 
Ba Ponte, Lorenzo, 1263 n. 2, 1275 

n. i, 1354 n. 2 
B'Artois, BUG, 1156 
Baser, 495, 577, 677 
B'Aste, Mme, 262, 285, 299, 302, 312, 

318, 320, 324, 327-329, 331, 337 
B'Aste, Signor, 302, 312, 318, 328, 

329, 33i, 337 
Baubrawaick, 1139 n. 4, 1146, 1154, 

1161, 1165, 1170, 1257, 1259, 1260 
Baubrawaick, Anna Baubrawa von, 

690 n. i 

Bauer, 1123 n. 9, 1204, 1317 n. 3 
Baun, Count, 669, 1199, 1266 
Baun, Count, 7, 650, 1131 
Baun, Field-marshal, 21 
B'Autbonne, Madame, 99 
Bavies, Cecilia, 289 n. I, 705 n. I 
Bavies, Marianne, 289 n. I, 290, 298 

n. 2, 342, 343, 705 n. i 
B'Ayen, Buc, 57 n. 2, 697 
Be Amicis, Anna, 38 n. 3, 193, 203, 208, 

211, 269, 314, 318, 319, 321, 325, 

326, 329, 331, 661, 682, 693, 705, 

712, 790, 915 
Be Beyer, 932 

Beckelmann, Herr von, 1285 
Be Ferraris, Count, 44 
Be Fosman, Madame, 982 
Behl, Herr, 530 
Beibl, Franz de Paula, 39, 226 n. 4, 

577, 723, 753, 782, 795 
Beiner, Joseph, 1425, 1437, 1438, 1440- 

Be Jean (or Bechamps), 466 n. I, 611, 

620, 626-628, 632, 642, 643, 674 

n. i, 680, 689 n. 3, 708, 710, 712 n. 

i, 725, 924 

Belafosse, Jean Baptiste, 47 n. I 
Be La Potrie, 634, 642, 660 n. 4, 725 
Be L'Augier, no n. i, 119, 192, 35 
Bellazia, 1461, 1464 
Beller, Florian, 178 n. 4 
Belhnor, 56 

Be Lorge, Marechal, 37 n. 4 
Bemmler, Johann Michael, 498 n. 2, 


Benis, J. N. C. Michael, 1242 n. 2 

B'Enville, Buchesse, 697 

Be Pauli, Fraulein, 938 

B'pinay, Madame, 696 n. 3, 697, 766, 
775, 782, 831, 838, 846, 868, 870, 
878, 889-891, 901, 910, 912, 950 



D'Ettore, Guglielmo, 176 n. 3, 216, 223, 


De Vismes, 797 n. i 
Deyrn, Count Josef, 1403 n. 3, 1450 

n. 4, 1479 n. I 
D'Hebert, 58 

Diderot, 62 n. 2, 699 n. 2, 730 
Dietrich, Baron, 461 
Dietrichstein, Count, 119, 665, 1134 
Dietrichstein, Prince, 515 
Distler, Elizabeth, 1322 n. 2 
Dittersdorf, 495, 1471 
Dohl, Professor, 1009 
Dolfino, 269, 272 
Doll, Joseph, 210 n. 2 
Donker, 204 

D'Orleans, Due, 62 n. 2, 63 n. 2, 784 n. 2 
Dowager Electress of Bavaria, 376 
Drasil, Franz, 115 n. 3 
Drexler, Herr, 1465 
Durnitz, Baron Thaddaus von, 418 n. 

4, 467 n. I, 480 n. 2, 498, 588, 613, 


Diissen, Herr von, 436, 789 
Dufraisne, Herr von, 418 
Dufresne, Franz, 363 n. 2, 373, 402, 


Dumrnhoff, Herr von, 1018 
Duni, Egidio Romoaldo, 698 n. 7, 699 

n. 2 

Du Pain, Baron Beine, 1302 
Dupin, Baron, 295, 298, 1302 n. 3 
Duport, Jean Pierre, 698 n. 3 
Dupreille, Charles Albert, 437 n, 2, 484 
Durasy Due de, 60 
Durazzo, Count, 4, 20 
Durst, Frau von, 363-365, 3^7, 372, 373, 

Duschek, Franz Xaver, 408 n. I, 535, 

588, 1089 n. i, 1128, 1135, 1138, 

1336, 1369, 1378, 1437 
Duschek, Josephine, 408 n. 2, 501, 588, 

693, 789> 823, 862 n. 3, 1021, 1028, 

1089 n. I, 1122, 1128, 1138, 1343, 

1344 n. 2, 1369-1371, 1373, 1375. 

1377, 1417, 1437, 1438, 1477 
D'Yppold, Franz, 1021 n. I, 1076, 1117, 

1136, 1141, 1142, 1172 

Eberhardi, Signorina, 122 
Eberl, Anton, 1471 n. I 
Eberlin, Barbara, 321 n. 2, 379, 432, 
435, 555, 577, 794 

Eberlin, Johann Ernst, 1311.5,11511.1, 

321 n. 2, 469 n. i, 495 n - 2, 502,' 

1192,1194, 1245 
Eberstein, Baron, 35 
Eck, Johann Friedrich, 982 n. 2, 986, 

990, 1019, 1199, 1202, 1469 n. i 
Eckardt, Johann Gottfried, 23, 53 n. 5, 

54, 55, 372, 698, 878 
Edelbach, Benedikt Schlossgangl von, 

344 n. 6, 1009, 1266 
Edelbach, Franz Josef Schlossgang] 

von, 344 n. 6, 1249 
Edelmann, Johann Friedrich, 460 n. i 
Eder, Josef, 1489 n. 2, 1499 
EfEngham, Countess of, 190 n. 2 
Egger, Joseph, 502 n. 2 
Eichner, Ernst, 448 n. i 
Eisen, Jakob, 1483 n, i 
Elector of Mainz, 250 n. 2, 559, 598, 

858 n. i, 897 n. i 

Electress of Bavaria, 376, 402, 413, 417 
Electress of Saxony, 712 
Elizabeth, Archduchess, in, ni4n. i, 

1127 n. i 
Elizabeth, Princess of Wurtemberg, 

1158 n. 2, 1161, 1164, 1165, 1218- 

1220, 1232, 1234, 1235, 1238, 1239, 

1321 n. 3 

Emilian, Father, 482 
Emily, Count Carlo, 151 
Enzenberg, Baron, 148 
Erdody, Count, 1304^ 5 
Ernst, F. A., 1469 n. I 
Escherich, Herr, 1059 
Esser, Karl Michael, 38 n. 3, 1014 n. i, 

1015-1018, 1021 1 1022, 1026, 1027, 

1034, 1035 

Esterhazy, Bishop, 6 
Esterhazy, Count, 1256, 1296 
Esterhazy, Count Jean, 1150, 1296, 


Esterhazy, Prince, 138, 1373 n. i 
Esterhazy, Prince Paul Anton, 28 n. 2, 

Estlinger, n, 81, 108, 109, 114, 516, 


Exner, Herr, 1352 
Eybler, Joseph, 1390 n. 3, 1490 n. 3, 


Eyck, Count von, 45 n. i 
Eyck, Countess von, 45 n. i, 55, 57 

Falchini, Signora, 287 



Farinelli (Carlo Broschi), 79 n. 2, 181 

n. 2, 486 n. I 
Favier, 287 

Fechenbach, Baron von, 1319 
Fehlacher, 660 

Feigele, Herr, 969, 1171, 1203 
Feiner, Ludwig, 945 n. I, 948, 949, 1318 
Fel, Marie, 699 n. 3 
Ferdinand, Archduke, 8 n. 5, 168, 274 

n. 3, 277, 282 n. 3, 295-297, 301, 

3 J 7, 325,336, 1410 n. i 
Ferdinand, King of Naples, 105, 108 

n. 2, 202, 203, 206, 211, 216, 1410 
Ferdinand, Prince, of Wurtemberg, 

1158 n. 2, 1161 
Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, 

1477 n. 6 

Ferdinand Maria, Elector, 27 n. 2. 
Ferlendis, Giuseppe, 399 n. 5, 409, 466 

n. i, 470, 515, 516, 674 n. 2, 712, 

734, 877, 1252 

Ferrandini, Giovanni, 273 n. 3 
Ferraresi del Bene, Adriana, 1374 n. 5, 


Ferrari, 409 n. i, 470, 518, 734, 877, 
1034, 1035 

Fiala, 1318, 1330, 1334, 1335 

Fiala, Joseph, 428 n. I, 943'945, 949, 
991, 1020, 1025, 1033, 1051. Io6 7, 
1068, 1318, 1330, 1334, 1335, 1350 

Fiala, Madame, 1049 

Fiat, 986 

Fichtl, Herr von, 1268 

Field, John, 1177 n. 2 

Finck, Ignaz, 1246 n. 2 

Fingerle, Herr von, 397, 471 

Fioroni, Giovanni Andrea, 257 n. I 

Firmian, Count, 1161 

Firmian, Count Carlo di, 157 n. 3, 160, 
163-166, 168, 170, 173, 175-177, 
180, 184, 232, 246, 251-253, 262, 
264; 265, 281, 292, 300, 305, 323- 
325, 329, 336 n. i 

Firmian, Countess, 430, 577 

Firmian, Franz Lactantius, Count von, 
15, J 70, 175, !76, 180,263,305,311, 
324, 334-33 6 , 367, 430, 43 1 , 434, 
505, 577, 637, 659, 833, 917 

Fischer, Frau, 341, 343, 345, 347-34$, 
1061, 1076, 1171, 1238 

Fischer, Herr, 346 

Fischer, Johann Christian, 372 n. 5, 668 
n. 2, 689, 693, 761, 785, J 35 n - 3 

Fischer, Karl Ludwig, 550 n. 2, 736 n. 2, 
1037 n. i, 1123 n. 7, 1124, 1126, 

1140, 1144, 1199, 1204, 1251, 1255, 

1287, 1350 n. 2, 1484 
Fischietti, Domenico, 320 n. I, 845, 892 

n, 2, 924 
Fisher, John Abraham, 1272 n. i, 1300 

n. 2 

Flamm, 1440 n. 2 
Flies, Bernard, 1509 n. i 
Fliess-Eskeles, Eleonore, 1222 
Follard, Madame, 902, 916 
Follard, Monsieur, 902 
Forster, Emanuel Aloys, 1470 n. 4 
Forstmeister, Herr, 515 
Fortini, Francesco, 1259 
Fracassini, Aloisio Lodovico, 430 n. i 
Francavilla, Principessa di, 206, 207, 209 
Francis, Archduke, 1158 n. 2, 1321 n, 7, 

1397, 1410 n. i 
Francis I, Emperor, 8, 9, 16, 43 n. I, 87 

n. i, 107, 118 n. 3, 135 n. i 
Frank, Brothers, 929, 931, 932, 940 
Frankenberg, Count von, 44, 96 
Franklin, Benjamin, 289 n. i, 775 n. 2 
Franzl, Fraulein, 341 n. 7, 343, 346, 

348-350, 355, 1059 n. 2 
Franzl, Ignaz, 564 n. I, 565, 604, 937 
Frederick, Cassandra, 136 n. 2 
Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony, 

50 n. i 
Frederick the Great, 651 n. 2, 692, 693, 

698 n. 3, 759, 802, 803, 811 n. 5, 

851, 874, 884, 895, 979 n. 4 
Frederick William II of Prussia, 698 

n.3, 1367 n. 2, 1369, 1381, 1384, 

1391, 1454, 1457 n. i 
Freistadtler, Franz Jakob, 1346 n. 4 
Freyhold, 1293 n. i, 1294 
Freysauf, 46 n. 2 
Freysauf, Anton, 1162 n. i 
Freysauf, Franz, 1162 n. I 
Freysinger, Fraulein, 448, 526 
Freysinger, Fraulein Josepha, 448, 526 
Freysinger, Herr, 449, 455, 5^6 
Friederici, Christian Ernst, 157 n, 4, 537 
Friederici, Christian Gottiob, 157 n. 4 
Friederike, Princess, of Prussia, 1384 

n. I 

Fries, Baron Johann von, no n. 2, 704 
Froschauer, Father, 1074 
Fugger, Count, 470 
Furstenberg, Joseph Wenzeslaus, Furst 

von, 58 n. 3, 99-101, 109, 114, 97, 

1301 n. i, 1304, I3 X 3, *337> *33 8 > 

1340, 1341 
Fux, Johann Joseph, 811 n. 6 






Gabel, Herr, 1225, 1226 

Gabrielli, Catterina, 176 n. i, 182, 193, 

294, 70S, 7i8 

Gabrielli, Francesca, 176 n. I 
Gainsborough, 900 n. 3, 1350 n. 3 
Galitzin, Prince, 62, 124, 1060, 1061, 

1065, 1069, 1240, 1241, 1296, 1297 
Galliard, Johann Ernst, 811 n. 4 
Galuppi, Baldassare, 79 n. 6, 260 n. I 
Gamerra, Giovanni De, 315 n. I 
Gansbacher, Johann Baptist, 1512 n. 2 
Garcia, 176 n. I 
Gasparini, Abbate Quirino, 193 n. 3, 

222 n. 2, 261 n. i, 731, 799 
Gassmann, Florian Leopold, 109 n. 3, 

131 n. i, 273 n. i, 352 n. 2, 1028 n. 

4, 1067 n. i, 1250, 1290 n, 2 
Gassner, Herr, 480, 491, 499, 500 
Gates, 631 n. i 
Gatti, Abbate Luigi, 810 n. i, 1215, 

1233, 1249 n. 4, 1250, 1302 
Gauzarg-ue, Abb< Charles, 698 n. I 
Gavard, Signor, 192, 236 
Gavinies, Pierre, 696 n. i, 698 n. 2, 744 
Gebler, Baron von, 357 n. I, 1252 n. I 
Gelinek, Abbe Josef, 1466 n. 3, 1482 
Gellert, Christian Ftirchtegott, 61 n. 3, 

161 n. 2 
Gemmingen, Otto Heinrich, Freiherr 

von, 761 n. i, 873, 899, 937 n. i, 948 
George III, 66 n. 2, 68 n. 4, 69, 78 
Gerbl, Father, 480 
Gerlichs, Frau von, 415, 470, 490, 567, 

614, 723 
Gennani, Don Fernando, 168 n. 2, 169, 

173, 193. 232, 285, 318, 320, 322, 

328, 329, 331, 333 
Germani, Frau Theresa, 232, 285, 318, 

320, 322, 328, 329, 331 
Gesner, Johannes, 99 n. 3 
Gesner, Salomon, 99 n,,3, 114 
Giardini, Felice De, 79 n. 3, 79 n. 4 
Gibelli, Lorenzo, 233 n. i 
Gignoux, Christof, 474 n. I, 475 
Gilowsky, Franz Wenzel von, 1064 n. i, 

1079, 1146, 1212, 1249, 1257, 1265, 


Gilowsky, Herr, 5 
Gilowsky, Herr von, 373, 577 
Gilowsky, Katharina (Katherl), 397 

n. i, 404, 405, 407, 415, 432, 435, 

437, 470, 492, 5H, 553, 555, 557, 

567, 577, 582, 614, 647, 649, 723, 

782, 852, 993, 994, 1002, 1009, 
1019, 1025, 1029, 1049, 1068, 1077, 
1088, 1106, 1136, 1200, 1236 

Gilowsky, Riischerl, 945 

Gilowsky von Urazowa, Wenzel Andrea, 
397 n. i, 406, 577, 982, 1077 

Giovanni, Herr, 151 

Girelli-Aguilar, Maria Antonia, 287, 

Giusti, Conte, 151 

Giustiniani, Bishop of Verona, 152 

Glatz, Herr, 397, 398, 432, 440, 463 

Gluck, Christoph Willibald, 108 n. i, 
121 n. i, 122 n. 4, 130, 163 n. 4, 
218, 287 n. i, 361 n. 3, 699, 704 n. i, 
704 n. 4, 738, 862 n. 2, 887-899, 
911, 946, 1113, 1 123 n. 4, 1134, 
1140, 1149, 1154 n. 2, 1162, 1 1 86, 
1213, 1214, 1217-1234, 1257, 1290 
n. 4, 1359 n. 3 

Godenus, Baron, 1161 

Goethe, 39 n. i, 854 n. i 

Goldhahn, Josef Oo!ilo, 1413 n. 4 

Goldoni, 1251 

Goldschmidt, Herr, 525 

Gossec, Francois Joseph, 769 n. 2, 782, 
787 n. i 

Gott, Herr, 437, 557, 582, 614, 645 

Gotz, Baron, 982, 1154 

Gozzi, Carlo, 1170 n. 7 

Graf (or Graaf), Christian Ernst, 94 n. 4 

Graf, Friedrich Hartmann, 461 n. i, 

Grandville, Herr, 982 

Grassalkowics, Prince, 1373 n. i 

Grassi, 1255 

Greibich, Herr, 348 n. 3 

Greiner, Franz Sales von, 1411 n. 3 

Grenier, Herr, 406 

Gres, Herr, 548 n. i, 610, 1404 

Gretry, Andre Ernest Modeste, 577, 699 
n. 6, 732, 790, 822 

Grill, 348, 1171 

Grimani, 272 

Grimm, Friedrich Melchior, 54 n. 4, 62 
n. 2, 63, 67, 83, 96, 113, 132 n. i, 
307, 385, 5*8, 519, 5X 574, 611, 
613, 617, 618, 627, 654, 666, 668, 
673, 675, 678, 684, 689, 691, 695- 
697, 7io, 744-749, 753, 757, 759, 
761, 764, 767-769, 77i, 772, 774, 
781, 782, 784, 785, 791, 792, 794, 
800, 801, 814, 824, 828, 831, 838, 
841, 846, 853, 868, 869, 871, 878, 
886, 887, 889-891, 896, 899, 901, 



904, 905, 9IO-9H, 916, 918, 919, 

921-923* 925, 927-929> 933, 934, 

942, 949, 954 

Grossmann, G. F. W., 402 n. I 
Grua, Paul, 983 n. 6, 1038 n. I 
Gschwendner, 766, 772, 868, 913, 914, 

942, 967, 968, 1047, 1052, 1158, 


Gschwendner, Franz Xaver, 759, 772 
Gschwendner, Herr, 365, 366, 369, 377 
Guadagni, Gaetano, 185 n. I 
Guardasoni, Domenico, 1369 n. 3 
Guerrieri, Signer, 382 
Guglielmi, Pietro, 153 n. i 
Guines, Due de, 766 n. 2, 766 n. 4, 793, 

795, 800, 870, 913 
Gummer, Antoni, 150, 158 
Giinther, 1222, 1223 
Giinther, Herr, 566 
Guttenberg, Fraulein Josepha von, 119 


Hadik, Count Andreas, 1395 n. I 
Hafeneder, Joseph, 418 n. 2, 472, 516, 

812, 838, 1035, 1294, 1303 
Haffner, Herr Sigmund, 44, 232, 234, 

246, 301, 398 n. 2, 1158 n. i, 1205 

n. i 
Haffher, Johann Ulrich, 37 n. i, 80 

n. 5 

Haffher, Madame, 37 n. i 
Haffiier, Marie Elizabeth, 398 n. 2, 409 

n. 5, 1146 n. 3, 1158 n. I, 1205 n. i 
Haffher, Sigmund, 398 n. 2, 640, 802, 

1205 n..i, 1240, 1283 
Hagen, Baron von, 551, 576 
Hagen, Baroness von, 551 
Hagenauer, Dominicus (Cajetan), 76 

n. 4, 77, 242 n. i, 344 n. 3, 635 
Hagenauer, Francis ca, 20 
Hagenauer, Frau Maria Theresa, 4, 8, 

13, 14, 18, 47, 66, 98, 101, 108, 127, 

147, 221, 241, 242, 415, 421, 437, 


Hagenauer, Ignaz, 1241 
Hagenauer, Johann Baptist, 18 n. 3, 

147, 182 n. 3, 231, 372 n. 7, 380, 

554, 646, 760 
Hagenauer, Johann Lorenz, I, 3 n. I, 

4, 18 n. 3, 23, 39, 147, 221, 368, 

379, 455, 490, 49i, 535, 555, 5^7- 

569, 573, 582, 588, 614, 726, 727, 

733, 759, 773, 782, 813, 945, 973, 

1047, U35 

Hagenauer, Johannes, 202 n. 2, 246, 

267-269, 331, 491, 636, 973 
Hagenauer, Joseph, 113, 134, 246, 368, 

573, 973 

Hagenauer, Ursula, 20 
Haibel, Jakob, 1167 n * 2 , *447 n. 2 
Hamilton, Mrs., 199 n. 3, 206 
Hamilton, William, 199 n. 2 
Hamm, Fraulein von, 447, 448, 454, 

455, 471, 566, 588, 603, 779 
Hamm, Herr von, 438, 442, 447, 448, 

454, 47i, 505, 5^6, 587, 603, 778, 


Hampel, Thaddaus, 1313 n. 3 
Handel, George Frederick, 68, 513, 

1094 n. 4, 1192, 1194, 1393 n. 2, 

1393 ^ 3 

Haranc, Louis Andre", 698 n. 5 
Hardegg, Count, 10 
Hardik, Count, 535 
Harrach, Count, 9 
Harrach, Count Ferdinand, 15 
Hartig, Franz Christian, 666 n. I, 677, 


Hartmayr, 127 

Hass(e), 653, 810 

Hasse, Johann Adolf, 97 n. 2, 108 n. i, 
I 3 I , J 55 n - 3, J ^i n- 4, 162 n. 2, 
216 n. i, 260, 284 n. i, 285, 288, 
289, 295, 296, 299, 300, 410, 704, 
705 n. i, 735 n. 2 

Hassler, Johann Wilhelm, 1373 n. 5, 


Hatzfeld, Count August von, 1351 mj, 
1465 n. 6 

Hatzfeld, Count Hugo Franz von, 1465 

Hatzfeld, Countess, 1406 

Haydeck, Countess, nte Seuffert, 530 
n. i 

Haydn, Frau Maria Magdalena, 115 
n. i, 492 n. 3, 577, 776, 799, 820 n. i, 
883, 1029 

Haydn, Johann Michael, 115 n. i, 115 
n. 5, 178, 201, 202, 219, 238, 386, 
399, 417, 418, 420, 433, 438, 44i, 
469 n. i, 492 n. 3,'5i5 * *, 5*6, 
517, 577, 591, 6oi> 608, 623, 646, 
648, 659, 673, 731, 734, 776, 798, 
799, 8ro, 819, 820, 833, 845, 920, 
1035, 1139, 1245, 1255, 1285, 1307, 
1319, 1320, 1336, 1366, 1435, 1436, 
1493, 1510 n. i 

Haydn, Joseph, 18 n. I, 28 n. 2, 115 
n. i, 138, 281, 1028 n. 3, 1066 n. i* 



1261 n. 3, 1304, 1305, 1321, 1329, 

1330. i33i n. 3, 1373 n. i, 1392, 

1410 n. i, 1456, 1457 n. i, 1498 

n. 4, 1500 n. 5 
Haymann, Dr., 91 
Hebelt, Wenzel, 28 n. 3, 33, 39, 78, 109, 

123, 124 
Heckmann, Monsieur, 854, 939, 1019, 


Heeger, Wenzel Bernhard, 1443 n. i 
Hefner, Franz von, 282 n. i 
Hefner, Heinrich Wilhelm von, 282 n. 

i, 316, 328, 356, 824 
Heigel, Franz Xaver, 949 n. 2, 950, 

Heina, Francois, 744 n. i, 788, 814, 829, 

867, 868 3 875, 908, 914, 934, 956, 


Heina, Madame, 788, 951 n. 2 
Heisig, Madame, nee De Luca, 1239 
Heller, Gaudenz, 442 n. i, 447 
Hellmuth, Friedrich, 858 n. i 
Hellmuth, Josepha, nee Heist, 858 n. I 
Helmreich, Herr, 146, 156 
Henkel, Heinrich, 1458, 1464 n. i 
Henno, M., 698, 744 
Henri, Abbe, 480, 483, 517, 518/809, 


Henry of Prussia, Prince, 895 

Hepp, Frau von, nee Tosson, 402, 422, 
428, 966 

Hepp, Mile, 1071, 1080 

Hepp, Sixtus, 935 n. 2 

Herberstein, Count von, 114, 1222 

Herberstein, Count von, Canon of 
Passau, 4 

Herberstein, Countess von, in, 115 

Hering, 1395 

Hermenche, Madame, 99 

Herri, 1466 n. 5 

Herzog, Herr, 551, 564, 568, 598, 747 

Heufeld, Franz von, 341 n. 6, 372 n. 6, 
664 n. i, 670, 671, 677, 683, 1171 

Hickel, Joseph, 1156 n. 2 

Hildburghausen, Prince Joseph Fried- 
rich von, 8, 704 n. 4 

Hippe, Herr von, 1112 

Hochbrucker, Christian, 53 n. 7, 54, 698 

Hofdemel, Franz, 1367 n. i 

Hofer, Franz de Paula, 1167 n. i, 1344 
n. i, 1346, 1347, 1375, 1382, 1389, 
1400 n. 2, 1402, 1403 n. 2, 1407 
n. i, 1440, 1442-1444 

Hofer, Madame (see Josefa Weber) 

Hoifineister, Franz Anton, 133? n. 3, 

1332 n. 2, 1333 n. 2, 1401, 1402, 

1405, 1406, 1409, 1466, 1477, i 4 7 9j 


Hofmann, Cirillus, 188 n. 2 
Hofmann, Leopold, 1412 n. I, 1413 n. i 

1414, 1450 n. i 
Hofner, 516 

Hofstetten, Frau von, 402 
Hofstetter, 1307, 1335 
Hofstettner, 502 
Hofvergolter, 349 
Hohenfeld, Baron, 41 
Holzbauer, Ignaz, 509, 512 n. i, 521 

n. i, 522, 529 n. i, 533, 535, 542 , 

543> 547, 549, 566, 592, 604, 632, 

768, 786,815, 137411.4 
Honnauer, Leonzi, 53 n. 6, 699, 772 

n. I, 878 

Hook, Theodore, 1348 n. i 
Hopfgarten, Baron, 29, 61, 62, 852 
Horaung, Joseph, 147 n, 2, 215 
Howe, Lord, 1235 n. i 
Huber, Professor, 401, 424, 436 
Hiibner, Professor Lorenz, 1331 n. 2 
Hiilber, Joseph, 398 n. 5, 845 
Hiillmandel, Nikolaus Joseph, 827 n. 3, 

851, 853, 875 

Hughes, Sir Edward, 1235 n. i 
Hummel, Johann Julius, 706 n. i 
Hutterer, Paul, 1019 n. 2 
Hypolity, Le Chevalier, 1220, 1253 

Insanguine, 203 n. 3 
Isabella of Parma, Princess, 8 n. 4, 16, 


Jacobi, 897 n. 2 
Jacobi, Konrad, 897 n. 2 
Jacobi-Klost, Baron von, 1454, 1498 

n. 2 
Jacquin, Franziska von, 1343 n. 3, 1346 

n. 5, 1352 
Jacquin, Gottfried von, 1343 n. 3, 1345 

n. 2, 1352, 1354, 1356 n. i, 1357, 

1414, 1479 
Jacquin, Professor Nicolaus Josef von, 

1343 n. 3, 1356 
Jahndl, Anton, 1511 n. 3 
Janitsch, Anton, 577, 667 n. i, 668, 671, 

672, 676, 703 n. i 
Jelyotte, Pierre de^ 698 n. 6 
Jenner, 58 n. i 



Jeunehomme, Mile, 769 n. 5, 782, 913 

Joanna, Princess, 22 

Joly, Rosalie (Sallerl), 115 n. 6, 396, 
404, 4i5> 437, 450, 45i/469> 499, 
5U 5 557, 567, 577, 52, 593, 614, 
631, 633, 635, 636, 644, 667, 676, 
723, 753> 782, 795, 804, 813, 885, 
1023, 1036, 1040, 1061, 1062, 1064, 
1066, 1067, 1075, Io8 3, I0 9o, 1093, 
no2 3 1103, 1109, 1114, 1124, 1127, 
1128, ii33-"35 IJ 37, 1139 

Jommelli, Niccol6, 31 n. 3, 32, 202 n. 3, 
208, 211, 215, 258, 512 n, i, 1123 
n. 4 

Joseph, 1346 

Joseph, Archduke (later Emperor Joseph 
II), 7, 45^2,105,107, 111,116-119, 
121, 124, 125, 129, 130, 132, 133, 
I35-I38, 156, 295, 326, 348 n.3, 
35 1 * 354, 386 n.2, 387, 541, 651 
n. 2, 657, 664-666, 670, 692, 693, 
759, 76o, 793, 803, 851, 1016, 1156 
n.2, 1158, 1163-1165, 1176, 1 1 So 
il 84, 1191, 1192, 1199 n. 10, 1200, 

1208, 1214, 1215, 1219, 1222, 1223, 
1226, 1234, 1238, 1239, 1256, 1257, 

1260, 1263 n. I, 1287, 1295, 1307, 
1322, 1330, 1336, 1355, 1359 n. 3, 
1366, 1394 

Joseph Emmerich von Breidtbach, Elec 
tor of Mainz, 38 n. 5 

Josepha, Fraulein, 22 

Judith, 734, 810 

Juliana, Fraulein, 595, 1153 


Kaiser, Mile, 423 n. 2, 424, 436, 702, 
717, 925, 948, 949 

Kalckhammer, Herr von, 148 

Karl Eugen, Duke of Wurtemberg, 30 
n. 2, 31, 32, 1158 n. 2, 1160, 1161, 
1164, 1321 n. 7 

Karl Ludwig, Elector, 34 n. 3 

Karl Philipp, Elector, 38 n. I 

Karl Theodor, Elector of the Palatinate, 
30, 34 n. 3, 35 n. 2, 36 n. I, 37 n. 4, 
379, 486 n. i, 487, 506, 512 n. i, 
513, 517, 521, 523, 528-533, 538, 
539, 542-544, 55i, 552, 554, 56o, 562, 
563, 570, 575, 579, 583-585, 589- 
59i, 597, 599, 601, 603, 604, 606, 
607, 609, 612, 615-617, 622, 625, 
627, 640, 648-652, 661, 665, 667, 
669, 675, 677, 695, 707, 7 712, 

779, 789, 79i, 807, 833, 847-849, 
854, 856, 857, 859, 864, 873, 887, 
893, 894, 898, 899, 904, 936, 939, 
941, 945 n. 2, 955, 982 n. i, 983, 
986, 995-997, 1022, 1027, 1036, 
1039, 1041, 1048, 1068, 1159-1409 

Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Hereditary 
Prince of Brunswick, 97 n. i, 113 

Kaser, Mile, 436 

Kassel, 1318 

Kastl, Herr, 407-409 

Kaunitz, Count Joseph von, 184 n. 2, 

201, 210, 213, 214 

Kaunitz, Countess von, 204, 206 
Kaunitz-Rietburg, Wenzel Anton von, 

8, 10, no, 119, 131, 132, 348, 1062, 

1064, ii 12, 1205, 1208, 1214, 1303 

n. i, 1325 

Kenlhammer, Hartmann, 14.5 
Kelly, Michael, 1348 n. i 
Kempfer, Herr, 380 
Kern, Baron, 415 
Kerpen, Baron, 41 
Kerschbaumer, Herr, 560 
Kerschbaumer, Herr (Junior), 274 n. 2, 

297, 299, 1162 
Kessler, 731 
Keyssler, Johann Georg, 151 n. 2, 156, 


Kiener, 4 
Kienmayr, Johann Michael, Baron von, 

n8on. i 

Killian, Joseph, 954 
Kinsky, Count Leopold, 1466 n. 3 
Kinsky, Countess, 8, 15, 21 
Kirchgessner, Marianne, 1418 n. I 
Kittel, Johann Christian, 1374 n. i 
Klein, Professor Anton, 529 n. i, 1325 

n. 3, 1326-1328 
Kleinmayr, Baron, 1063 
Kleinmayr, Herr von, 438 n. 5, 462, 483, 

1060 n. 2, 1064, 1066, 1068, 1082, 

1093, noi 

Klessheim, Count von, 1148 
Kletzl, Count Christoph Josef r 780 n. i, 


Klopstock, 970 n. i 
Knoller, Martin, 336 n. I 
Knozenbry, 516 
Kohaut, Joseph, 699 n. 4 
Kolb, 69, 409, 777, 779, 78o, 812, 878, 


Kolnberger, E. M., 1060 
Konig, Herr, 29 
Konig, Herr von, 1372 


Kopp, 40 

Korman, 759 

Kozeluch, Leopold, ni4n. i, 1119, 


Kraft, Anton, 1373 n. I 

Kraft, Nicolaus, 1373 n. 2 

Kranach, Nannerl, 690, 794 

Krauser, Herr, 562 

Kreusser, Adam, 250 n. 2 

Kreusser, Georg Anton, 250 n. 2, 559, 

897 n. i 

Krimmel, Herr von, 393 n. 2, 425, 426 
Kuffel, Herr, 115 n. 4, 138, 140 n. i 
Kufstein, Count Johann Ferdinand von, 

1330 n. 4 

Kufstein, Fraulein von, 586 
Kuhnburg, Count Leopold Joseph, 6, 

577, 667, 671, 780, 806 n. i, 1203 
Kuhne, Herr, 1287, 1290 
Kulmann, 94 

Kunigl, Count Leopold, 148 
Kurz, Baron, 15 

Kurz, Johann Felix von, 118 n. 2 
Kurzweil, Herr, 149, 150 
Kusinger, Herr, 577 
Kutschera, 1482 
Kymli, Franz Peter Joseph, 847 n. 2, 

848, 864 

Lahoussaye, Pierre, 825 n. 3 
Lamberg, 6 n. i 
Lambesc, Prince de, 823 
Lamotte, Franz, 216 n. 2, 562 
Lampugnani, Giovanni Battista, 250 

n. I, 257, 263 
Lang, 537 
Lang, Franz, 520 n. 3, 548, 990, 1005, 


Lang, Martin, 520 n. 3, 1115 n. 4 
Lange, Josef, 1081 n. i, 1089 n. 2, 1103, 

1158 n. 3, 1249, 1254, 1255, 1258 

n.5, 1287, 1328, 1330 n.2, 1371, 


Lange, Madame (see Aloysia Weber) 
Langenmantel, Herr von, 398, 459, 460, 

471, 472, 475, 484-486 
Langenmantel, Herr von (Junior), 460, 

472-476, 486, 500, 503 
Lanzi, Petronio, 233 n, i 
La Rose*e, Countess, 403, 414, 982 
Laschi, Luisa, 1321 n. 4, 1478 
Laschi, Signor, 122, 267 
Lauchery, tienne, 529 n. 2, 591 n. 3 

Laudon, General, 851 n. 10, 895, 1163, 

1403 n. 3, 1479 n. i 
Le Brun, Franziska, 550 n. i, 855, 857, 

859. 13*9 n. i, 1323, 1324, Hio n. 3 
Le Brun, Ludwig August, 550 n. i, 1319 

n. i, 1323, 1324, 1410 n. 3 
Lecchi, Conte, 315 
Lechleitner, 1441 
Leduc, Pierre, 699 n. 2 
Leduc, Simon, 699 n. 2 
Leeman, Herr, 1311 
Le Grand, 54 n. 2, 698 
Le Grand, 981, 985, 992, 1019 
Le Gros, Jean, 766 n. i, 7^7-770, 786, 

787, 836, 837, 844, 845, 855, 913, 

924, 1215, 1251 
Lehrbach, 659 
Lehrbach, Baron, 577, 658, 899, 904, 

1012, 1033 

Leitl, Herr, 1465 n. 5, 1466 
Lendorff, 849 
Leopold, Archduke (later Emperor 

Leopold II), 7, 184 n. 3, 324, 328, 

329, 33i, 333. 337 n-2, 1394 n. i, 

1397 n. 3, 1398, 1400 n. 2, 1436 n. i 
Leopold, Father, 556 
Lepin, 455 

Lerchenfeld, Count, 994 
Leroy, 162 

Le Tourneur, 698 n. 4 
Leutgeb, Joseph, 39, 115 n. 2, 315, 318, 

327, 331, 332, 335. 588, 1068 n.4, 

1189, 1190, 1200, 1415, 1421, 1422, 

1440, 1441, 1443. 1471, 1480, 1482, 

1498 n. i, 1500, 1502, 1503 
Leutgeb, Madame, 1416 
Lichnowsky, Prince Karl, 1367 n. 2, 

1368 n. i, 1369, 1371, 1373, 1374, 

1381, 1391 
Liechtenstein, Prince Alois Josef, 1183 

n. 2, 1300 
Liechtenstein, Prince Karl Borromaus 

Josef, 1183 n.2 
Ligniville, Marchese Eugenio De, 184 

_ n.4 
Lilienau, 650 

Lillibonne, Comtesse de, 45, 697 
Linay, Herr, 30 
Lindner, Fraulein, 427 
Linley, Thomas, 191 n. 2, 192, 235, 236 
Lipawsky, Josef, 1478 n. 6 
Lipp, Franz Ignaz, 39 n.4, 115 n. i, 

492 n. 3, 646, 809, 820 n. I, 845, 

Lirzer, Jakob von, 1064 



Litta, Marchese, 166 

Lobkowitz, Prince, 1373 n. i 

Locatelli, Pietro, 151 n. I 

Locatelli, Signer, 151-153 

Lodron, Aloisia (Louise), 490 n. 2, 

637, 653, 656, 778, 78o, 805, 806, 

808 n. i, 1008, 1013 
Lodron, Anton, 609, 1008, 1013 
Lodron, Count Ernst, 518, n. i, 577 
Lodron, Count Friedrich, 515 
Lodron, Count Nikolaus Sebastian von, 

777, 943 

Lodron, Count Paris, 15 n. 3 
Lodron, Count Sigmund, 518 n. i, 577 
Lodron, Countess Antonia, 422, 490 n. 2, 
505: 5i7, 5*8, 577, 637, 653, 657, 
662, 715, 778, 779, 808, 809, 812, 

834, 877 

Lodron, Countess Theresa von, 17, 370 
Lodron, Josepha, 490 n. 2, 637, 653, 

656, 778, 78o, 805, 806, 808 n. i, 


Loibl, Johann Martin, 1420 n. i 
Lolli, Antonio, 154 n. 2, 280, 672 n. i 
Lolli, Giuseppe Francesco, 13 n. 5, 34 

n. 2, 182 n. 2, 229, 319, 888, 892 
Lotter, Johann Jakob, So n. 4, 122 n. 5, 

384, 430, 436, 478, 504, 1295 n. I 
Lotti, Antonio, 535 n. 2 
Loubier et Tessier, 71 
Louis XIV, 37 n. 4 
Louis XV, 45 n - 2, 49, 53, 54 
Louis XVI, 210 n. i, 801, 803, 828 
Louis Joseph Xavier Francois, 1156 n. 3 
Lucchesi, Andrea, 365 n. I, 537, 806 
Ludwig, Madame, 1049 
Ludwig, Prince of Wurtemberg, 99 n i, 


Lugiati, Pietro, 152 n. i, 264, 269, 274, 
280, 282, 299, 301, 681, 704, 1241 

Luther, Martin, 41 

Liitzow, Count, 535, 577 

Liitzow, Countess, 418 n. I, 577, 715, 
721, 779, 806, 913, 1193, I2 40 

Luz, 734 


Maggiori, Signora Angelica, 266 

Mainwaring, John, 1393 n. 2 

Majo, Francesco di, 203 n. 3, 208, 265 

Majo, Giuseppe di, 203 n. 3 

Major, Herr, 149 

Mamachi, Tommaso Maria, 238 n. I 

Manfredini, 182 n. I, 225 

Manfredini, Vincenzo, 182 n. i, 225 n. i 
Mann, Horace, 84 n. 5 
Mann, Sir Horace, 84 n. 5 
Manservisi, Rosa, 1374 n. 3 
Manzuoli, Giovanni, 79 n. 2, 79 n. 4, 

154, 176, 185, 193, 287, 288, 292, 

298, 302 
Mara, Gertrude Elizabeth, nee Schmel- 

ing, 979 n. 4, 981, 984, 995-997, 

Mara, Johann Baptist, 979 n. 4, 991 

n. 2, 994-997, 1069 
March, Lord, 70 n. i 
Marchall, 1115, 1138, 1140, 1142, 1150 
Marchand, David, 1115 n. i, 1116 
Marchand, Heinrich, 863 n. 2, 1080 n. i, 

1088, 1106, 1115, 1116, 1140, 1189 

n. 4, 1198, 1281, 1286, 1287, 1301, 

1302, 1319, 1322-1324, 1335, 1336, 

Marchand, Margarete, 863 n. 2, 1080 

n. i, 1115 n.3, 1189 n. 4, 1198, 

1203, 1265 n. 2, 1278, 1279, 1281, 

1282, 1286, 1287, 1314, 1410 n. 2 
Marchand, Theobald, 863 n. 2, 1080 n. i, 

1115, 1116, 1198, 1254 n. i, 1319 

n. i, 1320 

Marchesi, Ludovico, 443 n. i, 1043 
Marchetti-Fantozzi, Signora, 1437 n. 7 
Marchiani, 443 
Marcobruni, Abbate, 188, 190, 212, 

296, 302 

Maresquelle, Madame, 982 n. 3, 1002, 
1010, 1013 

Marggraf, Andreas Sigismund, 12 n. 2 

Maria Anna, Archduchess, 1063 n. 4 

Maria Christina, 116 n. 4 

Maria Josepha, Archduchess, 105, 108 
n. 2, 108 n. 7, 109 n. 2, in, 119 

Maria Josepha of Saxony, 46 n. 4, 49 
n. i, 50 

Maria Leszczynska, 49 n. 2 

Maria Ricciarda Beatrice, Princess of 
Modena, 168, 174, 274 n. 3, 277, 
283 n. 2, 284, 295, 297, 326 

Maria Theresa, Archduchess, 1355 n. I 

Maria Theresa, Empress, 7, 8, 12, 17, 
18 n. i, 22, 44 n. I, 46, 53, 68 n. i, 
107, 116, 118, 119, 133, 138 n. 2, 
139, 151, 159, 168 n. i, 216 n. 2, 
274 n. 3, 277, 282 n. 3, 289 n. I, 

297, 305, 326, 342, 343, 348, 447 
n.3, 665, 1003, I0 7> IOII I02I 
1023, 1025, 1059 n. i, 1063, 1094 
n. 4, 1127 n. i, 1 156 n. 2 



Marie Antoinette, 210 n. i, 612, 649, 
698 n. 5, 793,800,801, 1156 

Marie Elizabeth, Electress of the Pala 
tinate, 35, 523, 525, 529-53L 536, 
53S, 539, 658, 913, 934, 954 n. i. 
958,959,963,965, 1023, 1054 

Marie Therese Charlotte, 793 n. I 

Marini, 810 

Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm, 812 n. I 

Marschall, Jakob Anton, 383 n. I 

Marshall, Herr, 604 

Martelli, Franz Anton, 58 n. 3, 100 

Martha, Jungfrau, 225, 239, 240, 242, 


Martin, 40 n. I 

Martin, Philipp, H99n. I, 1200-1202, 

Martin y Solar, Vicente, 1374 n. 5, 
1390 n. i 

Martinelli, 249, 567 

Martinelli, Lenerl, 567, 814 

Martinez, Marianne, 345 n. I 

Martinez, Niccolo, 345 n. I 

Martini, Padre Giovanni Battista, 68 
n. 2, 108 n. 3, 109 n. 3, 143, 181 
n. I, 187 n. i, 203 n. 3, 232, 233 
n. i, 241, 244, 260, 385, 398 n. 7, 
410, 411, 43 1 , 513 a-3 542, 615, 
616, 639-641, 667, 77 n.i, 789, 
848, 888, 892-895, 917, 925, 983 
n. 6, 1118 n. i, 1371 n. i 

Martini, Grassl, 716 

Marxfelder, Anton, 522 n. 2 

Masi, 162 

Mattheson, Johann, 812 n. 2, 1393 n. 2 

Maximilian, Archduke, 8 n. 5, 1 1, 367 
n. 2, 400 n, 2, 447, 851, 1160 n. 2, 
1165, 1184, 1202, 1208, 1214 

Maximilian III, Elector of Bavaria, I, 
27 n. 3, 28-30, 61, 98, ioo, 375-38o, 
385, 402, 403, 4IO-4I3, 4i6, 417, 
421, 422, 426, 427, 429, 443 n. i, 
452, 534, 535> 537, 57*, 59* n. 2, 
642, 649-650, 739, 760 n. i, 1018 

Maximilian Friedrich, Elector of Bonn, 
41 n. 5 

Mayer, Frau, 767 

Mayer, Friedrich Sebastian, 1167 n. I, 
1449, n. I 

Mayer, Herr von, 878, 1147, 1150 

Mayer, M., 698 

Mayer, M., 716, 749, 764, 766, 772 

Mayr, Andreas, 112 n. I 

Mayr, Herr, 31 

Mayr, Herr von, 302, 322, 323 

Mazarin, Duchesse de, 697 

Mazzinghi, Paolo, 137 

Mazzinghi, Tommaso, 136 n. 2, 137 
n. i 

Mechel, Christian von, 45 n. i, 47 n. i, 
63 n. i 

Mederitsch, Johann (called Gallus), 
1250 n. 2, 1499 n. i 

Meiners, J., 1508 n. i 

Meisner, Joseph, 34 n. I, 99, ioo, 125, 
140 n. i, 1 60, 194, 196, 197, 200, 
201, 212, 245, 344, 434, 536, 547, 
548, 577, 810, 816, 817, 820 

Mellin, Mile, 961 

Mendelssohn, Felix, 1348 n. 3 

Menhofer, Herr von, 109 

Menzel, Zeno Franz, 1303 n. 2, 1305- 
1307, 1312 

Merk, 1255 

Meschini, Antonio Maria, 156 n. 2 

Mesmer, 345 

Mesmer, Franz Anton von, 105, 341 
n. 4, 342 n. 3, 343, 345-348, 35O, 
355, 612, 670, 1059 n. 2, 1171 n. 2 

Mesmer, Frau von, 342 n. 2, 342 n. 3, 
347, 348, 1059, 1118, 1171 n. 2 

Mesmer, Frau Joseph, 670, 671 

Mesmer, Joseph, 341 n. 5, 343, 345, 347, 
349, 357, 401, 670, 671, 677, 1069 

Mesmer, Joseph, (Junior), 670, 1069 

Metastasio, Pietro Antonio, 97 n. 2, 
108 n. i, 122 n. i, 131, 161 n. 4, 
165, 173 & 3, J 93 n - 4, 204 n. 2, 
273 n. i, 284 n. i, 315, 345 n. I, 367 
n. 2, 660 n, i, 704, 735, 736 n. 2, 
737 n. i, 827, 884, 999, 1000, 1006, 
1010, 1039, 1042, 13 13 n. 5 

Meurikofer, 200, 204, 205, 212, 226 

Meyer, Philipp Jakob, 54 n. i 

Meyerbeer, 513 n. 3 

Mezziers, Chevalier de, 85 

Michl, Joseph, 429 n, i 

Mine, 65 

Mitzerl, Jungfrau, 372 n. 2, 374, 406, 
415, 452, 455, 470, 557, 567, 582, 
614, 723, 795> 813, 852, 1019 

Mocenigo, 272 

Modena, Duca Franz di, 160, 168, 174 

Modena, Prince Ercole Rainaldo di, 
283 n. 2, 292, 295 

Molk, Anna Barbara von, 288 n. 2, 806, 

Molk, Anton Joseph von, 161 n. I, 173, 
188, 194,648,690, 1119, 1159 

Molk, Felix von, 161 n. I, 183, 194, 



288 n. 2, 349, 350, 363, 371, 372, 

375> 470, 614, 773, 777, 945, ^40 
Molitor, M., 698 
Moll, Frau von, 415 
Moll, Herr von, 147, 405, 432, 1069, 

1082, 1119, 1133, 1203 
Mombelli, Domenico Francesco, 1321 

n. 4 

Mombelli, Signora (see Luisa Laschi) 
Montecucoli, Marchese Ludwig Franz 

di, 1420 n. 2, 1421, 1424-1426 
Montmorency, Duchesse de, 85 
Monza, Carlo, 263 n. i, 535 n. i, 731 
Morgnoni, Bassano, 320 n. 2, 326 
Moshammer, Frau, 582 
Mosmayer, Herr, 965 
Mozart, Constanze (see Weber) 
Mozart, Franz Aloys, 397 n. 2, 399, 451, 

452 n. i, 459, 460, 463, 465, 467, 

468, 477, 478, 485, 489, 5oo, 502, 

503, 512, 523, 524, 526, 527, 595, 

741, 921, 965, 967, 971, 973 
Mozart, Franz Xaver Wolfgang, 1415 

n. i, 1508 n. 3 
Mozart, Frau, 467, 477, 489, 524, 527, 

Mozart, Frau Maria Anna 
Accompanies her family to Munich, i 
Accompanies her family to Vienna, 

Accompanies her family on their 

European tour, 25-103 
Accompanies her family on their 

second visit to Vienna, 107-139 
Accompanies her son to Munich, 

Augsburg, Mannheim and Paris, 

Illness and death in Paris, 823-832, 

Mozart, Johann Thomas Leopold, 

1342 n. i, 1349 n. i 
Mozart, Joseph Ignaz, 397 n. 2 
Mozart, Karl Thomas, 1310 n. I, 1322 
n. i, 1342 n. i, 1352 n. I, 1354, 
1368, 1370, 1372, 1382, 1418, 1423, 
1427, 1430, 1442, 1443, 1461 n. i, 
1473 n. i, 1508 n. 2 
Mozart, Leopold 

Takes his children to Munich, I 
First visit -with his family to Vienna, 

European tour with his family, 25- 


Second visit with his family to 
Vienna, 107-139 

First visit with his son to Italy, 145- 

Second visit with his son to Milan, 

Third visit with his son to Milan, 


Takes his son to Vienna, 341-357 
Accompanies his son to Munich, 

Letters to his wife and son on their 

journey, 395-839 
Letters to his son after his mother's 

death, urging him to return to 

Salzburg, 875-967 
Correspondence with his son on the 

composition of "Idomeneo", 980- 

Disapproval of his son's breach with 

the Archbishop, 1090-1092 
Disapproval of his son's proposed 

marriage, 1166, 1173, 1178-1179, 

Description of his son's character, 

Letters to his daughter after her 

marriage, 1316-1325, 1328, 1330- 

1336, 1342, 1343, 1347-1349 
Visits his son in Vienna, 1320-1329 
Death, 1352 

Mozart, Maria Anna (Nanneri) 
First visit to Munich, I 
First visit to Vienna, 3-22 
Performs at the Austrian court, 8 
European tour, frequently performing 

with her brother, 25-103 
Dangerously ill at the Hague, 87- 


Goes to Munich for the first per 
formance of "La finta giardiniera", 

Marriage to Berchtold zu Sonnen- 

burg, 1314-1316 
Mozart, Maria Airna Thekla, 397 n. 2, 

452 n. i, 457, 465, 467, 470, 477* 

478, 480, 482, 489, 493, 5co, 505, 

519, 523, 524, 530, 534, 545 553, 

556, 594-596, 677, 678, 703, 7i8, 

741, 938, 954, 956, 957, 965-968, 

972, 1148, 1152-1154, 1203 n. 2, 


Mozart, Marianne Viktoria, 1203 n. 2 
Mozart, Raimund Leopold, 1161 n. i, 

1266 n. I, 1269 n. i, 1270, 1271, 

1274, 1275 
Mozart, Theresia, 1360 n. i 



Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus 
First visit to Munich, I 
First visit to Vienna, 3-22 
Concert at Linz, 3 
Performs at the Austrian court, 8 
Illness, 12-13 
Visit to Pressburg, 20-21 
European tour, 25-103 
Performs before the Elector at 

Munich, 27 

Concerts at Augsburg, 30 
Performs before the Elector Karl 

Theodor, 35 
Concerts at Mainz, 38 
Concerts at Frankfurt, 39 
Concert at Coblenz, 40 
Concert in Brussels, 44 
At Versailles, 48-51 
First sonatas engraved, 54, 57, 77, 


Concerts in Paris, 59, 60, 63 
London, 64-85 
Performs at court, 66-68, 78 
Concerts in London, 67, 69, 70, 72, 


At Chelsea, 73-75 
First symphonies, 73, 80 
Composes sonatas dedicated to 

Queen Charlotte, 76, 82 
The Hague, 84-95 
Illness, 92-93 
Performs at court, 93 
Concerts at The Hague, 93, 94 
Composes sonatas dedicated to 

Princess Caroline, 94 
Second visit to Paris, 93-97 
Return journey to Salzburg, 99- 


Second visit to Vienna, 107-139 
Catches smallpox, 110-114 
At the Austrian court, 116, 119 
Composes "La finta semplice", 121- 


Concerts in Vienna, 124, 125 

First visit to Italy, 145-275 

Roveredo, 151 

Verona, 151-155 

Mantua, 155-157 

Milan, 158-175 

Parma, 176-177, 179 

Bologna, 175-183 

Florence, 183-185, 191, 192 

Rome, 185-197 

Naples, 198-214 

Second stay in Rome, 214-219 

Receives an order from Clement XIV, 

Second visit to Bologna, 219-242 

Admitted member of the Bologna 
Academy, 243 

Second visit to Milan, 244-265 

Composes "Mitridate, Re di Ponto", 
244, 247, 249-259 

Venice, 266-272 

Second visit to Italy, 279-304 

Composes "Ascanio in Alba" at 
Milan, 284-297 

Third visit to Italy, 311-337 

Composes "Lucio Silla" at Milan 

Third visit to Vienna, 341-357 

Composes "La finta giardiniera" at 
Munich, 361-384 

Leaves Salzburg -with his mother, 393 

Munich, 400-451 

Augsburg, 459-501 

Mannheim, 511-756 

Visit to Kircheim-Bolanden with the 
Webers, 660-680 

Arrives in Paris, 760 

Death of his mother, 824 

Goes to live with Grimm, 831 

Visit to St. Germain, 900 

Appointed court organist at Salz 
burg, 903 

Leaves Paris, 922 

Strassburg, 925-935 

Mannheim, 936-949 

Visit to Kaysersheim, 951-957 

Munich, 959-966 

Returns to Salzburg, 968 

Composes "Idomeneo, Re di Creta" 
for the Munich carnival, 977-1052 

Summoned to Vienna by the Arch 
bishop of Salzburg, 1057 

Goes to live with the Webers, 1081 

Final breach with the Archbishop, 

Commissioned to compose "Die 
Entfuhrung aus dem Serail", 1123- 

Leaves the Webers, 1135-1137 

Work on "Die Entfuhrung aus dem 
Serail", 1143-1146,1148,1150,1199 

Proposed marriage to Constanze 
Weber, 1166-1168, 1172-1175, 1177, 
1186, 1195-1197 

First performance of "Die Ent 
fuhrung aus dem Serail", 1204- 



Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus contd. 
Marriage to Constanze Weber, 1211- 


Birth of their first child, 1269-1270 
Visit to Salzburg with Constanze, 

Work on "L'oca del Cairo", 1284- 

1290, 1292 
Composes several piano concertos, 

1292, 1296 
Concert performances in Vienna, 

1296-1301, 1302 
Piano concertos, 1306-1308, 1311- 


Illness, 1316 

His father's visit, 1319-1329 
Dedicates six string quartets to 

Haydn, 1329-1330 
Work on "Le Nozze di Figaro", 1331- 

First performance of "Le Nozze di 

Figaro", 1336 
Proposes to go to England, 1342, 


First visit to Prague, 1343-1347 
Death of his father, 1352 
Second visit to Prague, 1354-1359 
First performance of "Don Giovanni", 

Appointed Kammerkomponist to the 

Emperor Joseph II, 1359 
Money difficulties, 1360-1365, 1367 
Journey to Berlin with Prince Karl 

Lichnowsky, 1368-1383 
Money difficulties, 1383-1387, 1391- 

Constanze's illness and removal to 

Baden, 1384-1389 
Visit to Frankfurt am Main, 1400- 

Work on "Die Zauberflote", 1418, 

Last visit to Prague with Constanze 

and Sussmayr, 1436 
Performances of "Die Zauberflote", 

1436-1437, 1439-1443 
Last illness and death, 1447-1450 
Muller, 1049 

Muller, Franz Xaver, 1342 n. 2 
Muller, Johann Heinrich Friedrich, 

1256 n. I, 1324 
Muller, Wenzel, 1419 n. I 
Muralt, Lisette, 31 
Murmann, Christof, 970 n. 2 
Murschhauser, 950 n. I, 973, 1049 

Muschietti, Pietro, 223 n. 2 

Mysliwecek, Joseph, 224 n. 2, 225, 246, 
259, 302, 313, 328 n. i, 329, 331, 
353, 356, 418, 420, 434, 441-448, 
454, 468, 477, 486, 505, 518, 528, 
534, 535, 544, 659, 668, 721, 778, 
779, 882, 883 n. i, 888 


Nader, Nannerl, 312 

Nardini, Pietro, 33 n. i, 184, 191 n. 2, 

236, 777 n. 3 

Natorp, Babette, 1352 n. 2, 1359 
Natorp, Nanette, 1352 n. 2, 1358, 1359 
Naumann, Johann Gottlieb, 438 n. 6, 

1006 n.2, 1371 n. i, 1372, 1373, 

1378 n. 2 
Neefe, Christian Gottlob, 1123 n. 4, 

1474 n. i 
Neri, Signer, 313 
Neumann, Johann Leopold, 1370 n. I, 

1371 n. i, 1372, 1373, 1375, 1377 
Nicolini, 185 

Niderl, Dr., 26, 354 n. i, 355 
Niesser, Madame, 401 
Nissen, Georg Nikolaus von, 1447 n. I, 

1454, 1458, 1461, 1507 n. 4 
Noailles, Marechal de, 901 
Nocker and Schiedl, 551, 568, 573 
Norman, 1335 n. 2 
Novae, M., 403, 470 
Noverre, Jean Georges, 108 n, 6, 350 

n. i, 734, 760, 766, 7^9, 782, 791, 

797, 801, 822, 835, 887, 899, 910, 



Oberkirchner, Johann Michael, 515 

n. 3 

Ochser, Herr, 1283 
Ofele, 449, 455 
OUenschlager, Herr, 727 
Onofrio, Giuseppe, 314 n. 4 
Orsler, Joseph, 141 1 n 2 
Otini, 162 n. i 
Ottingen-Wallerstein, Prince Kraft 

Ernst von, 445 n. 2, 453, 464-466, 

494 n. i, 511, 540,667 
Otto, Herr, 536, 570 

Paar, Count Johann Josef, 10 n. i 
Paar, Countess, 15 
Paar, Wenzel, 10 n. I 

I53 1 


Pacheco, Marquise von, 16 
Pachta, Count Johann von, 444 n. i, 


Paisible, 696 n. I 
Paisiello, Giovanni, 265 n. I, 408 n. 2, 

862 n. 3, 1182 n. 2, 1257 n. 7, 1306, 

1312, 1316, 1345 n. 3 
Palafox de Mendoza, Jean de, 239 

n. i 

Palfy, Count, 6, 8, 15, 1060, 1303 
Palfy, Countess Josepha Gabriele, 1 244 
Palfy, young Count, 7 
Pallavicini, Cardinal, 186, 187, 191, 195, 

Pallavicini, Count, 180, 184, 218, 220, 

228-230, 233, 299 
Pallavicini, Countess, 238 
Panter, Herr, 182 
Panzacchi, Domenico de, 993 n. i, 

1012, 1017 
Paradies (Paradisi), Pietro Domenico, 

136 n. 2, 364 n. i s 366 
Paradis, Maria Theresa von, 1321 n. 6 
Parhammer, Ignaz, 135 n. i, 138, 139 
Parini, Abbate Giuseppe, 282 n. 2 
Paris, Anton, 903 n. 2 
Parma, Duchess of, 271 
Pasquini, Giovanni Claudio, 735 n - 2 
Passau, Bishop of, 3 
Passaver, 402 
Paul Petrovitch, Grand Duke of Russia 

(later Paul I), H24n. 2, 1129, 1135, 

1139, 1158 n.5, 1162, 1163, 1175, 

1178, 1218, 1219, 1232, 1235 
Pechmann, Baron, 15 
Pedemonte, Count, 152 
Peierl, 1512 n. 4 
Peisser,9, 1116, 1135, 1136, 1178, 1183, 

1221, 1226, 1262, 1282, 1291, 1292, 

1295, 1302 

Pergen, Count von, 39, 40 
Pernat, Johann Nepomuk von, 361 n. 2, 

363. 364, 370, 373 
Perusa, Count, 436, 577, 789 
Perwein, 466 n. 2, 511, 516 
Perwein, Ignaz, 1215 n. 2 
Pesaro, 273 

Peter III, of Russia, 1158 n. 5 
Pfeil, Leopold Heinrich, 536, 558, 570 
Philidor, Anne Danican, 60 n. I 
Philidor, Frangois Andre Danican, 

699 n.5 
Piazza, 257 

Piccinelli, Madame, 163, 164, 744 
Piccinni, Niccol6, 163 n. 4, 163 n. 5, 

164, 424 n. i, 699, 737, 790, 822, 

835, 886, 887, 899, 911, 924, 1028, 


Piccinni, Signori, 280, 304, 314 
Pichler, Caroline, 1411 n. 3 
Pick (Le Picq), 163, 178, 183, 192, 287 
Pietragrua, Xavier, 780 
Pinzger, Andreas, 409 n. 3, 779 n. 2, 

806 n: 4 

Piovene, Agostino, 302 n. i 
Pius VI, Pope, 1178 n. i, 1190 
Pizzini, Baron, 280 
Platania, 265 n. I 
Pleyel, Ignaz Joseph, 1304 n. 5, 1305, 

Ployer, Barbara von, 1294 n. 4, 1303, 

1307, 1312, 1466, 1481 
Ployer, Ignaz von, 1294 n. 4, 1303, 

1312, 1322, 1323 
Podstatzky, Count Leopold Anton von, 

1 10 n. 4, 112-114, 822 
Pollnitz, Baron von, 31 
Poggi, Signer, 122 
Pokorny, Gotthard, 1367 n. i 
Pokorny, Magdalene, 1367 n. i 
Polini, Signor, 122 
Pompadour, Madame de, 46 n. i, 52 
Porpora, 108 n. I, 136 n. 2, 176 n. i, 

181 n. 2, 1251 n. 2 
Porsch, Herr, 1403 n. I 
Porsch, Madame, 1403 
Porta, 65, 200 

Posch, Frau von, 341 n. 4, 342 n. 2 
Posch, Herr von, 342 n. i, 343, 1059 n. 2 
Potivin, Jean Pierre, 59 
Prank, Count, 440, 577 
Presidente, Madame la, 414 n. I, 991 
Prex, Dr., 577, 917 
Preymann, Anton, 1333 n. 4 
Proschalka, 1020, 1049 
Provino, Herr, 31, 37 
Puchberg, Michael, 1360 ru 2, 1361, 

1363* X 364> Z 368, 1370, I372/1373. 
1378, 1382, 1383, 1385, 1387, 1391- 

1393, 1395. J 396, 1398, I399 ? HOO, 
1411, 1418, 1419, 1424, 1427, 1478, 

Puffendorf, 16 

Pugiatowsky, Prince, 653 

Punto, Giovanni, 769 n. 7, 786, 787 

Quaglio, Lorenzo, 981 n. 2, 984, 1030 
Quallenberg, Madame, 1346, 1405 




Raaff, Anton, 486 n. 1, 487, 509, 512, 528, 

535, 547, 550, 564, 666 n. i, 667, 
708, 719, 730, 735, 736, 768, 770, 
782, 789, 804, 813-818, 822, 825, 
834, 844-849, 861, 864, 871, 893- 
895> 898, 917, 926, 938, 954, 959, 
9^3; 979, 980, 985, 986, 989, 992, 

998-IOOO, IOO5, 1012, IOI5, IOI7, 
1020, 1027, 1035-1037, 1039, 1041, 
1042,^045, 1051, 1199 

Ragazzoni, Signer, 152 

Rameau, 812 n. 6 

Ramm, Friedrich, 520 n. 4, 548, 591, 

592, 674, 680, 684, 710-712, 769, 

786, 787, 896, 982, 986, 990, 995. 

1005, 1068, 1175, 1252, 1255, 1350, 


Ramm, Madame, 1410 
Randal, Dr., 73 n. 2 
Ranftl, 69, 150, 777 
Ranftl, Vincenz, 311 
Rasco, 402 

Rautenstrauch, Johann, 1332 n. I 
Rauzzini, Venanzio, 108 n. 4, 314, 316, 

330, 1272 n. i 
Ravani, 417 
Rehberg, 1420, 1422 
Reicha, Anton, 667 n. 2, 668, 671-673, 


Reicha, Joseph, 667 n. 2 
Reifenstuhl, Herr, 22 
Reiner, 1318 

Reiner, Caroline, 949 n. 2, 950 
Reiner, Franz von Paula r 423 n. I, 

536, H75 

Relling, Baron,- 476 
Renner, Franz, 1281 n. 5 
Reutter, Johann Adam Karl Georg, 

i8n. i, 517 

Ricci, Abbate Pasquale, 706 n. 4 
Richter, Franz Xaver, 935 n. 3 
Richter, Georg Friedrich, 1296 n. 2, 

1297, 1300, 1305, 1306, 1308 
Riedel, Frau von, 406 
Riedel, Herr von, 406 
Riedesel, Baron von, 1226, 1231, 1233 
Riedheim, Baron, 237, 253, 255 
Riepel, Joseph, 505 n. 2, 811 n. 7 
Righini, Vincenzo, 1118 n. i, 1134, 


Ritschel, Franz, 615, 616 
Ritter, Georg Wenzel, 592 n, i, 769, 

787,845, 846, 1165 

Robeck, Princesse de, 697 
Robinig, Elizabeth von, 1048 n. i 
Robinig, Frau Viktoria von, 22, 33, 36 

364, 365, 373, 374, 377, 4*7, 428, 

567, 577, 588, 614, 642, 945, 960, 

962, 965, 1018, 1048, 1052, 1053, 

1064, 1199, 1202, 1265 
Robinig, Louise von, 374, 427, 588, 

917, 1048 
Robinig, Sigmund von, 225 n. 4, 242, 

806, 1044, IC H8 
Rodolphe, Jean Joseph, 797 n. 3, 801, 

Rohan, Louis Constantin, Cardinal de, 

935 ^ 4 

Romanzow, 654 
Rosa, 350 
Rosa, 1262, 1265 
Rosa, Pietro, 1259 n. 3 
Rosenberg, Countess Giustiniana von, 

136 n. i 
Rosenberg, Franz Xaver Wolf Orsini-, 

184 n. i, 1063 n. 3, 1094, 1103, 

1108, 1109, II2 4, IT 58, H73 n. i, 

1180, 1241, 1271, 1273, 1274, 1332 
Roser, Valentin, 805 n. i 
Rossi, 401, 1061 n. i, 1068, 1107 n - 2 > 

1122, 1123 
Rossi, 1265 

Rothfischer, Paul, 678 n. 2, 838, 878, 902 
Rousseau, 53 n. 3, 62 n. 2 
Rubens, 43, 86 
Ruesler, Monsieur, 155 
Rumbeck, Countess von, 1066, 1069, 

1107 n. 3, mi, H2i, 1176, 1179, 

1184 n. i, 1201, 1238 
Rumling, Baron, 417, 424 
Rumyantsof, 355 n. I 
Rust, Jakob, 399 n. 4, 502, 516, 577, 648, 

660, 731, 734, 792, 822, 925, 1139 
Rutini, Giovanni Marco,. 281 n. 2 

Sacchini, Antonio Maria Gasparo, 924 


Sadlo, Wenzl, 516 n. i 
St. Catherine Vigri, 186 n. i 
St. Crescentia, 91 n. 2 
St. Julien, Madame de, 697 
St. Rosa, 1 86 n. I 
St. Vincent Ferrier, 93 n. I 
St. Walpurgis, 91 n. i 
Salern, Count Joseph von, 416 n. i, 

421, 422, 427 



Salem, Countess, 416, 417, 422, 427 

Sales, Pietro Pompeo, 371 n. 4, 430, 
1000 n. i, 1006 n. 2 

Salieri, Antonio, 109 n. 3, 950, 1028 n. 4, 
1076, 1108 n. I, 1123 n. 5, 1165, 
1199, 1217, 1219, 1264, 1273, 1274, 
1286 n. 2, 1336, 1392, 1397, 1410, 

Saliet, 348 

Salviati, Duca De, 184 

Sammartini, Giovanni Battista, 165 n. 2, 


San Angelo, Prince, 191 

Sandmayr, 515 

S. Francesco di Paola, 13 

Sanftl, Dr., 739 n. 2 

Santarelli, Cavaliere, 195 n. 2 

Sarit Odile, Baron, 218 

Santorini, 216, 223 

Santoro, Don Gaetano, 419, 420, 443, 
444, 454, 477 

Sarti, Giuseppe, 1286 n. 3, 1306, 1312 

Sartine, M. de, 60, 696 

Sartoretti, Signora, 158, 1 60 

Satmann, 1347, 1382 

Sauer, Ignaz, 1505 n. 2 

Sauerau, Count, 292, 295, 305, 328, 334, 
335, 3^5, 3 6 7, 368, 370 

Savioli, Count Louis Aurele de, 513, 
521, 529, 530, 536, 539, 541, 575> 
583, 584, 590, 601, 609, 615, 616, 
622, 873 

Scarlatti, Alessandro, 108 n. I, 653 

Schachtner, Johann Andreas, 70 n. 2, 
480, 983 n. I, 990, 991, 994, 999, 
1003, 1016, 1033, 1035, 1038, 1047, 
1052, 1053, 1068, 1078, 1129, 1405 

Schack, Benedict, 1390 n. 2, 1415 n. 4, 


Schafmann, Baron, 530 n. 2, 607 

Scharf, Herr von, 1 147 

SchefHer, Herr, 1262, 1265 

Scheibe, Johann Adolf, 812 n. 4 

Schell, Baron, 7 

Scherz, Herr, 921, 929, 932, 941, 942, 
1282, 1283 

S chick, Margarete, 1407 n. 2 

Schickrnayr, Amandus, 1281 

Schiedenhofen, Fraulein Louise von, 
428, 689, 794 

Schiedenhofen, Joachim Ferdinand von, 
146 n.4, 149, 173, 183, 191* 203, 
208, 226, 229, 274, 328, 348, 399, 
455, 614, 648, 689, 690 n. i, 794 

Schikaneder, Emanuel, 970 n. I, 979 

n. 5, 980 n. i, 982 n. 3, 987, 990- 
994, looi n. i, 1002, 1003, 1007, 
1009, 1018, 1021, 1049, II ^7 n. 2, 
1172 n. i, 1390 n. 2, 1415, 1417, 
1418 n. 3, 1427, 1436 n. 2, 1437, 
1441, 1510 n. 2 

Schiller, 30 n. 2, 496 n. i, 562 n. i 

Schindl, Frau von, 1122 

Schindler, Katharina (Leithner-Schind- 
ler), 704 n. 6, 1023 n. I, 1156 

Schinn, Johann Georg, 1510 n. i 

Schlauka, 1082, 1087, 1097 

Schlauka, Madame, 1336 

Schlick, Count von, 4 

Schlick, Countess von, 4, 7 

Schlick, Johann Conrad, 1304 n. 2 

Schmadl, Burgomaster, 402 

Schmalz, Herr, 551, 564, 568, 569, 575, 
605, 630, 746 

Schmidt, 897 

Schmidt, 1148 

Schmidt, 225 

Schmidt, Baron, 401 

Schmidt, Herr von, 512 

Schmidt, Ludwig, 1317 n. 3, 1318, 1378 
n. i 

Schmidt, Siegfried, 1481 

Schmittbauer, Herr, 480 

Schmittmeyer, 380 

Schobert, Johann, 23, 53 n. 4, 53 n. 5, 
54, 55, 113 n. 2, 136,77211.1,805 

Schonborn, Count, 403 n. 2 

Schonborn, Countess, 403 n. 2, 411, 418, 
440, 517, 1063, 1080, 1159 

Schott, 1334 n. i 

Schrattenbach, Count Franz Anton von, 
in n. 2, 116, 125, 178 n. 3 

Schrattenbach, Count Sigismund von, 
3 n. i, 9 n. i, 10, 13, 18, 18 n. 3, 
19, 20, 46, 83, 101, in n. 2, 114, 
116, 123-125, 129, 131, 134, 137, 
139, 140, 173, 176, 178 XL 3, 180, 
197, 201, 245, 263, 292, 301, 305 

Schreier, 448 

Schroder, Friedrich Ludwig, 1103 n. 3, 
1108, 1287 

Schroter, Corona, 827 n. 2 

Schroter, Johann Samuel, 827 n. 2, 851, 

853, 875, 950, 951 
Schubart, Christian Friedrich Daniel, 

481 n. i, 644 
Schuch, 34 
Schultz, Frau, 350 
Schulz, 225 n. 2, 373, 382 
Schulze, 777 



Schuster, Joseph, 438 n. 6, 439 n. i, 
452, 456, 462, 469, 483, 489, 494, 

499, 589 

Schwachhofen, 559 
Schwarz, 380 
Schwarz, Trumpeter, 651 
Schweitzer, Anton, 566 n. i, 590, 591, 
602, 604 n. i, 631, 632, 657 n.3, 
670 n. i, 899, 915, 945, 954 
Schweitzer, Franz Maria, 1405, 1406 
Schwemmer, Lisa, 1288, 1308-1310 
Schwenke, Dr. Thomas, 88 n. i 
Schwindel, Friedrich, 706 n. 2 
Schwingenschuh, Madame, 1414, 1415, 

1420, 1421 

Sedlizky, Count, 382 
Seeau, Count Joseph Anton von, 361 
n-4, 373, 374, 400, 401, 410-414* 
416, 423, 426, 427, 429, 484, 562, 
563, 854, 856, 872-874, 877, 894, 
898, 899, 904, 919, 936, 938, 939, 
965, 977, 978, 980-984, 986, 990, 
992, 995-998 ? 1004, 1023, 1026, 
1027, 1035, 1038, 1046-1048, 1052, 


Seeau, Countess von, 414 
Seeau, Fraulein von, 402 
Seefeld, Countess von, 382, 384 
Seelos, Jakob, 406 n. i 
Segarelli, Padre, 198 
Seilern, Count, 1367 n. I 
Sensheim, Count,. 400, 436, 484, 991, 

994, 1004, 1023 

Serrarius, Frau, 620, 629, 644, 666, 677 
Serrarius, Privy Court Councillor, 611, 

620, 626, 629, 633, 642, 655, 661, 

666, 675, 677, 723, 938 
Serrarius, Therese Pierron, 620, 621, 

629, 634, 661, 662, 666, 677, 721, 

723, 762, 1092 n. i 
Severy, M. de, 99 

Seydelmann, Franz, 438 n. 6, 1378 n. 2 
Seyler, 857, 858, 937 
Sfeer, Herr, 400 
Sickingen, Count von, 761, 804, 805, 

813, 817, 847, 861, 871, 896, 899, 

922, 929, 934, 1290 
Sieber, J. &., 658 n. 1,711 n. i, 837 n. i, 

850 n. 3, 1054 n. 3, 1129,1261,1491 

n. 2 
Sieger, Herr, 1006, 1009, ion, 1019, 


Siegl, Herr, 402, 411, 422, 439 n. 3, 4^o 
Silbermann, Johann Andreas, 935 n. I 
Silbermann, Johann Heinrich, 935 n. i 

Silfverstolpe, Herr von, 1479 n - 3 
Sirmen, Maddalena, nee Lombardini, 

777 n. 3 

Solzi, Signer, 287 

Sonnenfels, Josef von, 1095 n - *, ^1^ 
Sortschen, Doctor, 1494 n. 3 
Sowansky, 555 

Spagnoletta, Giuseppa Useda, 1 8 1, 245 
Spagnoletto, 162 

Spath, Franz Jakob, 479 n. i, 517 
Spath, F. X., 409 n. 5, 1146 n. 3, 1158 

n, i 

Spaur, Count, 777, 779 
Spaur, Count Franz Josef, 148, 149, 

Spaur, Count Ignaz Josef, 10 n. 4, 15, 


Spielmann, Court Councillor, 1243 
Spiess, Meinrod, 812 n. 3 
Spiriti, Marchese, 237, 238 n. i 
Spitzeder, Francesco Antonio, 39, 78, 82, 

93, 109, 128, 147, 215, 266, 291, 

337, 647, 660, 734, 806, 902 
Spork, Count Johann Wenzel, 138 n. 2 
Stadler, Abbe* Maximilian, 1454, 1463 

n. 7, 1464, 1466, 1467 n. I, 1473 

n. 2, 1477, 1478 n. 8, 1482, 1486, 

1488, 1495 
Stadler, Anton, 409 n. 2, 1346, 1395 

n. 2, 1401, 1402 n. 2, 1406, 1412, 

1413, 1437, I43S, 1479, 1482 
Stadler, Johann, 1482 n. 8 
Stadler, Matthias, 1318 n. 2 
Stafford, Count, 784 
Stage, Konrad Heinrich, 1334 
Stamitz, Anton, 779 n. i, 790 n. i, 822, 

Stamitz, Carl, 779 n. i, 790 n. I, 822, 

Stamitz, Johann Wenzel Anton, 512 

n. i, 543 n. 2, 779 n. i, 790 n. i, 823 
Starhemberg, Count Josef, 645, 646, 

648, 799, 819, 833, 877, 1343 
Stark, Canon, 560, 1334 n. I 
Starzer, Joseph, 178 n. 4, 1067, 1069, 

1076, 1255, 1259, 1393 n. 3 
Steigentesch, 348 
Stein, Johann Andreas, 30 n.3, 39, 

397 n. 5, 398, 439, 440, 453, 457, 

460-463, 470, 472, 474-482, 486, 

489, 491, 494, 496-498, 504, 505, 

517, 570,925, "53, i*54 
Stein, Maria Anna (Nanette), 481, 491, 

496, 497, 504, 520 
Steiner, Frau, 46, 53 



Stephanie, Christian Gottlob, 1078 n. 2 
Stephanie, Gottlieb, 1078 n. 2, 1079, 
1095, I][ 8 > II0 9, 1123, 1124, 1143, 
1144, 1146, 1150, 1156, 1157, 1160, 
1219, 1223, 1249, 1323, 1324 
Sterkel, Abt Johann Franz Xaver, 576 


Stesskamm, 348 

Steurer, 1281 

Stierle, Franz Xaver, 972 n. I 

Stockhammer, Herr, 150 

Stoll, Anton, 1413 n. 2, 1435, 1436, 

1439, 1442, 1477 
Storace, Anna, 1272 n. I, 1300 n, 2, 

1347-1349, 1351 

Storace, Stephen, 1348 n. 2, 1349 n. 3 
Storchenfeld, 1049 
Storzer, 29, 30, IOO, 373 
Strack, Joseph von, 1090 n. i, 1156, 

1176, 1184, H92, 1219, 1295 
Strasser, Barbara, 550 n. 2 
Streicher, Johann Andreas, 496 n. I 
Streicher, J. B., 1457 
Strinasacchi, Regina, 1304 n. 2 
Strobach, Johann Josef, 1343 n. 2 
Strobel, 1163, Il6 4 
Stumpff, J. A., 1457 n. r 
Suarti, Felicita, 314 
Summer, Georg, 1232 n. 2 
Sussmayr, Franz Xaver, 1417 n. 1, 1422, 

1423, 1426-1428, 1430, 1432, 1436- 

1439, 1442, 1449, 1462 n. I, 1490 

n.3, 1496, 1505, 1513 
Swieten, Baron Gottfried van, 761 n. I, 

1094 n. 4, 1161, 1192, 1194, 1200- 

1202, 1214, 1245, 1255, 1259, 1384, 

1393 n. 3 
Swieten, Gerhard van, 1094 n. 4 

Taisen, Herr von, 1229 

Tanucci, Marchese Bernardo, 199 n. I, 

Tartini, 97 n. 2, 430 n. i, 437, 777 n. 3, 

787 n. i, 902, 1371 n. i 
Tavernier, Madame, 526 
Taxis, Prince, 98, 100, 101, 450, 452, 

453, 464-466, 469, 505, 528, 559, 

574, 8iin.7, 1202 
Teiber, Anton, 344 n. I, 346 n. i, 1255 

a- 4, 1373 

Teiber, Elizabeth, 108 n. 5, 332 n. i, 
344 n. i, 346 n. I, 704, 915, 1255 

Teiber, Franz, 346 n. I 

Teiber, Matthaus, 332 n. i, 344 n. i, 

346 n. i, 349 
Teiber, Therese, 108 n. 5, 344 n. i, 346 n. 

i, 1123 n. 6, 1255 n. 4, 1257, 1260, 

Tenducci, Giustino Ferdinando, 900 

n. 3, 901, 902 

Tesi-Tramontmi, Vittoria, 704 n. 3 

Tesse, Comte de, 60 

Tesse, Comtesse de, 46 n. 4, 51, 57, 62, 
696, 1054 n. i 

Thanet, Lord, 72 n. 3, 74 n. I 

Therese, 406 n. 2, 415, 425, 434, 435, 
437, 450, 470, 492, 534, 555, 557, 
568, 614, 631, 644, 677, 795, 804, 
813, 826, 917, 921, 1008, 1009, 

IOI9, IO29, 1043, I2OO, 1288 

Thorwart, Johann von, 1173 n. I, 1174, 

1180, 1181, 1211, 1212 
Thun, Count, 1281, 1344 
Thun, Count Johann Josef Anton, 

1281, 1305 n. i, 1306, 1311 
Thun, Count Franz Josef, 666, 1066 

n. i, 1311 

Thun, Countess Elizabeth, 1305 n. I 
Thun, Countess Wilhelmine, 1066 n. i, 

1067, 1075, I0 94, HI3, 1 121, 1126, 

1161, 1175, 1176, 1182, 1183, 1186, 
1199-1202, 1214, 1239, 1305 n. i, 
1368 n. i 

Tibaldi, Giuseppe, 108 n. 3, 154, 287, 


Tinti, Baron, 1321 
Todeschi, Baron, 151 
Toeschi, Carlo Giuseppe, 543 n. 2, 592, 


TomaselU, 1285, 1288 
Tomasini, Luigi, 28, 29, 31 
Tonerl, Fraulein, 499, 512, 567, 690 
Torricella, Christoph, 1312, 1324 n. i, 

1325, 1331 n.3, 1334 
Toscani, Madame, 718, 936 
Tosi, Pier Francesco, 811 n. 4 
Tosson, Frau von, 425, 428 
Tost, Johann, 1498 n. 4 
Tozzi, Antonio, 371 n. 3, 381, 384 
Traeg, Johann, 1466 n. 7, 1478, 1479, 

1481, 1482, 1494, 1498, 1499 
Tranner, Herr von, 1253 
Trattner, Frau Therese von, 1 148 n. 2, 

1162, 1176, 1184 n - ii T 36, 1335 
n. 2, 1466 n. 3 

Trattner, Johann Thomas von, 1148 
n. 2, 1154, 1292 n. i, 1296, 1323 



Triendl, Herr, 582, 601, 1283 
Troger, Chaplain, 293, 294, 296 
Troger, Leopold, 157, 158, 160, 170, 

I75> 193, 237, 252, 264, 281, 286, 

302, 324, 328, 329 
Tschudi, Baron Fridolin, 200 
Tschudi, Burkhardt, 199 n. 4 
Tiirk, 1201 
Turton et Baur, 59, 700, 727 


Uberacker, Count Joseph, 980 n. 3 
Ulefeld, Count, 9 

Umlauf, Ignaz, 1108 n. I, 1109 n. i, 
1124, 1149, 1156, 1241, 1250, 1290 
Unger, Father, 1345 
Unger, Johann Friedrich, 1332 n. I 
Unhold, Herr von, 393, 405, 425, 432 
Urban, Madame, 936 
"Grspriinger, Franziska, 559, 847 n. i 
Ursula, Nurse, 169 
Uslenghi, Signora, 215, 221 
Uslenghi, Steffano, 185 n. 2, 190 

Valentin!, Maestro, 419 n. I, 443 

Valesi (Wallishauser), Johann Evan 
gelist, 423 n. 3, 1075 n - 4 

Valieri, 272 

Vallotti, Padre Francesco Antonio, 
273 n. 2, 513^.3, 542 

Vanhall (Wanhal), Johann Baptist, 
495 n. i, 1304 n. 5 

Varesco, Abbate Giambattista, 618 n. 2, 
800, 975, 977 n. 2, 978, 980, 984, 
987-990, 998, 1010, 1012, 1015, 
1016, 1029, 1030, 1033, J 037 n. 3, 
1038, 1042, 1044-1047, 1051-1053, 
1129, 1264, 1266, 1268, 1271, 1276, 
1284-1286, 1288-1290, 1292 

Varese, Anna Francesca, 223 

Vasquez, Padre, 195 n. 3 

Vaugg, Dr., 665, 668, 677 

Vendome, Madame, 78 

Vento, Mattia, 79 n. 6, 80 n. 2 

Vestris, Gaetan Apolline Balthasar, 
108 n. 6 

Victoire, Madame, 57, 641, 697, 1054 
n. i 

Viereck, Count von, 1005 

Vieregg, Count, 650 

Villeneuve, Monsieur, 931 

Villeroi, Marquise de, 45 

Villersi, Casimir, 806 n. i 

Villersi, MUe, 806 n. i 

Vogel, Johann Christian, 827 n. i 

Vogler, Abt Georg Joseph, 509, 513^3, 
522, 528, 533, 542, 543, 555, 556, 
584, 616, 628, 632, 654, 661-663, 
679,811,837,851,878, 1176 

Vogt, Elias, 1049 n. 4, 1171 

Vogt, Johann Sebastian, 39 

Vogt, Karl, 226 n. 5, 267 

Vogt, Peter, 970 n. 2, 1049 n. 3, 1068, 

Vogter, Herr von, 1063 

Voltaire, 99, 417 n. 2, 433 n. 2, 441 n. I, 
760, 791, 823, 826 n. i 


"Wagenseil, Georg Christoph, 68 n, i, 
114, 120, 281, 408 n. i, 1250 

Wagensperg, Count, 1423 

Wahlau, Herr von, 18, 19 

Wahler, Johann Georg, 29, 35 

Walderdorf, Baron von, 40 

Walderdorf, Job arm Philipp von, 
Elector of Trier, 41 n. i 

Waldstadten, Baroness von, 1155 n. 3, 
1176-1178, 1196, 1210-1212, 1216, 

1217, 1220, 1221, 1223-1230, 1233, 
1236, 1243, 1245-1247, 1249, 1253, 
1254, 1328 

Wall, Comtesse de, 697 

Wallau, Herr von, 403 

Wallenstein, 1202 

Wallerstein, Count von, 195 

Wallis, Countess von, 821 n. i, 833, 

Walpole, Horace, 70 n. I 

Walsegg, Count, 1450 n. 2, 1461 n. I, 
1490 n. 3, 1494 n. 3, 1495 n. 3 

Walter, 1123 n, 10 

Wasenau, Father, 372 

Weber, Aloysia, 513 n. 3, 661 n. 2, 665, 
673, 674, 678, 679, 681, 682, 684, 693, 
703-705, 7o8, 709, 7ii, 712, 716- 
719, 730, 735, 736, 750, 762-764, 
846, 854-859, 861-864, 873, 874, 
896-898, 915, 919, 926, 939, 943, 
944, 949> 959, 9^4, *o8i n. i, 1089 
n. 2, 1103, 1153, 1158 n. 3, 1167, 
1246, 1249, 1254-1257, 1271-1273, 
1287, 1327, 1328, 1330 n. 2, 1371, 
1494, 1497 

Weber, Carl Maria von, 423 n. 3, 513 
n. 3, 661 n. i 

VOL. Ill 




Weber-Mozart, Constanze 
As described by Mozart, 1168, 1173- 

"75, H77, "86, 1196-1197 
Marries Mozart, 1211-1213 
Birth of their first child, 1269-1271 
Their visit to Salzburg, 1278-1281 
Accompanies Mozart to Prague, 1343- 


Second visit to Prague, 1354-1359 
Illness and removal to Baden, 1384- 

Accompanies Mozart to Prague in 

1791, 1436 

At Mozart's deathbed, 1449-1450 
Letters to Johann Anton Andre" about 

the disposal of Mozart's musical 

MSS., 1459-1513 
Weber, Frau Maria Cacilie, 86 1, 864, 

1081 n. i, 1084 n. 2, 1090, 1103, 

1118-1120, 1125, "37> "53, "61, 

1168, 1174, 1175, "77, " 8l > "86, 

Il88, II9I, I2O8, I2IO-I2I2, 1217, 
1226, 1269, 1323, 1343, 1440, 1442, 

1447 n. 3 

Weber, Fridolin, 509, 66 1 n. I, 665, 673- 
675, 678, 679, 681, 682, 684, 694, 
703, 705, 717, 736, 755, 763, 764, 
845, 854-862, 864, 873, 896, 897, 
899, 914, 919, 926, 939, 943, 944, 
959,1081 n. i, 1103, 1173 

Weber, Josefa, 66 1 n. 3, 681, 682, 705, 
864, 1167 n. i, 1 1 68, 1220, 1323, 
1403, 1436 n. 2, 1449 n. J > 1478, 1481 

Weber, Sophie, 66 1 n. 3, 864, 1153, 

Il67 n. 2, Il68, I2IO, 1212, I22O, 

1323 n. i, 1439, 1442, 1444, 1447 
Wegscheider, 982 

Weidemann, Karl Friedrich, 68 n. 5 
Weigl, Joseph, 1075 n. 5, 1410 n. I 
Weigl, Madame, 1075 n. 5 
Weimann, Wilhelmine, 1500 n. 5 
Weinrother, 777, 1025 
Weis, Mr., 200 
Weiser, 1068 

Weiser, Herr, 30, 560, 777 
Weiss, Madame, 1156 
Wend, Johann, 1482 n. 8 
Wendling, Augusta, 531 n. 3, 532, 557, 

596, 680, 692, 730 n. i, 737 
Wendling, Dorothea, 557, 737, 979 n. 2, 

984, 985, 1013, 1035, 1249, 1404 
Wendling, Elizabeth, 549 n. 2, 694, 985, 

1019, 1219 
Wendling, Franz Anton, 509, 549 n. 2, 

627, 981, 982, 986, 990 

Wendling, Johann Baptist, 35 n. 2, 509, 
531, 543, 549 n. 2, 550, 557, 564, 
590-592, 595, 602-604, 610-613, 
617, 620, 621, 625-627, 629, 632, 
634, 636, 637, 642, 647, 656, 674, 
677, 680, 683, 684, 689, 691, 692, 
694, 697, 703, 707-710, 722, 725, 
730 n. i, 737, 745, 749, 751, 761, 
766, 767, 769, 782, 790, 804, 822, 
S35> 896, 914, 924, 981, 982, 986, 
990, 1041, 1404 
Wenzel, Herr, 254 
Wenzl, 1007 
Wetzlar, Baron, 1161 n. i, 1248, 1249, 

1265, 1266, 1270, 1428, 1430 
Wezel, Johann Karl, 1001 n. 3 
Wider, Catarina, 267 n. 3, 269, 273 
Wider, Herr, 264-271, 273, 274 
Wiedmer, Herr von, 1126-1128 
Wieland, Christoph Martin, 485 n. i, 
509, 566, 591, 642, 643, 653, 656, 
670 n. i, 899, 954 n. 4, 1223 
Wilczek, Count, 6 
Wildburg, 1417 
Wffle, 47 n. i 

Willebrandt, Johann Peter, 45 
William V, Prince of Orange, 84, 86, 87, 

94, 95 n. 2, 576, 666 
Williamson, Mr., 76 n. I 
Winckler, Lieutenant, 21 
Winter, Georg Ludwig, 384 n. I 
Winter, Peter von, U72n. i, 1173, 1175, 

Winter, Sebastian, 25 n. 3, 58, 1301, 

1303, 1304, 1337-1339, I340-I34I 
Wishofer, 480, 777 
Wodiska, 34 
Wodiska, Madame, 128 
Wolf, 800 
Wolfegg, Count Anton Willibald, 31 

n.4, 124, 380, 493 n. i, 497, 716, 

764 n. i, 777, 779, 788, 792 
Wolfenbiittel, Duke of, 87 
Wolkenstein, Count, 266, 1127, 1128 
Woschitka, Franz Xaver, 405 n. i, 410, 

412, 413, 415, 416 
Wranizky, Paul, 1475 n - r > *477i 1480, 

1482, 1483, 1499, 1505 
Wunsch, General, 874 
Wynne, Madame, 136 
Wynne, Richard, 136 n. i 
Wynne, William, 136 n. i, 137 

Xaver, Prince, of Saxony, 195 n. I 



York, Duke of, 293, 295 

Zabuesnig, Christoph von, 397, 491, 

Zanardi, Abbate, 182 

Zapara, Count, 1191 

Zappa, Francesco, 706 

Zeill, Count von, 380, 777, 779 

Zeill, Count Ferdinand Christoph von, 
137, 376 n. I, 400, 402, 412, 4I3> 
426, 433, 436, 438, 452, 462, 477, 
483, 484, 515, 545, 562, 563, 574, 
613, 627, 642, 916 

Zemen, Baron, 379, 694 

Zeschinger, 495, 504, 5H, 55$, 557, 587, 

Zetti, 1060 n. 3, 1068, 1077, 1093, i loo, 


Zezi, Barbara, 321 n. 4, 382 

Zezi, Herr, 578 

Zichy, Count Karl, 1188 n. i, 1205, 

1214, 1301, 1323, 1325 
Zichy, Count Stefan, 1188 n. I, 1205, 

1214, 1301, 1323, 1325 
Zichy, Countess Anne Marie Antonia, 

1188 n. i, 1205 n. 2, 1238 
Zichy, Countess Maria Theresa, 1188 

n. i, 1205 n. 2, 1238 
Zimmerl, Madame, 1049 
Zinzendorf, Count Karl, 6 n. I 
Zinzendorf, Countess, 6, 12 
Zistler, Joseph, 1392 n. I 
Zmeskall, Nicolaus von, 1476 n. I 
Zonca, Giovanni Battista, 578, 1037 

n. i 

Zweibriicken, Duchess of, 523 
Zweibrucken, Duke of, 379, 523, 941 
Zweibriicken, Prince of, 27, 28, 30, 

Zygmontofsky, 783 



Unfinished or fragmentary works are marked * 


Bastien und Bastienne, operetta in one act (K. 50, 1768), 105, 1460 
Lafintasemplice, opera buffa (K. 51, 1768), 105, 121, 122 n. I, 125, 129-134, 

136-139, 149 n. i, 265 n. 3, 267 n. I 
Mitridate, Re di Ponto, opera seria (K. 87, 1770), 122 n. 4, 143, 174 n. I, 176, 

193 n. 3, 216, 222, 223, 233, 237, 239, 244, 245, 247, 249, 250, 252, 254- 

265, 270, 271, 1113 n. 6 
Ascanio in Alba, serenata teatrale (K. in, 1771), 168 n. I, 277, 282 n. 2, 284- 

289, 291-299, 300 n. 2, 301, 305, 306, 1028 

// sogno di Scipione, serenata drammatica (K. 126, 1772), 305 n. 2 
L-ucio Silla, dramma per musica (K. 135, 1772), 38 n. 3, 306, 309, 315, 318-327, 

3 2 9> 33 1 , 33 2 , 66 1 n. 5, 682 n. i, 693 n. 2, 712, 719, 731, 1257 n. 6 
La finta giardiniera, opera buffa (K. 196, 1774-1775), 359, 361 n. 3, 362, 

368, 370, 371, 373-379, 383-385, 484 n.3, 531, 938, 972 n. i, 1009 n. i, 

1061 n. i, 1288 n. 3, 1374 n. 3, 1402 n. 4, 1465 n. 2, 1510 n. 2 
II Re pastore, dramma per musica (K. 208, 1775), 79 n. 4, 367 n. 2, 400 n. 2, 

447 n. 3, 693, 712, 762 
*Zaide, operetta (K. 344, 1779-1780), 70 n. 2, 972 n. i, 1016 n. i, 1052, 1078, 

1463 n. 8, 1465, 1492, 1501 
* Thames t Konig in Agypten, heroic drama, choruses and incidental music 

(K. 345, I773-I779), 357 n. I, 972 n. i, 1252 n. i 
Idomeneo, Re di Creta, opera seria (K. 366, 1780-1781), 70 n. 2, 486 n. i, 

618 n. 2, 975, 977 n. 2, 978-981, 983-991, 993, 994, 998-1001, 1003-1006, 

IOIO-IOI2, IOI5-IOI8, IO2O, IO23-IO52, IO66, 1069, 1094, 1095, III3, 1129, 

1140, 1165, 1170, 1183, 1185, 1187, 1199, 1257, 1258, 1264, 1282, 1285, 

1290, 1464, 1465 n. 6 

Die Entftihrung aus dem Serail, comic opera (K. 384, 1781-1782), 550 n. 2, 
1016 n. I, 1078 n. 2, 1092, 1094, 1123-1126, 1129, 1133, 1135, 1140, 1143- 
1148, 1150, 1186, 1199, 1203-1207, 1209, 1212, 1219, 1226, 1230-1233, 
1235, 1241, 1242, 1247, 1250, 1252 n. 5, 1257, 1259, 1283, 1285, 1287, 
I3I7-I3I9, 1324 n. i, 1325, 1334, 1350 n. 2, 1402 n. 4, 1474 n. I, 1480 n. 2 
* > oca del Cairo, opera buffa (K. 422, 1783), 618 n. 2, 1271 n. 3, 1274, 1284, 

1285, 1287-1290, 1292 

*Lo sposo deluso, opera buffa (K. 430, 1783), 1263 n. 2, 1275 n - *, I 49 n - *, 

Der Schauspieldirektor, one-act comedy with music (K. 486, 1786), 1054 n. 3, 
1078 n. 2, 1481 

Le Nozze di Figaro, opera buffa (K. 492, 1785-1786), 1263 n. i, 1272 n. I, 
1321 n.4, 1331, 1332, 1336, 1343, 1344, 1347, 1354, 1355, 1373, 1374 n. 5, 
1388-1390, 1404 n. i, 1408, 1409, 1464, 1474 n. i, 1480 n. 2 

Don Giovanni, dramma giocoso (K. 527, 1787), 1118 n. I, 1263 n. 2, 1354- 
1359, 1366, 1373, 1404, 1464, 1465 n. 4, 1478 n. r, 1480 n. 2, 1499, 1502 

Coslfan tutte, opera buffa (K. 588, 1789-1790), 1263 n. 2, 1374 n. 5, 1391, 
1392, 1399, 1464, 1474 n. i 



Die Zauberflote, German opera (K. 620, 1791), 315 n. i, 1167 n. I, 1182 n. I, 
1390 n. 2, 1418 n. 3, 1426-1428, 1433, 1436 n. 2, 1437, 1439-1442, 1450 
n. I, 1464, 1474 n. i, 1478 n. 7 

La Clemenza di Tito, opera seria (K. 621, 1791), 1417 n. i, 1436 n. i, 1437, 
1450 n. i 


La Betulia liberata, azione sacra (K. 118, 1771), 143, 273 n. i, 1313 n. 5 
Cantata, "Dir, Seele des Weltalls" (K. 429, ?i783), 1464 n. 2, 1467, 1481 n. 4 
Davidde penitente, cantata (K. 469, 1785), 1244 n. I, 1322 n, 2, 1462 n. 2, 


Missa brevis in G (K. 49, 1768), 141 n. i 

Missa brevis in D minor (K. 65, 1769), 140 n. 2, 141 n. I 

Missa (Pater Dominicus mass) in C (K. 66, 1769), 76 n. 4, 141 n. i, 344 n. 3, 

635 n. I, 810 n. 2 

Missa brevis in F (K. 192, 1774), 381 n. i, 493 n. 2, 556 
Missa brevis in D (K. 194, 1774), 381 n. I 
Missa brevis in C (K. 220, 1775), 493 n. 2, 556 
Missa (Credo mass) in C (K. 257, 1776), 386 n. i 
Missa brevis in C (K. 258, 1776), 386 n. i, 799 n. 6 
Missa brevis in C (K. 259, 1776), 386 n. i, 799 n. 5 
Missa longa in C (K. 262, 1776), 386 n. i 
Missa brevis in Bb (K. 275, 1777), 636 n. 3, 983 n. 5, 989, 1113 n. 4, 1115, 

I255> J 435> 1436 
Mass (Coronation mass) in C (K. 317, 1779), 983 n. 4^ 1113 n. 4, 1115, 1190 

n. 2, 1255, 1399 n. 5, 1413 n. 3 

Missa solemnis in C (K. 337, 1780), 983 n. 4, 1113 n. 4, 1115, 1190 n. 2, 1285 
*Mass in C minor (K. 427, 1782-1783), 1244 n. i, 1462 n. 2, 1480 n. i 


Offertory, "Veni Sancte Spiritus" (K. 47, 1768), 138 n.4, 139 

Sonata for organ and strings in Eb (K. 67, 1767), 14 n - 2 

Sonata for organ and strings in Bb (K. 68, 1767), 140 n. 2 

Sonata for organ and strings in D (K. 69, 1767), 140 n. 2 

Antiphon, " Quaerite primum regnum Dei" (K. 86, 1770), 244 n, i 

Offertory, "Benedictus sit Deus" (K. 117, 1769), 226 n. 3 

Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento (K. 125, I77 2 )> 3 6 3 n - J > 3 6 7> & 21 ** 2 * 

1498 n. 2 

Regina Coeli (K, 127, W 2 ), 77$ n. 2 
Offertorium de tempore, "Misericordias Domini" (K. 222, I775)> 3 8 5 n - 2 55 6 

592 n. 2, 617 n. i, 639, 689 
Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento (K. 243, 1776), 3 86 n - *' 557, 77 

n. i, 821 n. 2, 1498 n. 2 

Vesperae de Dominica (K. 321, 1779), 1255 a- 3> I S 12 n * I 
Kyrie in Eb (K. 322, 1778), 711 n. 2, 739, 799 n- 4, *473 * 2 
Kyrie in C (K, 323, ?I779)> *473 n- 2 

Vesperae solemnes de confessore (K. 339, 1780), I 2 55 n * 3> J 5 12 n - J 
Motet, "Ave, verum corpus" (K. 618, 1791), 1413 n. 2, 1477 & 5 
"Requiem (K. 626, 1791). 1417 n. I, 145 n. I, 1462 n. I, 1463 n. 7, 

1490, 1494-1497, i499> I 5 I > i53-i55> 15*3 

VOL. in IS4I 2l2 



Recitative and aria, "Misero me*', "Misero pargoletto" (K. 77, 1770), 173 n. 3, 

193, 226 n. 2 

Aria, "Per pieta, bell' idol mio" (K. 78, 1770), 173 n. 3, 193, 226 n. 2 
Recitative and aria, "O temerario Arbace", "Per quel paterno amplesso" 

(K. 79, 1770), 173 n. 3, 193, 226 n. 2 

Aria, "Se ardire, e speranza" (K. 82, 1770), 193 n. 4, 194 n. 2, 226 n. 2 
Aria, "Fra cento affanni" (K. 88, 1770), 173 n. 3, 193, 226 n. 2 
Recitative and aria, "Ergo interest, an quis", "Quaere superna" (K. 143, 

1770), 164 n. i, 226 n. 2 

Motet, "Exsultate, jubilate" (K. 165, 1773), 330 n. 2 
Recitative and aria, "Ah, lo previdi", "Ah, t'invola agl' occhi miei" (K. 272, 

1777), 408 n. 2, 410, 693, 862 n. 3, 1021 n. 2, 1028, 1138 
Recitative and aria, "Alcandro, lo confesso", "Non so d'onde viene" (K. 294, 

1778), 736 n. 2, 750, 762, 86r n. 2, 863, 944 n. 2, 949, 1254, 1259, 1262, 

1265 n. 2, 1268 
Recitative and aria, "Popoli di Tessaglia", "lo non chiedo, eterni dei" (K. 316, 

1778-1779), 862 n. 2 
Scena and aria, "Misera, dove son!" "Ah! non son'io die parlo" (K. 369, 1781), 

1068 n. 3, 1138, 1190, 1199, 1257 
Recitative and aria, "A questo seno deh vieni", "Or che il ciel" (K. 374, 1781), 

1073 n. i, 1075, 1104, 1138, 1259, 1265 
Scena and rondo, "Mia speranza adorata", "Ah, non sai, qual pena" (K. 416, 

1783), 1246 n. 3, 1247, 1249, 1257, 1494 n. 2, 1497, 1500 
Recitative and aria, "Vorrei spiegarvi, oh Dio!" "Ah conte, partite" (K. 418, 

1783), 1271 n. i, 1272, 1273 

Aria, "No, no, che non sei capace" (K. 419, 1783), 1271 n. I, 1272, 1273 
Recitative and aria, "Basta, vincesti", "Ah, non lasciarmi, no" (K. 486*, 

1778), 737 n. i 
Scena and rondo, "Non piii, tutto ascoltai", "Non temer, amato bene" 

(K. 490, 1786), 1465 n. 6 

Scena, "Bella mia fiamma", "Resta, o cara" (K. 528, 1787), 1477 n. 8 
Aria, "Un moto di gioia mi sento" (K. 579, 1789), 1389 n. 2 
Aria, "Schon lacht der holde Friihling" (K. 580, 1789), 1463 n. 5, 1478 n. 7, 

1481 n. 5 


Recitative and aria, "Ombra felice", "lo ti lascio" (K. 255, 1776), 1259 n. 3 


Aria, "Va, dal furor portata" (K. 21, 1765), 79 n. 5 

Recitative and aria, "Se al labbro mio non credi", "II cor dolente" (K. 295, 

1778), 735 n -2, 736, 1199 

Aria, "Per pieta, non ricercate" (K. 420, 1783), 1271 n. 2, 1273, 1274 
Recitative and aria, "Misero! o sogno!", "Aura, che intorno" (K. 431, 1783), 

1290 n. 2 
Aria, "Miisst* ich auch durch tausend Drachen" (K. 435, 1783), 1251 n. I, 

1463 n. 4 
Aria, "Dentro il mio petto io sento" in "La finta giardiniera", Act I (K. App. 

27, 1774-1775). I 09 n. i, 1510 n. 2 


Aria, "Manner suchen stets zu naschen" (K. 433, 1783), 1251 n. I 



Recitative and aria, "Alcandro, lo confesso", "Non so d'onde viene" (K $12 
1787), 736 n. 2 v O * 

Aria, "Per questa bella mano" (K. 612, 1791), 1466 n. 8, 1479 n. 2 

"Freude, Konigin der Weisen" (K. 53, 1767), 800 n. i 
Arietta, "Oiseaux, si tons les ans" (K. 307, 1777), 692 n. i, 713, 714, 721 
Arietta, "Dans un bois solitaire" (K. 308, 1778), 737 n. 2 
"Die Engel Gottes weinen" (K. 519, 1787), 1484 n. 10 
"Wo bist du, Bild" (K. 530, 1787), 1358 n. 2 

Short cantata, "Die ihr des unermesslichen Weltalls" (K. 619, 1791), 1479 n. 3 
"Denis's ode on Gibraltar. Recitative, "O Calpe!" (K. App. 25, 1782), 1242 n. 2 


Canon for four voices, "Lieber Freistadtler, Ueber Gaulimauli" (K. 232, 1787), 

1346 n. 4 
Nineteen coloratura cadenzas for three operatic arias by J, C. Bach (K. 2936, 

?i778), 711 n-3, 731 n. 2 

Nocturne for three voices, "Luci care, luci belle" (K. 346, 1783), 1479 n. 4 
Canon for three choirs, "V'amo di core" (K. 348, 1782), 1484 n. 9, 1488 
*Trio for a tenor and two bass voices, "Del gran regno delle amazoni" (K. 434, 

1783), 1463 n. 2 
Nocturne for two sopranos and a bass voice, "Ecco quel fiero istante" (K. 436, 

1783), H79 n. 4 
Nocturne for two sopranos and a bass voice, "Mi lagnero tacendo" (K. 437, 

1783), H79 n. 4 
Nocturne for three voices, "Se lontan, ben mio, tu sei" (K. 438, 1783), 1479 

n. 4 
Nocturne for two sopranos and a bass voice, "Due pupille amabili" (K. 439, 

1783), H79 n- 4 
Trio for soprano, tenor and bass voices, "Liebes Mandl, wo is's Bandl?" 

(K.44I, 1783), 1345^.2 
Song for the opening of a masonic lodge, "Zerfliesset heut', geliebte Bruder" 

(K. 483, 1785), 1484 n. 8 
Chorus for the closing of a masonic lodge, "Ihr unsre neuen Leiter" (K. 484, 

1785), 1484 n. 8 

Canzonetta for three voices, "Piu non si trovano" (K. 549, 1788), 1466 n. I 
Canon for four voices, "Alleluja" (K. 553, 1788), 1478 n. 3 
Canon for four voices, "Ave Maria" (K. 554, 1788), 1478 n. 3 
Canon for four voices, "Lacrimoso son io" (K. 555, 1788), 1478 n. 3 
Canon for four voices, "Grechtelt's enk" (K. 556, 1788), 1478 n. 3 
Canon for four voices, "Nascoso e il mio sol" (K. 557, 1788), 1478 n. 3 
Canon for four voices, "Gehn ma in 'n Prada" (K. 558, 1788), 1478 n. 3 
Canon for three voices, "Difficile lectu mihi Mars" (K. 559, ?i78s), 1478 n. 3, 

1512 n. 4 
Canon for four voices, "O du eselhafter Martin" (K. 560, ?i78s), 1478 n. 3, 

1512 n. 4 

Canon for four voices, "Bona nox, bist a rechta Ox" (K. 561, 1788), 1478 n. 3 
Canon for three voices, "Caro, bell' idol mio" (K. 562, 1788), 1478 XL 3 _ 
Jocular quartet for four voices with pianoforte accompaniment, "Caro mio 

Druck und Schluck" (K. App. 5, 1789), 1484 n - 4 


Symphony in Eb (K. 16, 1764-1765), 73 n. 2, 108 n. 8, 114 



"Symphony in C (K. i6 a , 1765), 108 n. 8, 114 
"Symphony in C (K, 16*, 1765), 108 n. 8, 114 

Symphony in D (K. 19, 1765), 73 n. 2, 108 n. 8, 114 
"Symphony in F (K. 19% 1765), 108 n. 8, 114 
"Symphony in C (K. I9 b , 1765), 108 n. 8, 114 

Symphony in Bb (K. 22, 1765), 94 n. i, 108 n. 8, 114 

Symphony in F (K. 76, ?I767), 108 n. 8, 114 

Symphony in D (K. 81, 1770), 194 n. i, 226 n. I 

Symphony in D (K. 84, 1770), 226 n. I 

Symphony in D (K. 95, 1770), 194 n. i, 194 n. 3, 226 n. I 

Symphony in D (K. 97, 1770), 194 n. i, 194 n. 3, 226 n. I 

Symphony in Bb (K. 182, 1773), 1245, 1247-1249 
.Symphony in G minor (K. 183, 1773), 1245, 1247-1249 
^Symphony in A (K. 201, 1774), 1244, 1247-1249 

Symphony, the "Paris", in D (K. 297, 1778), 817, 823, 825, 826, 836, 837 n. i, 
841, 851, 909 n. i, 924 n. 5, 1254 

Symphony in Bb (K. App. 8, 1778), 909 n. i, 924 n. 5 

Symphony in Bb (K. 319, 1779), 1331 n, 3, 1338, 1340 n. I 

Symphony in C (K. 338, 1780), 1070 n. I, 1076 n. 2, 1201 n. i, 1338, 1340 n. j 
"-Symphony, the "Haffner", in D (K. 385, 1782), 398 n. 2, 1205 n. 2, 1207, 1209, 
1212 n. 2, 1219, 1240, 1244, 1247-1250, 1252, 1256, 1257, 1331 n. 3, 1338 

Symphony, the "Linz", in C (K. 425, 1783), 1281 n. 2, 1294 n. 2, 1306, 1317, 

*33&> 1340 n - I 

Symphony, the "Prague", in D (K. 504, 1786), 1477 n. 5, 1478 n. 2 
*> Symphony in Eb (K. 543, 1788), 1478 n. 2 


Galimathias musicum (K. 32, 1766), 95 n. I 

Divertimento in G (K. 63, 1769), 226 n. 6 

Cassation in Bb (K. 99, 1769), 226 n. 6 

Minuet in Eb (K. 122, 1770), 241 n. 2 

Contredanse in Bb (K. 123, 1770), 188 n. I, 193 n. I 

Serenade in D (K. 185, 1773), 342 n. 5, 344, 399 

Serenade in D (K. 204, 1775), 1244, 1247-1249 

Divertimento in F (K. 247, 1776), 422 n. 2, 616 n. 4, 878, 1115 n. 2, 1154, 


"Haffner" March in D (K. 249, 1776), 1146 n. 3, 1158 n. I, 1205 n. 2, 1207 
"Hafmer" Serenade in D (K. 250, 1776), 398 n. 2, 409 n. 5, 422 n. 3, 616 n. 2, 

878 n. 2, 1146 n. 3, 1158 n. i, 1205 n. 2 
. Divertimento in Bb (K. 287, 1777), 422 n. 2, 438 n. 4, 484, 616 n. 4, 779, 

806 n. 3, 878, 1115 n. 2, 1154, 1199 
Serenade in D (K. 320, 1779), 1257 n. 4 
Divertimento in D (K. 334, 1779), 1115 n. 2, 1199 n. 7, 1202 
March in D for the "Haffner" symphony, K. 385 (K. 408, no. 2, 1782), 1207. 

1212, 1220 

March in D (K. 445, 1779), 1199 n. 7, 1202 
Six German dances (K. 509, 1787), 444 n. i 
Ballet music for the pantomime "Les petits riens" (K. App. 10, 1778), 108 n, 6, 

797 n. 2, 835 n. i 
"Ballet music for "Lucio Silla" (K. App. 109, 1772), 324 n. i 


Piano concerto in D (K. 175, 1773), 366 n. 2, 712 n. 3, 1189 n. 3, 1227 n. 2, 
1248, 1252 n. 2, 1254 n. 2, 1257, 1260 



Piano concerto in Bb (K. 238, 1776), 438 n. 2, 498 n. 4, 672 n. 6, 711, 9*3 n - 4 
Piano concerto in C (K. 246, 1776), 438 n. 2, 661, 662, 672 n. 6, 721, 806, 

913 n. 4, 1193, 1466 n. 4 
Piano concerto in Eb (K. 271, 1777), 438 n. 2, 672 n. 6, 769 n. 5, 913 n. 4, 

1252 n. 2 
Piano concerto in F (K. 413, 1782-1783), 1242 n. I, 1246-1249, 1253, 1261, 

1296, 1301 n. 2, 1304, 1331 n. 3 
Piano concerto in A (K. 414, 1782), 1242 n. i, 1246-1249, 1253, 1261, 1296, 

1301 n. 2, 1304, 1331 n. 3 
Piano concerto in C (K. 415, 1782-1783), 1242 n. I, 1246-1249, 1253, 1257, 

1260, 1261, 1296, 1301 n. 2, 1304, 1331 n. 3, 1466 n. 4, 1503 n. 5 
Piano concerto in Eb (K. 449, 1784), 1292 n. 3, 1294 n. 3, 1300 n. 3, 1306- 

1308, 1311, 1466 n. 2 
Piano concerto in Bb (K. 450, 1784), 1292 n. 3, 1302 n. I, 1306-1308, 1311, 

1313, 1462 n. 3, 1503 n. 5 
Piano concerto in D (K. 451, ^84), I2 92 n. 3, 1302 n. i, 1306-1308, 1311, 

1313* I 339> J 34Q n - l s Q 

Piano concerto in G (K. 453, 1784), 1292 n. 3, 1294 n. 4, 1303 n. I, 1306-1308, 

n- * 


Piano concerto in Bb (K. 456, 1784), 1292 n. 3, 1321 n. 5, 1339 
Piano concerto in F (K. 459, 1784). I2 9 2 n - 3, 1339, *34O n. I, 1407 n. i, 
j 1503 n. 5 
\/ Piano concerto in D minor (K. 466, 1785), J 3 2 o n. 3, 1322, 1333 n. 3, *334- 

1336, 1477 n. I 
Piano concerto in C (K. 467, 1785), '333 * 3, 1334, 1460 n. 3, 1466 n. 4, 

1506 n. 4, 1507 n. 2 

Piano concerto in Eb (K. 482, 1785), 1335 n. i, 1475 n. 2, 1506 n. 4, W 
Piano concerto in A (K. 488, 1786), 1339, *34O n. I, 1466 n. 4, 1475 n * 2 > 

ico6 n. 4, 1507 n. 2 

Piano concerto in C minor (K. 49*> 1786), 1475 * 2 J 5o6 n. 4, W n. 2 
Piano concerto in C (K. 503, 1786), 1466 n. 4, 1468 n. 3, 1506 n. 4, W n. 2 
Piano concerto in D (K. 537, 1788), 1373 n. 4, I4<>7 * * 
Piano concerto in Bb (K. 595, 1790, 1506 n. 4, 1507 n. 2 
Concerto for two pianos in Eb (K. 365, 1779), '"3*. 3, "39, "47, "So, "61, 

Concerto fortee pfe^s ia F (K. 242, 1776), 49O n. 2, 498 n. i, 762, 1113 n. 3, 
1139, 1147, 1150, 1155 n. i, 1156, 1165, 1510 n. 3 

Rondo in D (K. 382, 1782), 1189 n. 3, "9o, "92, I22 * 2 > I2 4 

1257, 1260 
Rondo in A (K. 386, 1782), 1481 n. 3 

Violin concerto in Bb (K. 207, 1775), 49 n. 4 
Violin concerto in D (K. 211, 1775), 4O9 n - 4 
Violin concerto in G (K. 216, 1775), 49 n - 4 

Violin concerto in D (K. 218, 1775), 4O9 * 4, 433 n. I, 434, 495 * 3 
Violin concerto in A (K. 219, 1775), 4O9 n. 4, 44O n. 2 
Violin concerto in Eb (K. 268, 1780-1781), 1469 n. i, H7O 

Concertone for two violins and orchestra in C (K. 190, 1773), ^ n. 3, 
Adagio in E (K. 261, 1776), 399 n. 2, 440 n. 2, 1505 n. 3, 1507 n. 2 



Rondo concertante in Bb (K. 269, 1776), 399 n. 2, 1505 n. 3, 1507 n. 2 
Rondo in C (K. 373, 1781), 1072 n. 2, 1075, 1104, 1489 n. 3, 1506 n. 7, 1507 



Clarinet concerto in A (K. 622, 1791), 409 n. 2, 1395 n. 2, 1437 n. 2, 1478 n. 8 
Flute concerto in G (K. 313, 1778), 674 n. 2, 710, 725, 924 
Flute concerto in D (K. 314, 1778), 466 n. i, 520 n. 5, 674 n. 2, 710, 712 n. i, 

725, 1252, 1255 

Concerto for flute and harp in C (K. 299, 1778), 766 n. 2, 851, 870 
Rondo (last movement of a concerto) for horn and orchestra in Eb (K. 371, 

1781), 1482 n. 4 

Horn concerto in D (K. 412, 1782), 1068 n. 4, 1482 n. 3 
*Horn concerto in Eb (K. 417, 1783), 1068 n. 4, 1482 n. i 
Horn concerto in Eb (K. 447, 1783), 1068 n. 4, 1506 n. 3, 1507 n. 2 
Horn concerto in Eb (K. 495, 1786), 1068 n. 4, 1477 n. 3, 1499 n. 2 
*Horn concerto in A (K, App. 98% ?), 1482 n. 6 
*Horn concerto in Eb (K. App. 98*, ?), 1482 n. 6 
*Oboe concerto in F (K. 293, ?I783), 1252 n. 4, 1463 n. I 
Sinfonia concertante for oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon in Eb (K. App 9 
1778), 769n.6,78i, 786, 808, 836, 837, 851, 924 ' ' 

* Concerto for piano and violin in D (K. App. 56, 1778), 938 n. i 


String quartet in G (K. 80, 1770-1774), 143, 175 n. 4, 761 n. 2 

String quartet in D (K. 155, 1772), 311 n. 3 

String quartet in C (K. 157, I772~i773)> 3" n - 3> 334 n. 2 

String quartet in F (K. 158, 1772-1773), 334 n. 2 

String quartet in F (K. 168, 1773), 1505 n. 4, 1507 n. 2 

String quartet in A (K. 169, 1773), 1505 n. 4, 1507 n. 2 

String quartet in C (K. 170, 1773), 1505 n. 4, 1507 n. 2 

String quartet in Eb (K. 171, 1773), 1506 n. I, 1507 n. 2 

String quartet in Bb (K. 172, 1773), 357 n. i, 1506 n. i, 1507 n. 2 

String quartet in D minor (K. 173, 1773), 1506 n. i, 1507 n. 2 

String quartet in G, dedicated to J. Haydn (K. 387, 1782), 1261 n. 3, 1262, 1303 

n. 3, 1320 n. i, 1321, 1329, 1330 n. i, 1331, 1333, 1457 n . i 
Stnng quartet in D minor, dedicated to J. Haydn (K. 421, 1783), 1261 n. 3, 

1262, 1303 n. 3, 1320 n. i, 1321, 1329, 1330 n. I, 1331, 1333, 1457 n . i 
Stnng quartet in Eb, dedicated to J. Haydn (K. 428, 1783), 1261 n 3, 1262, 

1303 n. 3, 1320 n. i, 1321, 1329, 1330 n. i, 1331, 1333, 1457 n . i 
String quartet in Bb, dedicated to J. Haydn (K. 458, 1784), 1261 n. 3, 1262, 

1320 n. i, 1321 n. 3, 1329, 1330 n. i, 1331, 1333, 1457 n . i 
Stnng quartet in A, dedicated to J. Haydn (K. 464, 1784), 1261 n. 3, 1262, ' 

1320 n. i, 1321 n. 3, 1329, 1330 n. i, 1331, 1333, 1457 n . i 
Stnng quartet in C, dedicated to J. Haydn (K. 465, 1785), 1261 n. 3, 1262, 

1320 n. i, 1321 n. 3, 1329, 1330 n. I, 1331, 1333, 1457 n . i 
String quartet in D (K. 499, 1786), 1457 n. i 
String quartet in D (K. 575, 1789), 1384 n. 2, 1399, 1457 n . i 
String quartet in Bb (K. 589, 1790), 1384 n. 2, 1396 n. 3, 1398, 1399, 1457 n. I 
Stnng quartet in F (K. 590, 1790), 1384 n. 2, 1396 n. 3, 1398, 1399, 1457 n. i 


String quintet in Bb (K. 174, 1773), 761 n. 3 

String quintet in G minor (K. 516, 1787), 1464 n. 3, 1477 n. 7 



*String quintet in A minor (K. App. 79, 1787), 1500 n. 2 
String quintet in D (K. 593, 1790), 1498 n. 4 
String quintet in Eb (K. 614, 1791), 1498 n. 4 


* Cassation in D (K. 62, 1769), 226 n. 2 
Divertimento for piano, violin and violoncello in Bb (K. 254, 1776), 438 n. 3, 

669 n. 3, 806 n. 3 
Quartet for flute and strings in D (K. 285, 1777), 632 n. i, 674 n. I, 710, 725, 

851 n. 8, 924 n. 2 

"Quartet for flute and strings in G (K. 285*, 1778), 674 n. I, 710, 725, 924 n. 2 
Quartet for flute and strings in A (K. 298, 1778), 851 n. 8 
Quartet for oboe and strings in F (K. 370, 1781), 1068 n. 2, 1506 n. 2, 

1507 n. 2 
Quintet for horn and strings in Eb (K. 407, 1782), 1482 n. 7, 1498 n. 3, 

1500 n. 4 

Duo for violin and viola in G (K. 42$, 1783)1 I2 5 n - * I2 9 
Duo for violin and viola in Bb (K. 424, 1783), 1285 n. i, 1290 
*Trio for piano, violin and violoncello in D minor-major (K. 442, 1783), 

1473 n. 2 

"Three-part fugue for strings in G (K, 443, 1782), 1473 n. 2 
*Music for a pantomime, for strings (K. 446, 1783), 1255 n. 7 
Quintet for piano and wind-instruments in Eb (K. 452, 1784), 1302 n. 2, 

1312, 1476 n. I 

Quartet for piano and strings in G minor (K. 478, 1785), 1332 n. 2, 1333, 1339 
Quartet for piano and strings in Eb (K. 493, 1786), 1366 n. 2 
Trio for piano, violin and violoncello in G (K. 496, 1786), 1339 
Trio for piano, violin and violoncello in E (K. 542, 1788), 1363 n. 3, 1366 n. 2 
Divertimento for violin, viola and violoncello in Eb (K. 563, 1788), 1373 n. 3, 

1395 n. 3, 1478 n. 4 
Quintet for clarinet and strings in A (K. 581, 1789), 409 n. 2, 1395 n. 2, 

Adagio and Rondo for harmonica, flute, oboe, viola and violoncello in C 

minor-major (K. 617, 179*), X 4i8 n. I 

"Quartet for flute and strings in C (K. App. 171, 1778), 674 n. i, 710, 725, 
924 n. 2 


Piano sonata in C (K. 279, 1774), 3^6 n. I, 480 n. 2, 495 *. 4, 52O, 554 n. I, 

662, 679 n. i, 913 n. 5 
Piano sonata in F (K. 280, 1774), 3^6 n. i, 480 n. 2, 495 n. 4, 52o, 554 n. I, 

Piano sonL 9 a 3 in I Bb 9 ( I K n 28 5 i, 1774), 3&> n. 1, 480 n. 2, 495 n- 4, 52O, 662, 679 n. I 
Pianolonata in Eb (K. 282, 1774), 3^6 n. I, 480 n. 2, 495 n. 4, 520, 662, 679 
Piano 'sonli^G (K. 283, 1774), 366 n. I, 476 n. i, 480 n. 3, 495 *- 4, 5*>, 

PianfsonlLVb^i^sl 1775), 418 n. 4, 467 n. i, 480 n. 4, 495 *- 4, 49* *- 1* 
520, 541, 588 n. i, 662, 679 n. i, 913 5, 1312 n. 7, 13*5*. x 

Piano sonata in C (K. 309, W7), 5*> n. *> |3O,533, 543, 548, 549, 5*5, 586, 
591, 593, 602, 609, 610, 615, 638, 660, 665, 669, 689 n. 2, 703 

Piano sonata in A minor (K. 310, 1778), 1301 n. 3 

Piano sonata in D (K. 311, 1777), 526 n. i, 595, 1301 * 3 



Piano sonata in C (K. 330, 1778), 851 n. 5, 875 n. i, 924 n. 4, 1301 n. 3, 

1312 n. 6 
Piano sonata in A (K. 331, 1778), 851 n. 5, 875 n. i, 924 n. 4, 1301 n. 3, 

1312 n. 6 
Piano sonata in F (K. 332, 1778), 851 n. 5, 875 n. I, 924 n. 4, 1301 n. 3, 

1312 n. 6 

Piano sonata in Bb (K. 333, 1778), 924 n. 4, 1301 n. 3, 1312 n. 7, 1325 n. i 
Sonata for two pianos in D (K. 448, 1781), 1069 n. 2, 1161, 1165, 1169, 1179, 

1294, 1312 
Piano sonata in C minor (K. 457, 1784), 1148 n. 2, 1331 n. 3, 1335 n. 2, 

1466 n. 3 

Piano sonata in C (K. 545, 1788), 1365 n. i, 1489 n. 4, 1506 n. 8 
Piano sonata in D (K. 576, 1789), 1384 n. i, 1399 n. 4 


* Piano sonata for four hands in G (K. 357, 1786), 1463 n. 6, 1466 n. 6, 

1481 n. 2 
Piano sonata for four hands in Bb (K. 358, 1774), 608 n. 2, 668 n. i, 673, 

689, 694, 1113 n. 2, 1 122 
Piano sonata for four hands in D (K. 381, ?I772), 608 n. 2, 668 n. i, 673, 

689, 694 
Piano sonata for four hands in C (K. 521, 1787), 1352 n. 2 


Eight variations on a Dutch song (K, 24, 1766), 94 n. 4 

Seven variations on "Willem van Nassau" (K. 25, 1766), 95 n. i 

Twelve variations on a minuet by J. C. Fischer (K. 179, 1774), 366 n. i, 372 n. 5, 

495 n. 5, 584, 590, 617, 622, 668 n. 2, 673, 689, 694, 761, 785, 1130 n. I, 

1350 n. 3 
Six variations on "Mio caro Adone" (K. 180, 1773), 366 n. i, 951 n. i, 1130 

n. i 
Eight variations on the march in Gretry's "Les mariages samnites" (K. 352, 

1781), 1104 n. 2, mi n. i, 1117 n. 4, 1169, 1170, 1187, 1189, 1199, 1258 
Twelve variations on "J e sui s Lindor" (K. 354, 1778), 1067 n. 3, 1130 n. i 
Six variations on "Salve tu, Domine" (K. 398, 1783), 1257 n. 7 
Ten variations on "Unser dummer Pobel meint" (K. 455, 1784), 1257 n. 7 
Eight variations on "Come un' agnello" (K. 460, 1784), 1312 n. 5 
Twelve variations on a theme in Bb (K. 500, 1786), 1477 n. 4 
Andante and five variations for piano duet (K. 501, 1786), 1481 n. 2 
*Six variations on a theme in F, embodied later in the piano and violin 

sonata K. 547 (K. App. I38 a , 1788), 1488 n. i 


Andantino in Eb (K. 236, 1790), 1503 n. i 

Eight minuets with trios (K. 3i5 a , 1779-1780), 1013 n. 2 

Fantasia and Fugue in C (K. 394, 1782), 1193 n - 3> H94> *5oo n. 3 

Capriccio in C (K. 395, 1778), 850 n. 2, 874 n. i, 891, 1511 n. I 
*Suite in C (K. 399, 1782), 1484 n. 7 
"Allegro in Bb (K. 400, 1781), 1473 n. 2 
*Fugue in G minor (K. 401, 1782), 1473 n. 2, 1484 n. 5, 1503 n. 3 

Fantasia in C minor (K. 475, 1785), 1148 n. 2, 1331 n. 3, 1335 n. 2, 1466 n. 3 

Rondo in F (K. 494, 1786), 1477 n. 2 

Allegro and Andante in F and Bb (K. 533, 1788), 1477 n. 2 



Adagio in B minor (K. 540, 1788), 1365 n. i 

Little Gigue in G minor (K. 574, 1789), 1470 n. 2 
*Fugue in Eb (K. App. 39, 1782), 1194 n. I 
*Fugue in D minor (K. App. 40, 1782), 1194 n - l 

Cadenzas for pianoforte concertos (K. 624, 1768-1791), 1282 n. 2, 1312, 
1482 n. 2 


Piano and violin sonata in C (K. 6, 1762-1764), 53 n. 5, 54 n. 3, 57, 77, 78, 

80, 114, 641, 774, 1054 n. i, 1510 n. 4 
Piano and violin sonata in D (K. 7, 1763-1764), 54 n. 3, 54 n. 5, 57, 77, 78, 80, 

114, 641, 774, 1054 n. i, 1510 n. 4 
Piano and violin sonata in Bb (K. 8, 1763-1764), 53 n. 5, 54 n. 3, 57, 62, 77, 

78, 80, 114,696, 774, 1054 n. i 
Piano and violin sonata in G (K. 9, 1764), 54 n. 3, 57, 62, 77, 78 n. i, 80, 

114, 696, 774, 1054 n. i 
Piano and violin (or flute) sonata in Bb (K. 10, I764), 1 76 n. 3, 82, 114, 641, 

774, 1054 n. i 
Piano and violin (or flute) sonata in G (K. n, 1764), 76 n. 3, 82, 114, 641, 

774, 1054 n. i 
Piano and violin (or flute) sonata in A (K. 12, 1764), 76 n. 3, 82, 114, 641, 774, 

1054 n. i 
Piano and violin (or flute) sonata in F (K. 13, 1764), 76 n. 3, 82, 114, 641, 774, 

1054 n. i 
Piano and violin (or flute) sonata in C (K. 14, 1764), 76 n. 3, 82, 114, 641, 

774, 1054 n. i 
Piano and violin (or flute) sonata in Bb (K. 15, 1764), 76 n. 3, 82, 114, 641, 

774, 1054 n. i 
Piano and violin sonata in Eb (K. 26, 1766), 94, 114, 576 n. 2, 597, 641, 774, 

1054 n. i 
Piano and violin sonata in G (K. 27, 1766), 94, 114, 576 n. 2, 597, 641, 774, 

1054 n. i 
Piano and violin sonata in C (K. 28, 1766), 94, 114, 576 n. 2, 597, 641, 774, 

1054 n. i 
Piano and violin sonata in D (K. 29, 1766), 94, 114, 576 n. 2, 597, 641, 774, 

1054 n. i 
Piano and violin sonata in F (K. 30, 1766), 94, 114, 576 n. 2, 597, 641, 774, 

1054 n. i 
Piano and violin sonata in Bb (K. 31, 1766), 94, 4 576 n. 2, 597, 641, 774 

1054 n. I 

Piano and violin sonata in C (K. 296, 1778), 439 n> i, 1092 n. i, 1094, 1117 n. 3, 
1121, 1123, 1129, 1135, 1162, 1165, 1169 n. 4, 1170, 1186, 1189, 1197, 1257- 
1259, 1261 

Piano and violin sonata in G (K. 301, 1778), 439 n - J > 658 n. i, 711 n. i, 
737 n. 3, 850, 862, 888, 913, 924 n- 4, 928, 933, 934, 954, 95^, 959, 961-963, 
965, 967, 1020, 1054, 1129 

Piano and violin sonata in Eb (K. 302, 1778), 439 n. I, 658 n. I, 711 n I, 
737 n. 3, 850, 862, 888, 913, 9*4 n. 4, 928, 933, 934, 954, 95^, 959, 961-963, 

965, 967, 1020, 1054, 1129 

Piano and violin sonata in C (K. 303, 1778), 439 n. I, 658 n. I, 711 n. i, 
737 n. 3, 850, 862, 888, 913, 924 n. 4, 928, 933, 934, 954, 95, 959, 9- 

963, 965, 967, 1020, 1054, 1129 

Piano and violin sonata in E minor (K. 304, 1778), 658 n. I, 711 n. i, 737 n. 3> 
l The first edition of the sonatas K. 10-15 Has an additional part for the violoncello, 



850, 862, 888, 913, 924 n.4, 928, 933, 934, 954, 95^, 959, 961-963, 965, 

967, 1020, 1054, 1129 
Piano and violin sonata in A (K. 305, 1778), 439 n. I, 658 n. i, 711 n. i, 

737 n. 3, 850, 862, 888, 913, 924 n. 4, 928, 933, 934, 954, 958, 959, 961- 

963, 965, 967, 1020, 1054, 1129 
Piano and violin sonata in D (K. 306, 1778), 658 n. i, 711 n. i, 737 n. 3, 850, 

862, 888, 913, 924 n. 4, 928, 933, 934, 954, 95$, 959, 961-963, 965, 967, 

1020, IO54, 1129 

Piano and violin sonata in F (K. 376, 1781), 1092 n. i, 1094, 1107 n. i, 1121, 

1123, 1129, 1135, 1162, 1165, 1169, 1170, i i 86, 1189, 1197, 1257-1259, 

Piano and violin sonata in F (K. 377, 1781), 1092 n. i, 1094, 1107 n. i, 1121, 

1123, 1129, 1135, 1162, 1165, 1169, 1170, 1186, 1189, 1197, 1257-1259, 

Piano and violin sonata in Bb (K. 378, 1779), 1092 n. i, 1094, 1117 n. 3, 1121, 

1123, 1129, 1135, 1162, 1165, 1169 n.4, 1170, 1186, 1189, 1197, 1257-1259, 

Piano and violin sonata in G major-minor (K. 379, 1781), 1072 n. 3, 1075, 

1092 n. i, 1094, 1104, 1 121, 1123, 1129, 1135, 1162, 1165, 1169, 1170, 

1186, 1189, 1197, 1258-1259, 1261 
Piano and violin sonata in Eb (K. 380, 1781), 1092 n. i, 1094, 1107 n. I, 1121, 

1123, 1129, 1135, 1162, 1165, 1169, 1170, 1186, 1189, 1197, 1257-1259, 


*Piano and violin sonata in A (K. 402, 1782), 1473 n. 2, 1484 n. 6 
*Piano and violin sonata in C (K. 403, 1782), 1463 n. 7, 1473 n. 2 
Piano and violin sonata in Bb (K. 454, 1784), 1304 n. 3, 1312 n. 7, 1325 n. i 
Piano and violin sonata in Eb (K. 481, 1785), 1339 
Piano and violin sonatina in F (K. 547, 1778), 1365 n. i 


Twelve variations on "La Bergere C&imene" (K. 359, 1781), 1104 & 2, 
mi n. i, 1117 n.4, 1169, 1170, 1187, 1189, 1199, I2 58 

Six variations on "Helas, j'ai perdu mon amant" (K. 360, 1781), 1104 n. 2, 
mi n. i, 1117 n.4, 1169, 1170, 1187, 1189, 1199, 1258 

* Allegro in Bb (K. 372, 1781), 1473 n. 2 

* Adagio in C minor (K. 396, 1782), 1473 n - 2 

* Andante and Allegretto in C (K. 404, 1782), 1481 n. 2 


Serenade in Eb (K. 375, 1781), 1155 n. 4, 1156, 1498 n. 3 
Serenade in C minor (K. 388, 1782), 1207 

Adagio for two clarinets and three basset-horns in Bb (K. 411, 1783), 1463 n. 2 
Five divertimenti for two clarinets (or basset-horns) and bassoon (K. App. 229 
and 229% ?I783), 1478 n. 8 


Adagio and Allegro in F minor-major (K. 594, 1790), 1403 n. 3, 1479 n - r 
Fantasy in F minor (K. 608, 1791), 1403 n. 3, 1465 n. 5, 1479 n. i, 1499 n. I 
Andante in F major (K. 616, 1791), 1403 n. 3, 1479 n. i 



Unfinished or fragmentary works are marked * 

K, 6 (Piano and violin sonata in C, 1762-1764), 53 n. 5, 54 n. 3, 57, 77, 78, So, 

114, 641, 774, 1054 n. i, 1510 n. 4 
K. 7 (Piano and violin sonata in D, 1763-1764), 54 n. 3, 54 n. 5, 57, 77, 78, 80, 

114, 641, 774, 1054 n. I, 1510 n. 4 
K. 8 (Piano and violin sonata in Bb, 1763-1764), 53 n. 5, 54 n. 3, 57, 62, 77, 78, 

80, 114, 696, 774, 1054 n. i 
K. 9 (Piano and violin sonata in G, 1764), 54 n - 3> 57 62, 77, 78 n. i, 80, 114, 

696, 774, 1054 n. i 
K. 10 (Piano, violin (or flute) and violoncello sonata in Bb, 1764), 76 n. 3, 82, 

114,641,774, 105411. i 
K. ii (Piano, violin (or flute) and violoncello sonata in G, 1704), 7 n - 3> 2 > Ir 4> 

641, 774, 1054 n. i _ 

K. 12 (Piano, violin (or flute) and violoncello sonata in A, 1704), 7 6 n - 3> 82 > IT 4 

641, 774, 1054 n. i 
K. 13 (Piano, violin (or flute) and violoncello sonata in F, 1764), 76 n. 3, 82, 114, 

641, 774, 1054 n. i 
K. 14 (Piano, violin (or flute) and violoncello sonata in C, 1764), 76 n. 3, 82, 114, 

641, 774, 1054 n. i 
K. 15 (Piano, violin (or flute) and violoncello sonata in Bb, 1764), 76 n. 3, 82, 114, 

641,774, 1054 n. i 

K. 16 (Symphony in Eb, 1764-1765), 73 n - 2 > Io8 n - 8 > IT 4 
*K. i6 a (Symphony in C, 1765), 108 n. 8, 114 
*K. i6 b (Symphony in C, 1765), 108 n. 8, 114 
K. 19 (Symphony in D, 1765), 73 n - 2 > Io8 n - 8 > XI 4 
*K. I9 a (Symphony in F, 1765), 108 n. 8, 114 
*K. I9 b (Symphony in C, 1765), 108 n. 8, 114 
K. 21 (Tenor aria, "Va, dal furor portata", I7 6 5)> 79 a- 5 
K. 22 (Symphony in Bb, 1765), 94 n. I, 108 n. 8, 114 
K. 24 (Eight piano variations on a Dutch song, 1766), 94 n. 4 
K. 25 (Seven piano variations on "Willem van Nassau", 1766), 95 n. I 
K*. 26 (Piano and violin sonata in Eb, 1766), 94, 114, 57& n. 2, 597, 641, 774, 

K. 27 (Piano and violin sonata in G, 1766), 94, 4 57$ n - 2 > 597, 641, 774, 
K. 28 5 (Piano and violin sonata in C, 1766), 94, 4 576 n. 2, 597, 641, 774, 
K. 29 5 (Piano and violin sonata in D, 1766), 94, "4. 576 n. 2, 597, 641, 774> 
K. 30 (Piano and violin sonata in F, 1766), 94, "4, 576 n. 2, 597, 641, 774, 

K. 3i S (Piano and violin sonata in Bb, 1766), 94> "4, 5?6 n. 2 , 597, 641, 774, 
1054 n. i 



K. 32 (Galimathias musicum, 1766), 95 n. I 

K. 47 (Offertory, "Veni Sancte Spiritus", 1768), 138 n. 4, 139 

K. 49 (Missa brevis in. G, 1768), 141 n. I 

K. 50 (Bastien und Bastienne, operetta in one act, 1768), 105, 1460 

K. 51 (La finta semplice, opera buffa, 1768), 105, 121, 122 n. i, 125, 129-134, 

136-139, 149 n. i, 265 n. 3, 267 n. I 

K- 53 (Song, "Freude, Konigin der Weisen", 1767), 800 n. I 
*K. 62 (Cassation in D, 1769), 226 n. 6 
K. 63 (Divertimento in G, 1769), 226 n. 6 
K. 65 (Missa brevis in D minor, 1769), 140 n. 2, 141 n. I 
K. 66 (Missa (Pater Dominicus mass) in C, 1769), 76 n. 4, 141 n. i, 344 n. 3, 

635 n. i, 810 n. 2 

K. 67 (Sonata for organ and strings in Eb, 1767), 140 n. 2 
K. 68 (Sonata for organ and strings in Bb, 1767), 140 n. 2 
K. 69 (Sonata for organ and strings in D, 1767), 140 n. 2 
K. 76 (Symphony in F, ?I767), 108 n. 8, 114 
K. 77 (Recitative and aria for soprano, "Misero me", "Misero pargoletto", 1770), 

173 n. 3, 193, 226 n. 2 

K. 78 (Soprano aria, "Per pieta, bell* idol mio", 1770), 173 n. 3, 193, 226 n. 2 
K. 79 (Recitative and aria for soprano, "O temerario Arbace", "Per quel paterno 

amplesso", 1770), *73 & 3, I93> 226 n - 2 
K. 80 (String quartet in G, 1770-1774), 143, 175 n. 4, 761 n. 2 
K. 8 1 (Symphony in D, 1770), 194 n. i, 226 n. i 

K. 82 (Soprano aria, "Se ardire, e speranza", 1770), 193 n. 4, 194 n. 2, 226 n. 2 
K. 84 (Symphony in D, 1770), 226 n. i 

K. 86 (Antiphon, "Quaerite primum regnum Dei", 1770), 244 n. I 
K. 87 (Mitridate, Re di Ponto, opera seria, 1770), 122 n. 4, 143, 174 n. I, 176, 

193 n. 3, 216, 222, 223, 233, 237, 239, 244, 245, 247, 249, 250, 252, 254-265, 

270, 271, 1113 n. 6 

K. 88 (Soprano aria, "Fra cento affanni", 1770), 173 n. 3, 193, 226 n. 2 
K. 95 (Symphony in D, 1770), 194 n. i, 194 n. 3, 226 n. I 
K. 97 (Symphony in D, 1770), 194 n. i, 194 n. 3, 226 n. i 
K. 99 (Cassation in Bb, 1769), 226 n. 6 
K. in (Ascanio in Alba, serenata teatrale, 1771), 168 n. i, 277, 282 n. 2, 284- 

289, 291-299, 300 n. 2, 301, 305, 306, 1028 
K. 117 (Offertory, "Benedictus sit Deus", 1769), 226 n. 3 
K. 118 (La Betulia liberata, azione sacra, 1771), 143, 273 n. i, 1313 n. 5 
K. 122 (Minuet in Eb, 1770), 241 n. 2 
K. 123 (Contredanse in Bb, 1770), 188 n. i, 193 n. i 
K. 125 (Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento, 1772), 363 n. i, 367, 821 n. 2, 

1498 n. 2 

K. 126 (II sogno di Scipione, serenata drammatica, 1772), 305 n. 2 
K. 127 (Regina Coeli, 1772), 776 n. 2 
K. 135 (Lucio Silla, dramma per musica, 1772), 38 n. 3, 306, 309, 315, 318- 

327, 3*9>33i> 332, 661 n. 5, 682 n. i, 693 n. 2, 712, 719, 731, 1257 n. 6 
K. 143 (Recitative and aria for soprano, "Ergo interest, an quis", "Quaere 

superna", 1770), 164 n. I, 226 n. 2 
K. 155 (String quartet in D, 1772), 311 n. 3 
K, 157 (String quaxtet in C, I772-I773)> 3^ n. 3, 334 n. 2 
K, 158 (String quartet in F, I772-I773)> 334 n. 2 
K. 165 (Motet for soprano, "Exsultate, jubilate", 1773), 330 n. 2 
K. 168 (String quartet in F, 1773), 1505 n. 4, 1507 n. 2 
K. 169 (String quartet in A, 1773), 1505 n. 4, 1507 n. 2 
K. 170 (String quartet in C, 1773), 1505 n. 4, 1507 n. 2 
K. 171 (String quartet in Eb, 1773), 1506 n. I, 1507 n. 2 



K. 172 (String quartet in Bb, 1773), 357 n. I, 1506 n. I, 1507 n. 2 

K. 173 (String quartet in D minor, 1773), 1506 n. I, 1507 n. 2 

K. 174 (String quintet in Bb, 1773), 761 n. 3 

K. 175 (Piano concerto in D, 1773), 366 n. 2, 712 n. 3, 1189 n. 3, 1227 n. 2, 1248, 

1252 n. 2, 1254 n. 2, 1257, 1260 
K. 179 (Twelve piano variations on a minuet by J. C. Fischer, 1774), 366 n. I, 

372 n. 5, 495 n. 5, 584, 590, 617, 622, 668 n. 2, 673, 689, 694, 761, 785, 1130 n. I, 

1350 n. 3